Agriculture 2011


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Agriculture 2011

  1. 1. Where ScienceComplements Nature 0910-AD-0578-EN office: Hazera Genetics Ltd.Berurim M.P. Shikmim 79837, ISRAELTel: +972 8850 8815 • Fax: +972 8850 2442Email: •
  2. 2. Agriculture 2011 The International catalogue for Advanced Agricultural Technology Development of onion harvesting machineryp-6 I. Sagi , Y. Kashti , F. Geoola , Y. Grinshpon , L. Rozenfeld , A. Levi , R. Brikman1, O. Mishli , E. Margalit Ocean Transport of the Easter Lily (Lilium Longiflorum): Defining the harvesting stage and treating the plant with gibberellins in order top-10 minimize premature aging of leaves Shimon Meir , Shoshana Salim , Batina Kochank , Tamar Tzedaka , Tamar Lahav and Sonia Philosof- Hadas Grafting for the use of root systems as biological filters to prevent penetration of contaminants intop-14 vegetable plants under irrigation with marginal water M. Edelstein and M. Ben-Hur Sprouting inhibition of postharvest potatoes byp-18 using environment friendly mint essential oil Dani Eshel , Paula Teper-Bamnolker , Roi Amitay and Harry Daniel The New Generation of Drippersp-26 Sagi Gidi, Metzerplas Developing a high spatial and temporal resolution database for meteorological-based agronomicalp-30 models Offer Beeri & Shay Mey-tal/ Agam Advanced Agronomy.p-35 Company profilesp-43 Company Detailes For further information: Editor:Nurit Levy Production:Nobel Green Ltd. p.o.b 10062 Tel-Aviv 61100,Israel Tel:972-3-5467485, fax:972-3-5467487 printed in Israel, October 2010. cover photographer: rina nagila, kibbutz ortal
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  5. 5. Agriculture 2011Development of Onion I. Sagi1, Y. Kashti1, F. Geoola1, Y. Grinshpon1, L. Rozenfeld1, A. Levi1, R. Brikman1, O. Mishli2,Harvesting Machinery E. Margalit3 1. Institute of Agricultural Engineering, ARO. 2. Kibbutz Yotvata 3. Agricultural Extension Services. 2 4Fig. 1. The digger digs and prepares a fresh onion windrow for 5 Fig. 2. The harvester harvest dry onion and load a container.curing.The Institute of Agricultural Engineering, together with need for a packing house. Due to the lack of laborersKibbutz Yotvata, “Ardom Growth” and local agricultural in agricultural work, about 10 years ago, the Israelimachinery manufacturers, including “Agromond Ltd.”, Ministry of Agriculture encouraged farmers to import“Juran Ltd.”, “Green Arava Valley” and The Ilan Haruvi machinery for harvesting onions. A research team fromWorkshop have developed a new set of machinery for the Institute of Agricultural Engineering was chosen toonion harvesting and transporting. The new machinery be responsible for testing the machines and making theincludes a digger, a harvester and a container with a necessary modifications in order to adapt them to localbottom rolled conveyor. onion growth conditions. The project was financed by the chife scientist of the Ministry of Agriculturel. A set of onion harvesting machinery was imported by KibbutzIntroduction Yotveta in the Arava valley. The machinery includedIn Israel, farmers grow onions all over the country - a mower for cutting the foliage before harvesting, afrom the Golan Heights to the “Arava” valley - over an digger for digging the onions and preparing a windrowarea of about 2,000 acres. Most of the growing fields on the ground for curing and a harvester for harvestingare small. The overall yield is about 100,000 tons and the onions into a container driven along the side of theall of it is sold on the local market. In the past, most harvester. The machinery was used to test the harvestingof the farmers harvested their yields by hand, which of different onion species in various areas around therequired many workers. The workers harvested the country. In general, the test results were very poor. Theamount of onions required according to the daily market mower worked fine but the digger and the harvesterdemand. The reasons for harvesting by hand were; high needed modifications of high cost in order to improvemechanical damages caused by the machines and the the harvesting and to lower the rate of mechanical 6
  6. 6. Agriculture 2011 and dry onions. Therefore, it has the same digging system as that of the digger. The harvester has two conveyors. The first one is a round bar conveyor mounted at a 15 degree slope in order to prevent back rolling of the onions. Above the front of the conveyor there is a rotor with 4 rubber wings to help the onions climb onto it. The second conveyor is a loading conveyor with 3 segments for loading different height containers and for folding them during road driving. The loading conveyor is mounted perpendicular behind the first conveyor. The top end of the conveyor can be adjusted during work to the height level of the container bottom in order to prevent mechanical damages. The harvester has an automatic depth control system, a conveyor speed 8 measuring and adjusting system and a width balance controller to keep the harvester parallel to the ground.Fig. 3. A hook lift container with a rolling bottom conveyor loaded The harvester is drawn by an 80hp tractor on twowith onions. wheels with an automatic return steering system. The harvester has a self hydraulic system for operating thedamage to the onion. The main conclusion was that the conveyors and other components. The driver controlsimported machinery is not suitable for Israeli harvesting the harvester systems from the tractor cabin by anconditions and there is a need to develop local onion electronic controller.harvesting machinery. The Israeli onions are grown on The digger was constructed by “Agromond Ltd.” andbeds and harvested in two ways: 1. harvesting fresh the harvester was constructed by “Juran Ltd.”. To date 3onions; 2. harvesting dry onions. The fresh onions are diggers and 1 harvester have been constructed and areharvested at the beginning of the season in two stages. being operated by 4 Israeli onion growers.After cutting the foliage, workers dig the onions by handand put them on the ground for curing. About 3 days after Farmers that have onion packing houses collect andthey are collected, the onions are placed in boxes and transport the onions in large hook lift containers. Insent to the local markets. The dry onions are collected the packing house the container is lifted and unloadeddirectly from the ground, placed into boxes and sent to into a big hoper. This method of unloading causes thethe markets. onions to fall and roll into the hoper from a high level, get damaged and lose their peels. In order to prevent unloading damages, a container with a bottom rollingDevelopment of harvesting machinery conveyor was designed and constructed in cooperationAccording to the knowledge gained from the test results with “Green Arava Valley”, “Ardom Growth” and The Ilanof the imported machinery and the study of the Israeli Haruvi Workshop (fig. 3).onion growth and harvesting conditions, a prototypedigger and a harvester were designed and constructed. There is no need to lift the container for unloading inThe digger (fig. 1) has a square and round bar digging the packing house. The driver puts the back door of thesystem, a round bar conveyor mounted on the machine container above the hoper, opens the back door andwith two inclinations (15 degrees forward and 25 degrees connects the electrical motor to the rolling conveyorbackwards), above the front of the conveyor there is a axle. From this moment the conveyors are rolled underrotor with 4 rubber wings, a digging depth automatic control, the onions fall into the hoper from a low levelcontroller and a speed monitor to help the operator to and are not rolled. The system has been operated byadjust the conveyor speed to the tractor speed. The two “Kibbutz Yotvata” and “Ardom Growth” for the past 2inclines were designed to prevent onions from rolling at years. They reported that the amount of marketed onionsthe front of the digger and to put them on the ground from has increased by 6% due to the reduction in mechanicalbehind at a low level. The rotor rubber wings help the damages.onions climb onto the conveyor. The digger is operatedby an 80hp field tractor using the 3 point linkage.The harvester (fig. 2) was designed for harvesting fresh 7
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  9. 9. Agriculture 2011Sea Transport of EasterLily* cut Flowers: Shimon Meir1*, Shoshana Salim1*, Betina Kochanek1*, Tamar Tzadka1*, Tamar Lahav2* and Sonia Philosoph-Hadas1*Determination of theOptimal Harvest Stage cut flowers before their florets start to open, when the first floret reaches its maximum closed bud size. This stage is also the recommended harvest stage when the flowers are transported by air. The recommendations for postharvest treatment developed in our laboratory included pulsing with preservatives containing 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate and surfactants (TOG-4, Merhav Agro Ltd., Ashdod, Israel), together with the gibberellin GA3 at a concentration of 25 ppm to delay leaf senescence and yellowing. We have shown that the GA3 pulsing treatment was very effective also in delaying leaf and flower senescence of various other lily cultivars, such as Longiflorum x Asiatic hybrid ‘Shira’ and Lilium candidum L.Figure 1: Definition of the opening and senescence stages of the The present study describes the development of sealily florets cv. ‘White Heaven’ from stage 1 = closed, green floret of transport conditions for shipping Easter lily cut flowers7-9 cm length, through stage 8 = the senescence stage, in which cvs. ‘White Heaven’ and ‘Maggie Blanche’ bearing twothe petals turn transparent, wilted and tend to drop. Stage 5 wasdefined as the opening stage, while stage 6 represents full opening. or multiple florets per stem, as compared to their airThe transition from stage 5 to 6 lasts only few hours. transport. The study was focused on determination of the optimal harvest stage for the sea shipment.Introduction Materials and MethodsEaster lily (Lilium Longiflorum) cut flowers are quite large Chemicals: TOG-6 containing organic chlorine, TOG-4and heavy. Therefore, it is most important to reduce containing 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate, the ‘Teabag’their shipping costs by exporting them via sea freight formulation containing the gibberellin GA3 (all suppliedrather than by air transport. According to financial by Merhav Agro Ltd., Ashdod, Israel).analyses, sea transport in comparison to air transport Pulsing treatments and shipment simulations: Lily(marketing and freight) amounted to a savings of 17,000 flowers were harvested from the growers at variousIS per dunam, which is very significant for the growers. harvest stages (as detailed in Figures 1-4), sorted andAs such, reliable methods for shipping lilies by sea bound into 5-stem bunches, and then brought in cartonstransport should be developed. to the laboratory at the Volcani Center. Immediately uponFlower auctions and dealers generally receive the lily their arrival, the flowering stems were pulsed for 4 h at*(Lilium Longiflorum) 20°C and additional 16 h at 2°C with the recommended 10
  10. 10. Agriculture 2011Figure 2: Effect of the harvest stage of multi-floret stems of Figure 3: Effect of the harvest stage of multi-floret stems of ‘Maggie‘Maggie Blanche’ lily following air (A, B, C) or sea (D, E, F) transport Blanche’ lily on the diameter (A) and length (B) of florets 1-3 at fullsimulations, on days to flower opening of florets 1 and 2 (A, D), days opening stage (stage 7) during vase life, following air transportfrom flower opening to death of floret 2 (B, E), and on total vase simulation. The experiment was performed as detailed in Figure duration determined when floret 2 reached senescence stage The results represent means of 5 replicates ± SE.8 (C, F). Flowers were harvested when their first floret reached thestages presented in Fig. 2G, and treated as described in Materialsand Methods. The results represent means of 5 replicates ± SE. The flowering stem, and their developmental stages untilred numbers in Fig. 2D indicate the difference in days to opening of senescence were followed-up during vase life. We haveflorets 1 and 2 following sea and air transport. monitored the days to floret opening (stage 5 in Figure 1), and the days from floret opening to its senescence.treatment comprised of 0.2% TOG-4 + 25 ppm GA3. The The flowering stem was discarded when the secondflowers were then packed into commercial cartons floret reached senescence stage 8, and the total vaseand stored for air transport (2-3 days at 6°C) or sea life duration was determined accordingly. The qualitytransport (8 days at 2°C) simulations. After storage, parameters, including floret diameter and length, werethe flowers were placed in vases containing TOG-6 as monitored at full opening before senescence (stage 7 ina preservative, and incubated in a controlled standard Figure 1).observation room (20°C, 60-70% relative humidity and12-h photoperiod) to determine their longevity following Results and Discussionthe transport simulations. The results of the experiments conducted with theDetermination of the harvest stage and floret quality ‘Maggie Blanche’ lily cultivar harvested at three differentparameters: The harvest stage was determined stages (Figure 2G), indicate that sea transport (Figureaccording to the floret size as detailed in Figure 2G, and 2E) did not affect the number of days (6-7) during whichaccording to the turning of the floret bud color from the florets were open in the vase, in comparison to airgreen to white (Figure 4G). Eight stages of development transport (Figure 2B). Hence, the shipment method hadand senescence of the floret in the vase were defined, no effect on the floret senescence rate after presented in Figure 1 for the ‘White Heaven’ cultivar. The only difference between flowers transported eitherThe first, second and third florets were marked on the by air or by sea was obtained in the rate of opening of 11
  11. 11. Agriculture 2011 to flowers transported by air (Figure 2A). Similar results were obtained in two additional experiments, performed with ‘Maggie Blanche’ flowers harvested from another grower, as well as with ‘White Heaven’ flowers bearing two florets per stem (data not shown). It should be noted that the floret size at full opening was affected from the harvest stage following air transport (Figure 3), and similar results were obtain also following sea transport (data not shown). When flowers were harvested with florets at stage 2 or 3, no difference was obtained in their diameter. However, florets harvested at stage 1 (even if it is the first floret), could not reach at full opening the diameter (Figure 3A) or the length (Figure 3B) of florets harvested at stages 2 or 3. Similar results were obtained also for the third floret in flowering stems harvested with the first floret at stages 2 or 3, as the size of the third floret in these flowers was smaller or similar to the size of a floret in stage 1. It is important to note that inclusion in the vase of the ‘cut flower food’ solution, which contains sugar and bacteriocides, resulted in a third floret with bigger size, similar to the sizes of the first and second florets (data not shown). Since the florets continue to grow during the sea transport shipment, we have determined an additional parameter to indicate the floret developmental stage at harvest, which was based on the change in bud color (Figure 4G), in addition to the bud length. To examineFigure 4: Effect of the harvest stage of two-floret stems of ‘White this parameter, we have performed an experiment withHeaven’ lily following air (A, B, C) or sea (D, E, F) transport ‘Maggie Blanche’ flowers harvested according to floretsimulations, on days to flower opening of florets 1 and 2 (A, D), days size and color. The results show that no difference wasfrom flower opening to death of floret 2 (B, E), and on total vase life obtained in the various quality parameters betweenduration determined when floret 2 reached senescence stage 8 (C, flowering stems transported by air (Figures 4A-4C) or byF). Flowers were harvested when their first floret reached the stagespresented in Fig. 4G. The experiment was performed as detailed in sea (Figures 4D-4F), when harvested at stage 3 (FigureFigure 2. The results represent means of 5 replicates ± SE. 4G). The presented findings indicate that cut Easter lily flowers can be shipped successfully by sea freight fromthe first floret bud, which was shorter (by 1-1.5 days) Israel to The Netherland, without impairing their qualityfollowing sea transport (Figure 2D) as compared with air as compared to air transport, provided that the flowerstransport (Figure 2A). Thus, the first floret, harvested at are harvested at the optimal harvest stage and a coolingstages 3, 2 or 1, opened after 3, 5 or 8 days, respectively, chain at 2°C is maintained during the pathway. Therefore,following air transport (Figure 2A), and after 1.5, 3.5 or the recommended harvest stage for sea transport of7 days, respectively, following sea transport (Figure 2D). Easter lily is the stage of initial puffing of the first floret,These results indicate that the floret bud continues to when it reaches a length of at least 11 cm and its color isgrow and to develop during the sea transport period, still green, or has only just begun to turn white.even though it is kept at 2°C.The total vase life duration monitored for flowering harvested when the first floret was at stage 3,was only one day shorter following sea transport (Figure 1*. Department of Postharvest Science of Fresh Produce, Agricultural2F), as compared with flowers shipped by air (Figure 2C). Research Organization (ARO), The Volcani Center, Bet-Dagan, ISRAEL; 2*. Extension Services, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development,This difference stems from the shorter time (one day) ISRAELrequired for the opening of the second floret harvested at Contribution No. 593/10 from the ARO, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan,stage 3 and transported by sea (Figure 2D), as compared Israel. 12
  12. 12. The Optimal Solutions for Cut Flowers .Production and Technical advice:
  13. 13. Agriculture 2011Cucurbita Rootstocks M. Edelstein1 and M. Ben-Hur2 1.Department of Vegetable Crops, Agricultural Researchas Biological Filters Organization, Newe Ya’ar Research Center, P.O.Box 1021, Ramat Yishay 30095,for Contaminants in Israel 2. Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural ResearchVegetable Plants Grown Organization, Volcani Center, P.O.Box 6, Bet Dagan 50250, Israelunder Irrigation withMarginal WaterFig. 1: Melon plant grafted onto pumpkin rootstock (left) and in the Fig 2: Microelement concentrations in fruits from grafted andopen field (right). non-grafted melon plants irrigated with secondary effluent water. Vertical bars represent ± SE (unpublished data).Introduction dS/m when the dominant ions are Na and Cl. Similarly inA major part of the Mediterranean region is characterized effluents, the EC and pH values, and the concentrationsby water scarcity, with long dry summers and short wet of microelements such as heavy metals and B, and ofwinters. To satisfy the demand for food and to combat nutrients and dissolved organic matter are, in general,desertification in this region, marginal water sources, significantly higher than in fresh water. Long-term usesuch as treated domestic sewage (effluent) and saline of these types of water for irrigation could increase thewater, are being increasingly used for irrigation (Ben- accumulation and concentrations of microelements andHur, 2004). Moreover, the pressure to avoid disposal of saline elements (Na, Ca, Mg, and Cl) in the soil (Ben-Hur,nutrient-rich effluents into water bodies has contributed 2004; Feigin et al., 1991). Relatively high concentrationsto the rapid expansion of effluent reuse for irrigation of Na+, Cl- and microelements in the soil solution(Halliwell et al., 2001). could be toxic to plants and to humans. Absorption ofThe electrical conductivity (EC) of saline water is much these elements by the plants could affect their growthhigher than that of fresh water, and it may exceed 5 and yield, and increase the possibility of contaminants 14
  14. 14. Agriculture 2011Fig 3: B concentration in xylem sap exudates from melon and Fig. 4: Growth performance, fruit yield and mean fruit weight of non-cucurbita plants as a function of B content in the irrigation water. grafted (‘Tri-X 313’; NG) and grafted (onto TZ-148; G) watermelonVertical bars represent ± SE (unpublished data). irrigated with saline water (EC = 4.5 dS/m) (after Cohen et al., 2007).entering the food supply chain. the greenhouse. Grafted and non-grafted melon plants were irrigated with fresh water (EC = 1.8 dS/m), salineConsumers are becoming increasingly concerned water (EC = 4.6 dS/m) or secondary effluent enrichedabout soil and water contamination and the use of with B at up to 10 mg/L (Edelstein et al., 2005, 2007).toxic chemicals on agricultural land, because of the The B concentrations in old leaves of the non-graftedpossible adverse effects on environmental quality and and grafted plants increased linearly and significantlyhuman health. This is particularly true for vegetables, (R>0.96) with increasing B concentration in thewhich are often regarded as a safe and nutritious food fresh and saline and effluent irrigation waters; the Bsource. Edelstein et al. (2005) suggested that grafted concentrations in the leaves of the grafted plants wereplants (Fig. 1) could be used to prevent the entry of toxic lower than in those of the non-grafted plants (Edelsteinmicroelements and saline elements into the food chain et al., 2005). The lower B concentration in the organs ofvia plants. The present paper reviews and discusses the the grafted plants might be mainly due to differences inpossibility of using grafted vegetable plants to inhibit the properties of the grafted vs. non-grafted plant’s rootpenetration of saline and toxic elements into the plant systems. B can be absorbed by the root cell symplast orand fruit under arid and semiarid conditions. loaded into the xylem by means of two main transport mechanisms: passive diffusion through the lipid bilayer,Microelements in plant tissues and passage through proteinaceous channels in the cellThe effects of plant grafting on microelement membrane (Dannel et al., 2002; Dordas et al., 2000).concentrations in the fruit of melon plants under field Edelstein et al. (2005) suggested that the Cucurbitaconditions were studied in field plots with clay soil in an rootstock excludes some B and that this, in turn,experimental station in Akko, northern Israel. The field decreases the B concentration in the grafted plants.plots were irrigated with secondary effluent for 4 years, To determine the differences in selectivity of the rootand melon (Cucumis melo L., cv. Arava) (non-grafted systems of melon (cv. Arava) and pumpkin (TZ-148) to Bplant) and melon grafted onto pumpkin rootstock TZ- absorption, their seedlings were planted in pots in the148 (grafted plant) were grown in these plots. The greenhouse, and irrigated with fresh water containingconcentrations of various microelements in the fruits of various concentrations of B. Thirty days after planting,the grafted and non-grafted melon plants are presented and immediately after an irrigation event, stems 3 cmin Fig. 2. In general, the concentrations of B, Zn, Sr,Mn, Cu, Ti, Cr, Ni, and Cd were significantly lower in the above the surface of the growth medium were cut andfruits of grafted vs. non-grafted plants. the xylem sap exudates collected. B concentration was determined in each collected sap sample. The BTo determine the mechanisms responsible for the concentrations in the melon sap exudates were higherlower microelement concentrations in the fruits of the than those in the pumpkin sap exudates (Fig. 3). Thusgrafted plants, detailed experiments were conducted in it was postulated that the pumpkin root system was 15
  15. 15. Agriculture 2011 Na+ in the leaves. The suggested mechanisms included exclusion of Cl- and/or reduction of its absorption by the roots, and replacement or substitution of total Na+ with total K+ in the foliage. The concentrations of Ca, Na, Mg, and Cl- in the leaves, stem, and fruit tissues of a non-grafted melon (cv. Arava) plant and melon grafted onto pumpkin rootstock (TZ-148) grown in field plots in the experimental stationTable 1: Average concentrations of saline elements (g/kg, DW) in in Akko are presented in Table 1. These plants weredifferent organs of non-grafted and grafted plants irrigated witheffluent water ± SE (unpublished data). irrigated with secondary effluent. The concentrations of all saline elements except Mg in the stem and leaves were higher in the non-grafted vs. grafted plants (Tablemore selective and absorbed less B than of the melon 1). The largest difference between the non-grafted androots. The B-exclusion hypothesis is supported by other grafted plants was in their Na concentration, whichstudies: Dannel et al. (1998, 2002) suggested that at was one order of magnitude lower in the grafted plantlow B concentrations, B uptake may be active, but at tissues than in the non-grafted ones.high concentrations, there is evidence of B excretion or Edelstein et al. (2010) suggested two mechanisms thatexclusion. Dordas et al. (2000) indicated that B enters might explain the decrease in shoot Na concentration inplant cells partly by passive diffusion through the lipid plants with pumpkin rootstocks: (i) Na exclusion by thebilayer of the plasma membrane and partly through pumpkin roots, and (ii) Na retention and accumulationproteinaceous channels. Dordas and Brown (2001) within the pumpkin rootstock. Quantitative analysisexamined B transport in squash plants, and suggested performed by Edelstein et al. (2010) indicated that the pumpkin roots excluded ~74% of available Na, whilethat both of these mechanisms were possible. there was nearly no Na exclusion by melon roots. Na retention by the pumpkin rootstocks decreased itsSaline elements in the plant tissues amount in the shoot by an average 46.9% compared to uniform Na distribution throughout the plant. InThe effects of grafting watermelon (‘Tri-X 313’) onto the contrast, no retention of Na was found in plants graftedcommercial Cucurbita maxima × Cucurbita moschata on melons.rootstock TZ-148 on growth and yields of plants irrigatedwith saline water (EC 4.5 dS/m) in disease-free soil Conclusionsin experimental field plots in an arid zone in southernIsrael are shown in Fig. 4. Vegetative growth, fruit yield Intensive agriculture has increased the use of toxicand fruit sizes of the grafted plants were higher than chemicals on cultivated lands. In addition, to satisfy the demand for food in arid and semiarid regions, the usethose of the non-grafted plants (Fig. 4). The differences of marginal water sources, such as treated domesticin yield parameters were probably due to the higher sewage (effluent) and saline water, for irrigation is on thesalt tolerance of the grafted vs. non-grafted plants or to rise. These can enhance soil and water contamination,higher excretion or exclusion of saline ions by the root and the possibility of toxic microelements and salinesystem of the grafted plants. elements entering into the food supply chain via plants.Fernandez-Garcia et al. (2003) showed that under From laboratory, greenhouse and field experiments,saline conditions (60 mM NaCl), Cl- and Na+ uptake it can be concluded that grafting of vegetable plantsby grafted tomato plants is significantly lower than can be used as a technique to prevent the entry ofthat by non-grafted plants, indicating that the former toxic microelements and saline elements into the foodexhibit higher selectivity toward saline absorption than chain.the latter. Likewise, Romero et al. (1997) found that theeffects of salinity on two varieties of melon grafted onto Referencesthree hybrids of squash were less severe than those on References are available at the corresponding authornon-grafted melons, suggesting that the grafted plantsdevelop various mechanisms to prevent the physiologicaldamage caused by excessive accumulation of Cl- and 16
  16. 16. Agriculture 2011Sprouting Inhibition ofPostharvest Potatoesby using Environment Dani Eshel1, Paula Teper-Bam- nolker1, Roi Amitay2 and Harry Daniel2 1. Department of PostharvestFriendly Mint Essential Oil Science, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel. 2. Agro-Dan 2008 Ltd, Israel. Introduction: The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the highest gross value crop in Israel and the world’s largest food crop in terms of fresh produce after rice and wheat. Postharvest potatoes suffer from undesirable sprouting during storage leading to alterations in weight, turgidity, and texture. Tuber sprouting during storage is caused by the cessation of natural dormancy of the tuber. Cold temperature storage (2-4°C) delays sprout development but does not delay unacceptable tissue sweetening.Fig. 1: Effect of monthly application of mint essential oil (MEO) on Successful long-term storage of potatoes for market,potato tubers from cultivar Belini, stored for 9 months at 10°C. processing or seed-tubers necessitates using a sprout control agent in combination with proper management of storage conditions. Chlorpropham (isopropyl N-[3- chlorophenyl] carbamate; CIPC) is the most effective post-harvest sprout inhibitor registered for use in potato storage, used successfully as a sprout inhibitor for more than 40 years. It is a mitotic inhibitor that inhibits sprout development by interfering with cell division and is effective in long-term sprout control. There have been reports of residue levels in processed potato products and both the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the ”Advisory Committee on Pesticides (APC) in the UK put new limits on total CIPC application and residue. Random sampling has shown that there is potential to exceed the maximum residue limit, even when applications have been made according to best practice ( For seed-tuber growers, CIPC residues are problematic in cases where it would be desirable to rapidly break tuber dormancy. Also,Fig. 2: Effect of mint essential oil (MEO) thermal fogging on potato potato seed-tubers cannot be treated or stored in CIPCsprouting in storage. Tubers from eight cultivars were stored for storage facilities, because of the long term negative6 months. All tubers were stored at 8°C and 95% humidity andwere thermally fogged monthly with MEO at 100 ml t-1 in the first effect on field germination. Alternatives to CIPC are alsoapplication and 30 ml t-1 monthly in subsequent applications. needed for both the organic and export markets whereDashed line represents the level above which potatoes are no CIPC is not permitted or residue level is limited. Duelonger marketable. Error bars represent SE. to increased concern for consumer health and safety, 18
  17. 17. Agriculture 2011Fig. 3: Semi-commercial application of mint essential oil on stored potato tubers.there is considerable interest in finding effective potato Bamnolker et al. 2010). Experiments were conducted onsprout suppressants that have negligible environmental 8 potato cultivars that differ in their length of dormancyimpact. Previous research has concentrated on such (Fig. 2). Tubers were treated with MEO using an applicatorcompounds as ethylene, ozone, hydrogen peroxide, that creates a thermal fog circulated by the ventilationvolatile monoterpenes, aromatic aldehydes and system. Monthly thermal fogging with MEO inhibitedalcohols. To date, only one monoterpene, (S)-(+)- sprouting for 9 months in all treated cultivars. Purifiedcarvone (S-5-isopropenyl-2-methyl-2-cyclohexenone), R-carvone produced the same effect. Treatment witha chemical produced from caraway (Carum carvi) seeds MEO reduced weight loss during storage by up to 4% andand described as a volatile sprout suppressant more reduced softening; both these changes were associatedthan 30 years ago, has been developed commercially. with sprouting inhibition. Thermal fogging of potatoHigher production and application costs compared tubers with MEO resulted in highly efficient penetrationto such traditional sprout suppressants as CIPC have to bulk of commercial Dolev containers (Fig. 3). Cookinglimited its use primarily in the Netherlands. of treated potatoes showed no taste, color or textureResearch objectives are to develop an alternative, changes.environmental friendly, method for sprout suppression Conclusions and recommendations for MEO application:in order to (1) inhibit potato sprouting during storage Since mint oil was found as an efficient way for sproutand shelf life; (2) maintain tuber quality parameters; (3) inhibition of potato tubers under semi commercialdelay diseases of potato tubers during storage, and (4) storage conditions, we should consider a controlledregulate sprouting in potato seeds. translocation to commercial storage rooms. MintMethods: We tested the efficiency of mint essential esential oil way action is reversible and can be tested tooil (MEO, Biox-M®, Xeda International, Saint Andiol, control sprouting of potato tuber seeds.France) on the sprout inhibition of eight potato cultivars Literaturethat are commonly grown in Israel and differ in their Eshel, D., J. Orenstein, M. Hazanovsky, and L. Tsror. 2008.length of dormancy. Tubers were treated in the lab and Control of sprouting and tuber-borne diseases of storedsemi commercial scale by monthly thermal fogging potato by environment-friendly method. Acta Hort 830:363-(Electro-fogger, Xeda International). Treated tubers 368.were analyzed for preserving their quality parameters, Orenstein, J., M. Michaeli, and D. Eshel. 2008. Sprouting retard in potatoes, whilst quality assurence during sorage, bysuch as weight, turgidity, texture and taste. The effect using mint oil. Gan Vayerek (in hebrew) 5:59-62.of MEO was analyzed by microscopic and biochemical Teper-Bamnolker, P., N. Dudai, R. Fischer, E. Belausov, H.means. Zemach, O. Shoseyov, and D. Eshel. 2010. Mint essential oilResults: A scalable method to inhibit potato tuber can induce or inhibit potato sprouting by differential alterationsprouting by fogging with a raw material extracted from of apical meristem. Planta 232:179-186.natural spearmint oil (70% R-carvone) was developed(Fig. 1) (Eshel et al. 2008, Orenstein et al. 2008, Teper- 19
  18. 18. Computerized Control Systems for improving your Crops Gavish Computerized Systems have proven their supremacy for over 30 years ● Excelling in climate control, irrigation and fertilization. ● Flexibility and adaptability ● Increased output and higher quality crops ● Economical and ReliableOpen field – remote control of irrigation valves Greenhouse Climate Control of air vents, Fertilizer System – supplying plantsand data transfer from pressure and capacity screens, lighting and humidity units, plus with a proportional and controlledgauges. drainage and treatment of water supplies for quantity of fertilizer: Suitable for all reuse in the irrigation lines. types of fertilizing methods. Givat Brenner 60948, Israel Tel: 972-8-9443961 Fax: 972-8-9443357 e-mail:
  19. 19. Agriculture 2011Antonella – A new TomatoOn-The-Vine Dr. Alon Haberfeld, Marketing Manager, Hazera GeneticsTomatoes on-the-vine, also known as cluster tomatoes, Europe in the summer. Recently, the production ofare not new to tomato consumers worldwide. They have tomatoes on-the-vine spread to Turkey and Northbeen there since the first introduction of a cluster variety Africa for consumption in Europe, and to Mexico forby Hazera Genetics in 1986 in Italy. This innovative product consumption in USA. As mentioned, Hazera Geneticscontrolled the Italian tomato market for several years, was the first seed company to launch a cluster tomatoand is still marketed in some parts of Europe, mainly for variety in Italy over 20 years ago, and is since continuing tothe hobby sector. However, until recently tomatoes on- develop cluster tomato varieties for production in Spain,the-vine were niche products, consumed only by a very Italy, Turkey, France and Israel. This project is carriedsmall portion of the population that was willing to pay out by a team of researchers from Hazera Genetics andits price. Nevertheless, the improved flavor of cluster in part is done in collaboration with researchers fromtomatoes and the sense of freshness that is associated the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.with the aroma of the green spine, gradually gained Antonella is one of the varieties derived from thethem market share. Farmers also came to like on-the- abovementioned collaboration. It was developedvine tomatoes since the amount of labor required for for the Italian market and tested in all on-the-vinetheir production is much lower compared to other crops producing areas. Antonalla has a medium size fruitand the price is usually higher. At present, about 50% with excellent quality and a very elegant fishbone likeof fresh tomatoes consumed in Europe are purchased cluster arrangement. The fruit has a very shiny red coloron-the-vine. Other markets for on-the-vine tomatoes and extremely long shelf life. In addition, Antonella hasinclude USA, Australia, Canada and more. a very good heat setting ability that makes it a perfectCluster tomatoes are produced in southern Europe candidate for production in hot conditions, such as themainly in the winter and in glasshouses in northern Israeli summer. When all other tomato varieties yield 22
  20. 20. Agriculture 2011 To promote Antonella among Israeli consumers who are not used to buying tomatoes on-the-vine, Hazera Genetics has joined one of Israel’s leading retailers in a joint launching effort. The variety was promoted and sold under Hazera’s Antonella brand. All products were clearly marked with the Antonella logo and offered to consumers in stores in most regions of Israel during the summer- autumn months (August- September). Due to the successful launch Antonella is expected to triple its market share in the next production season. Hazera Genetics is one of the world’s leading companies in the field of breeding, production and marketing of hybrid seeds for vegetables and field crops, specializing in advanced bio-technological research and development, worldwide distribution and agro-technical support. The company, established seven decades ago, is constantly developing new products that address market demands,low quality, soft and pale fruit, Antonella fruits have including improved health and nutritional benefits,excellent color and firmness. And they can maintain this quality, especially high yields, year round availability,high quality at room temperature for up to one week post resistance to diseases and longer shelf life.harvest. In the past summer season, about 100 hectaresof Antonalla were produced in southern Israel. Agriculture and lndustry (1995) TOTZA’AH Business Enterprise and Development Duchifat 5 ,Kfar-Saba, 44246 ● Tel: 972-9-7676277, 050-5238227 Fax: 972-9-7676278 ● 23
  21. 21. Mapal Products speak for themselves For indoors and outdoors, Mapal’s growing technology provides long life solutions for the soil-less culture industry. Our products suit all substrates, crops and growing systems. Mapal’s innovative designs allow for recollection and/or recycling of drainage. Mapal Plastics Agricultural Products Tel: +972-4-6764784/554
  22. 22. Agriculture 2011The New Generation of Dr. Gidi SagiDrippersDrip irrigation is the most efficient and water saving for irrigation, have necessitated the development of airrigation method. It has become the most popular new generation of drippers.and the leading irrigation method used in intensive The R&D demands characteristic of the new generationagriculture during the past three decades. of drippers were quite challenging:However, the extensive use of more sophisticated Small flat PC dripper – a dripper with a large varietyirrigation methods, such as very low dripper flow-rate, of lateral diameters and wall thicknesses, for versatilepulse irrigation and SDI (Subsurface Drip Irrigation) irrigation design and a cost effective product.along with the global tendency for the increased use of Clogging resistant dripper: a dripper with a large inletlow quality, marginal water and reclaimed effluent water filter, wide water passages with no narrow orifices and a 26
  23. 23. Agriculture 2011 area and enables water to enter the dripper through one of the many active inlets (Figure 2). The size of the active inlet filter is very important for dripper block resistance. Studies have shown that most of the drippers’ clogs are found on the inlet filter and that the active area size has a major impact on dripper clog resistance. The Assif dripper is an anti -siphon PC dripper designed Figure 2: A very large inlet filter mainly for SDI. The anti-siphon mechanism prevents of the Vardit dripper. the suction of surrounding water and dirt into the dripper, at the end of the irrigation cycle, when the drip- line is drained and vacuum pressure conditions develop on some areas along the lateral. The Assif dripper is 7 8 produced with the Rootguard ™ version for reliable root protection in SDI. Figure 3: Partial clogging of the inlet filter of the Inbar dripper, The Inbar dripper is an ND (Non-Drain) and AS flat PC when using effluent water, still dripper that keeps the lateral filled with water between enables the nominal dripper the irrigation cycles. In a regular drip-line, the lateral is flow-rate.Figure 1: The Inbar drippers not filled with water at all times and the first drippersappear to be almost identical start to irrigate prior to the adjacent ones. In longfrom the outside. laterals, the time required for a complete filling and for pressure to be built up can take more than severalturbulent, high velocity flow pattern to prevent particles minutes. Pulse irrigation, characterized by many shortfrom settling in the dripper. irrigation cycles during the day, increases the differenceNon-drain dripper: a dripper that keeps the lateral filled in the watering level of each dripper along the drip-line.with water between irrigation cycles, for immediate In a ND drip-line, all of the drippers along the lateralwatering from all drippers along the drip-line with each start watering at the same time for better and uniformirrigation cycle. water distribution.Anti-siphon dripper: a dripper that shuts down The revision of the features of both the ND and the ASsimultaneously with the drop of pressure in the lateral drippers has included a slight reduction in the size of theat the end of the irrigation cycle, to prevent air and water inlet filter of the Assif and Inbar models in comparison tosuction through the dripper outlet and the penetration the Vardit dripper, but the active inlet filter has remainedof sand and soil into the dripper - mainly for SDI. quite large to ensure free water passage into the dripper,Rootguard ™ dripper: a dripper that contains impregnated for all water quality levels. Field trials conducted withchemicals which prevent root intrusion into the dripper Inbar drippers, using secondary treated effluent waterin SDI, eliminating the need for any other treatment for without additional chemical treatment (chlorination ormany years. acidification), have been studied during the past threeThe new Inbar dripper collection was developed by years. The results indicate that the drippers maintainMetzerplas to meet the challenges of the new generation their nominal flow rate, but the inlet filter shows partial clogging (Figure 3). The inlet filter is large enough andof drippers. The group includes three drippers, which contains several active holes, each of them capable ofseem almost identical from the outside (Figure 1), but supplying the entire dripper flow-rate, to ensure clogare distinguished by unique designs to accomplish resistance.special individual features.The Vardit dripper is a small, flat PC dripper with a verylarge inlet filter that covers most of the dripper surface 27
  24. 24. Agriculture 2011Developing a HighSpatial and TemporalResolution Database for Dr. Offer Beeri and Shay Mey-talMeteorological BasedAgronomical Models money on soil/plant sensing and sampling. The main goal of this project was to replace this method of hand sampling with a computer-based system. To achieve this goal, satellite imagery was integrated with climate dataset in a geographic information system (GIS), allowing for the collection of the data and the processing of daily reports for field crops in the project. 5 Scientific background: The main method to determine the amounts of water during any crop irrigation is calculating the potentialFigure 1. Noon-time temperature, 28-March-2009, as captured by ET, multiplied by crop coefficients that are based onclimate stations network (A) and satellite imagery (B). crop growing models. These variables are calculated from weather stations and known experimental data toLocal meteorology is an important part of agriculture represent the day-to-day changes. Yet, as the spatialcrop monitoring as correct management incorporates distribution is greater than the average field size, localcrop growth and growth rate with weather data in order differences are not recognizable. Numerous researchersto determine irrigation amounts and timing. The most have attempted to resolve this issue by integratingimportant climate data for this monitoring are growing remote imagery. These projects have illustrated that asdegree-days (GDD) and evapo-transpiration (ET), where crops become dryer and require more water, the greaterthe former represents the accumulated temperature re- the difference between crop and air temperaturesquired for crop growth, and the latter characterizes the (Moran, 1994). To ensure that crop growth stages doloss of water to the atmosphere. Both are necessary to not affect this model, the vegetation temperature isensure that the supplied water amounts are calculated normalized by the vegetation vigor, both mapped bybased on the current growth rate and the loss of water. satellite imagery. This index represents the vegetationMost farmers are dependent upon climate stations resistance to transpiration (Nemani and Running, 1989)located 30-50 km (20-30 miles) from each other (Figure with higher values indicating water-stress. Integration1A). With local changes in topography, soil and drainage, of this method will allow for the mapping of differencesthe huge spatial variability between each pair of stations between neighboring crop fields, as well as insidedoes not allow for effective monitoring of local crop any plot, and agriculture growth models that use cropfields (Figure 1B). coefficients for monitoring will enable updated irrigationAs a result, farmers invest large amounts of time and amounts for each field. 30
  25. 25. Agriculture 2011In order to test the possibility of using satellite imageryfor day-to-day irrigation decision making, the suggestedGIS module combines data from satellite imageryand local weather stations. The Moderate ResolutionImaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is used with its Redand Near-Infrared 250-m pixel and surface temperature1000-m products. The latter is scaled-down to 250-m(Hassen et al 2007). Weather stations are used forcalibration while the other weather station is utilizedfor verification. The spatial variability of the GIS productis tested on cotton and tomatoe crops and in naturalforests.The research goals were (2009 season):1. To test the variability among temperature calculated from weather stations and mapped by temperature integrating surface temperature imagery, Red and Near-Infrared images and weather station data.2. To test the variability among GDD calculated by weather stations and GDD mapped by surface temperature imagery. NDVI (biomass index) used in Minimum air temperatures3. To build a GIS module for agriculture monitoring by our model to improve spatial in Celsius, calculated by satellite imagery and weather stations. resolution from 100Ha/pixel to the weather station (2m) approximately 5Ha/pixel. It can calibrating model. DailyThe research results were: also be used to monitor crop average temperatures and GDD growth rate. can be calculated based onRemote sensing temperature (Surface), was well minimum and maximum (samecorrelated to temperatures calculated from weather calibration model) temperaturestations (Air at 2m). data.We found variability of GDD between growing fields basedon GDD mapped by surface temperature imagery.We have built remote sensing and GIS models for Referencesagriculture monitoring by satellite imagery and weather Allen, R. Pereira, LS. Smith, M. Raes, D. and Wright, JL.stations. (2005), FAO-56 Dual crop coefficient method for estimating evaporation from soil and application extension, Journal ofSummary: Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 131, 1-12We have built a low cost remote sensing model enabling Hassan QK. Bourque CPA. Meng F. and Richards W. (2007),precise field-scale irrigation amount and timing Spatial mapping of growing degree days: an application ofcalculation. MODIS-based surface temperatures and enhanced vegetationThis model can be used to improve and make other index, Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, 1, 1-12 (DOI: agricultural models more precise, such as 10.1117/1.2740040) insect growth models (IPM), harvest Moran MS (1994) Irrigation management in Arizona using timing etc…anywhere around the satellites and airplanes. Irrigation Sciences, 15, 35-44. globe. Nemani R. and Running S. (1989) Estimation of regional In 2010, we improved our surface resistance to Evapotranspiration from NDVI and thermal-IR AVHRR data, Journal of Applied Meteorology, 28, model with the integration 276-284. of other satellite data (higher MODIS website: spatial resolution), and checked it with more crops and needs. For more details please contact as at 31
  26. 26. LTD.Pelemix LTD Pelemix India Pelemix Lanka (pvt) Pelemix Espania S.LIsrael site: Hawaian Gardens plot no.127b,llnd street Ltd. P.I.Las Salinas S.A. College Road , 1151/1,Jawatte rd. Cra.Alhama.Beer Tuvia Industrial Zone 51838 Rahmath Nagar Colombo 05,Sri-Lanka. Cartagena km.43,400Office +972-8-6727290, Fax: +972-8-6727291 Tiruneveli 627011, Antiguua Nave Tamil Nadu-India Jinete. 3080-Alhama DeE-mail: Murcia, Spain
  27. 27. Agam Advanced Agronomy It Makes Sense . . .Agam Advanced Agronomy has been providing precision Our services include:farming services since 2005.As a dynamic, cutting-edge company, Agam offers its customers Biomass maps.advanced agricultural knowledge and capabilities at reasonable Tree-counting maps.prices.Our projects are based on a precise definition of the customer’s IPM maps.agricultural needs, an economic feasibility analysis, and a Yield map analysis.creative solution. Precision farming consultingThe result is a precision agricultural application based on and turn key projects.systematic data collection and analysis, tailored to the specificcharacterizations of the agricultural endeavor, as well as Agricultural soil surveys. Amonitoring and follow-up. Agam Advanced Agronomy - P.O.Box 1579, Zicron Yaakov, 30900, ISRAEL
  28. 28. Company Profiles Agriculture 2011Adirom - GavishCreating Controla Climatefor Growth, since its establishment 20 years ago, has been GAVISH is a leading company in the field of Agriculturalsupplying and installing climate-control solutions for Control Systems. The products are designed to enhancethe production of vegetables and flowers in greenhouses efficiency and productivity.throughout the world. Much attention is given to the system’s reliability andAdiram tailors its systems to create the most suitable durability .environment for each type of crop, based on the local Special effort is invested in R&D, quality control andtopography and climate conditions. field tests.Aiming to provide our costumers with the best solution, GAVISH exports its products to Europe, the Middlewe have developed special equipment and methods of East, Africa and a number of other countries includingimplementation. These systems and installations are Australia, China, Mexico and Japan. Export salescurrently operating in greenhouse projects covering close currently represent 80% of all 1000 hectares, spread across all five continents.The company’s engineering team would be happy to MAIN PRODUCTS:provide the best, cost-effective solution to accommodate Greenhouse and Open field Control Systemsyour greenhouse climate-control requirements. A dedicated system for Greenhouses which controls two areas:Agam Irrigation Control – Considers operating time-table, required quantity of water, existing water tensity in soilAdvanced and other parameters. This data is used to decide when and how much water to irrigate each plot. The irrigation control also operates the fertilizing plan while checkingAgronomy EC, pH, and other elements involved. Radio system for Pivot irrigation, The system In the control room - Spirit controller (PLC) with the software + Host + base & antena + PC computer. In theAs a dynamic, front-running company, Advanced field, attached to the pivot, situated the RTU Radio withAgronomy offers its customers the most advanced the ability to operate up to 9 operations and to read up toagricultural know-how and professional capabilities. 10 digital inputs. Each RTU is also can be a repeater inOur extensive theoretical and hands-on knowledge, order to enlarge the the distance of the signal.based on academic qualifications, cutting-edge Fertigation Machine – Gavish produces a Fertigationknowledge, strong ties with research institutions, and Machine consisting of PVC, assembled on an aluminumsignificant field experience (since 2000), enable us frame. There are 3 types of Fert. Machines:provide innovative solutions for top quality performance. - Mixer, Bypass and Online machinesThe company offers advanced GIS and remote sensing - Climate Controlcapabilities, combining leading computer developmentswith our abundant knowledge and professional - Irrigation And Fertilization Turnkey Projectsexperience.AGAM projects are based on the precise definition of Dairy Farm Control Systemsthe specific agricultural need, economic feasibility Feedtrol - The leading product in the Israeli cattle feedinganalysis, and creative solutions to ensure successful market. The purpose of this product is to eliminate foodresults.From the planning of precision agricultural waste during the preparation of the cattle food.applications, based on systematic data collection and Mixmaster - A comprehensive package to controlanalysis, through project monitoring and follow-up, the feeding center. The center is based on a bridgeAGAM’s services are tailored to meet the specific needs scale, multiple mobile and static mixers, silos and aof each agricultural endeavor. communication network. 35
  29. 29. Agriculture 2011 Company ProfilesBermad Pump, surge and burst control Solenoid, electronic and multi-step digital operationWater Control Main modes of operation include electric and hydraulic On/Off operation, as well as hydraulic pre-set forSolutions modulation. Precision Engineering - A BERMAD Commitment Comprehensive fluid management systems are only effective as their smallest component, each part making a critical contribution to the whole. That’s why BERMAD systems are based on control components that areBERMAD – Water Control Solutions offers nothing less. designed, developed and manufactured in-house.Founded in 1965, BERMAD knows the value of a single Dedication to precision engineering is expressed indrop of water and how best to reap its full advantage. BERMAD’s ability to adapt solutions to any customerWith 9 subsidiaries throughout the world and operations need; to constantly integrate the latest, most reliablein over 80 countries on 6 continents, BERMAD has a manufacturing techniques; and to provide everyformidable global presence. Its worldwide customer customer with the most comprehensive commercialtraining facilities and parts distribution networks ensure and technical support in the world.uninterrupted customer service. Today BERMAD serves BERMAD …a global leader in managing the world’s mostglobal customers in a wide range of fields. Bringing precious resourcetogether its expertise and know-how, leading-edgetechnology and precision engineering, BERMAD providescomprehensive customized solutions for the control andmanagement of water supply anywhere in the world. ICLBERMAD - Provider of SolutionsBased on expertise that comes from years of hands- Fertilizerson experience, BERMAD has developed state-of-the-art control valves and related products, along withcomprehensive system solutions for a range of watermanagement needs. Its main areas of activity include: www.iclfertilizers.comWaterworks - BERMAD offers management systems ICL Fertilizers, one of the world’s largest fertilizerfor the supply and treatment of water and wastewater companies, provides end-users and manufacturers oncovering a range of applications from high-rise five continents with a wide range of high-performancebuildings, and whole municipalities, to comprehensive solutions - all from a single source. With more than 50water systems for industrial facilities, hydroelectric years of experience in the field of fertilizer productionpower stations, and private sector projects. and marketing, ICLs growing global family of integratedIrrigation – A comprehensive line of water control businesses ensures that customers receive the highestproducts provides system solutions for the full range quality, competitive pricing and responsive sales andof agricultural irrigation applications including drip support.irrigation, pivot systems, sprinklers, micro-jets and ICL Specialty Fertilizers produces superior-quality; cost-greenhouse irrigation, as well as covering commercial effective specialty fertilizers that help growers achieveand residential gardening irrigation needs. higher yields and better quality, in spite of scarce waterFire Protection - Automatic control valves with a range and limited arable land.of operation modes are the vital components in fire ICL Specialty Fertilizers serves sophisticated segmentsprotection systems for oil refineries, petro-chemical of the world’s agricultural market, including customersplants and public buildings. who use drip irrigation and greenhouses.Water Metering - BERMAD solutions are adapted to the Our fully-soluble fertilizers, with specific strength in Pneeds of bulk and domestic water metering in supply and K, are produced from the rich natural resources ofsystems, and include both remote water metering read- potash from the Dead Sea and phosphate rock mines inout, and pre-payment systems. Israel. These products, some of which are balanced withBERMAD products are suitable for most water and fluid supplementary macro and micro-nutrients, are ideal forsupply applications, meeting control needs such as: fertigation, hydroponics, foliar nutrition and as specialPressure reducing and sustaining starters, as well as for horticulture, aquaculture, foodFlow and level control applications and other uses. 36
  30. 30. Company Profiles Agriculture 2011Eshet Eilon DorotIndustries Control(2003) Ltd Valves www.dorot.comESHET EILON INDUSTRIES (2003) LTD located at Founded in 1946, Dorot is a leading developer,Kibbutz Eilon, Israel; proudly embraces Israel endless manufacturer and marketer of a wide range ofcommitment to pursue world leading agricultural superior quality automatic control valves, air valves andresearch, striving to provide the most advanced solutions mechanical valves. Dorot was a pioneer in developingto the farmers around the world. hydraulic control valves and its series 300 valves becameESHET EILON with 65 years of continuous engineering a leading product in waterworks control systems worldwide.endeavors and manufacturing demands from its Dorot is a leader in Automatic Control Valves for thecustomers has developed dependable experience to Irrigation Market including: Drip Irrigation, Greenhouses,carry out successfully the most demanding and finest Turf and Landscape.touch fresh produce packing systems. Our innovative state of the art products are made ofOur “turn key” projects totally customized and tailored a variety of materials such as: Cast Iron, Ductile Iron,to best suit the packinghouse specific needs, location, Steel, Stainless Steel, Bronze, Polyamide and uPVC.structure, unique conditions and budget. ESHET EILON Dorot’s “GAL” valves became an industry leading the world industry in design and manufacturethe complete line of equipment in Stainless Steel,intending to provide our customers the best equipmentworth value, beside sanitary and durability benefits.Our complete packing systems typically include fruit Genesisdumping systems, advanced sanitation systemsenhanced with hot water or ozonated water, efficient Seeds Ltd,hot-cold air dryers for perfect water removal and longproduce shelf life expectancy, all together out coming tothe most detectable benefit, provided by our accurate,medium and high speed, electronic sizers which with it’s www.genesisseeds.comoptional optic systems upgrade, can sort out the perfect Genesis Seeds Ltd, privately owned, is one of the world’sfruit for the most demanding market. largest producers of Certified Organic Vegetable, HerbBeing farmers and packers ourselves, ESHET EILON’s and Flower Seed Since 1994. The company is basedprincipals keep the goal of building high standards in Israel (in the ‘High Negev’), where all research, andequipment and steel very practical, easy to use at the most production takes place. All Genesis Seed productseconomical solution. After sale service and technical are grown only in Israel and the company operatessupport, provided by our team of trained engineers, according to ISO 9001:2000, ISO 14001 endorsementadds to our client’s peace of mind and confidence. of the Israeli Standards Institute. Genesis Seeds SellsOur peripherical solutions includes intelligent conveying it’s own production only to seed companies, wholesalessystems, smartly operated with electronic eyes and and distributors in North America, West Europe, Israelloading motion sensors, which might help to save energy and other countries world wide. In seeking the Bestand avoid flow conflict on the items moving process. Our quality, we focus on Organic Production under strictsystems are being installed in the most advanced and agro–technical methods while always looking for thedemanding projects, such as military logistics facilities, best Genetics. Innovating, Breeding and Keeping a fullfood industry, pharmaceutical product management assortment of Flowers, Herbs and Vegetables in order toand most commonly packing houses for palletizing or fulfill and serve the Organic and Conventional markets”cooling processes. 37