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Organizational Excellence Through an Effective Competency Framework

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Core competencies and workforce competencies are what differentiates an organization from its competitors and enables it to deliver superior products and services. …

Core competencies and workforce competencies are what differentiates an organization from its competitors and enables it to deliver superior products and services.

A competency framework is an essential requirement of the People CMM (PCMM).

This presentation covers the essentials of a competency framework and how it aligns processes like recruitment, career development, workforce planning, training, performance management and compensation to deliver short term and long term goals of an organization.

This presentation has evolved across various talks on the topic. The content was used the first time in a Webinar organized by Compulink in July 2009.

The latest version of the presentation was used at SPIN Hyderabad in June 2010. This is the uploaded version.

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  • 1. Organizational Excellence Through an Effective Competency Framework Hyderabad SPIN 22 June 2010 Rajesh Naik Consulting Partner QAI India Ltd. © Rajesh Naik, 2010 Released under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License license 1
  • 2. Agenda/ Topics • What is competency? • Design of a Competency Framework – Job Clusters, Roles, Competencies, Proficiencies, Competency Dictionary and Competency Assessments • Competency Framework in Action – Hiring, Performance Management, Training • Refining the Competency Framework © Rajesh Naik, 2010 Released under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License license 2
  • 3. What is Competency? Underlying characteristic of an individual that is causally related to effective or superior performance in a job -Competence at Work, Spencer and Spencer • In other words – Whatever make us do our job better • This characteristic is usually a combination of – Knowledge, skill, attitude/ traits and process abilities • Required for a job/ role/ objective • Possessed by an individual doing the job © Rajesh Naik, 2010 Released under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License license 3
  • 4. What is Competency? Core Competency the combination of technology and production skills that create a company’s products and services and provide its competitive advantage in the marketplace (Prahalad & Hamel 1990) Organizational/ workforce Competency/ Job Clusters a cluster of knowledge, skills and Organizational/ workforce individual should develop to perform a Competencies (Job Clusters) particular type of work in the organization Role Based Competency an underlying characteristic of an K,S & K,S & K,S & K,S & individual that is causally related to Process Process Process Process effective or superior performance Abilities Abilities Abilities Abilities (Spencer 1993) © Rajesh Naik, 2010 Released under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License license 4
  • 5. Design of a Competency Framework Brought to you by Identify Identify Identify Job Clusters Roles Competencies Create Define Define Assessment Tools Proficiencies Competencies Create Role-Competency- Proficiency Mapping Assessment Framework © Rajesh Naik, 2010 Released under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License license 5
  • 6. Job Clusters • Similar kind of work (e.g., same department) requiring similar competencies • For example, Job Clusters in a typical IT Services organization Executive Management Software Development Quality Management Project Management Facilities & Admin Sales & Marketing Business Analysis HR and Learning Software Testing IT Infrastructure Finance& Legal © Rajesh Naik, 2010 Released under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License license 6
  • 7. Roles • Roles within a Job Cluster require similar competencies with different proficiencies • For example, roles in the “Software Development” Job Cluster could include – Programmer – Senior Programmer – Designer – Senior Designer – System Architect © Rajesh Naik, 2010 Released under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License license 7
  • 8. Competencies • Each role would require a set of competencies – typically all roles within a job cluster will require fairly similar set of competencies • The difference could be in the proficiency levels • Types of competencies could include – Functional, technical, domain – Behavioral – Process Abilities Expected Results Competencies Tasks Role © Rajesh Naik, 2010 Released under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License license 8
  • 9. Types of Competencies - Examples • Functional, technical, domain competencies – Accounting, HR, Legal, Training, Recruitment, Software Design, Programming, Testing – SAP, Oracle, Mainframes, Seibel, Microsoft Technologies – Pharma, Hospitals, automobiles, telecommunication, Oil and Gas • Behavioral – Achievement Orientation, Creativity, Service Orientation, People Orientation, Flexibility, Ability to Communicate, Assertiveness, Quality Orientation • Process Abilities – This is the ability to apply the functional and behavioral competencies using the organization’s processes (Knows “how things are done here” • Process abilities are built within an organization, functional competencies are built with work experience in an industry/ type of job, and behavioral competencies are built from childhood © Rajesh Naik, 2010 Released under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License license 9
  • 10. Proficiencies • Extent of the competency • Typically on a scale (e.g., 0-5), where – 0- Not At All – 5- Subject Matter Expert / Master/ Guru © Rajesh Naik, 2010 Released under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License license 10
  • 11. Competency Dictionary • Description of all competencies, proficiencies • Mapping of Competencies and Proficiencies for various roles (Role Profiles) Flexibility Flexibility is the ability to adapt seamlessly to changes. Expected Flexible people recognize the multiple viewpoints and can ROLE : PROJECT MANAGER Proficiency flexibly apply the most suitable solution in a given situation in the context of a larger objective Behavioral Achievement Orientation 3 Creativity 2 0 Not flexible at all; Rigid Service Orientation 4 1 Able to defer the decision till other viepoints are heard People Orientation 3 2 Able to appreciate others viewpoints Flexibility 3 Ability to Communicate 3 3 Able to appreciate others viewpoints and generate alternate Assertiveness 4 viewpoints himself/ herself Quality Orientation 3 4 Able to change one's behaviour dynamically, depending on the situation Functional/ Technical Estimation 4 5 Able to coach and train others to adapt flexible behaviour Project Monitoring 4 Managing Finances 2 Scheduling 3 Metrics and Reporting 4 © Rajesh Naik, 2010 Released under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License license 11
  • 12. Competency Assessments • At hiring time • While promoting a person (in the same Job Cluster) • While shifting a person from one job cluster to another • To identify competency gaps and development needs on a periodic basis Note: • Some competencies (technical) can change at a fast rate • Some competencies (behavioral) change very slowly © Rajesh Naik, 2010 Released under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License license 12
  • 13. Competency Framework in Action – Hiring Domain Competency Projection Present Reqd by Dec '03 JOB PROFILE Project Manager Present Identify a vacancy Domain Competency Projection Short Description Leading and managing large projects or multiple small projects with the aim Reqd by Dec '03 of completing projects on JOBand on budget to the desired quality, time PROFILE economically, successfully and to the satisfaction of the customer. Also, 80 Project Manager developing repeat business from exis Under Main Tasks NA Indepen- Guiding Present Short Description Leading and managing large projects or multiple small projects with the aim Domain Competency Projection60 Guidance dent Others of completing projects on time and on budget to the desired quality, JOB PROFILE Bus ines s res pons ibility with P & L responsibility √ Reqd by Dec '03 economically, successfully and to the satisfaction of the customer. Also, in terms of the 80 40 Cus tomer Mgmt (Develop and Manage existing cus tomer Project Manager developing repeat business from exis Under √ Analyze, Des ign and Im plem ent software sTasks Main olutions NA Indepen- √ Guiding Plan & execute projects / m odules within pre - determ ined Leading and managing large projects or multiple smallOthers with the aim Short Description Guidance √ dent projects 60 People MgmtBus ines s res pons ibility with P & L responsibility completing projects on JOBand on budget to the desired quality, of time PROFILE √ 20 that includes m obilization, motivation and √ Takes part in Cus tomer Mgmt (Develop and Manage existing cus tomer sales process with new pros pect economically, successfully and to the satisfaction of the customer. Also, √ 40 Project Manager developing repeat business from exis Under √ 80 0 Proposal / Contract Mgm t ign and Im plem ent software s Tasks Analyze, Des Main olutions √ NA Indepen- √ Guiding Plan Short Description √ Knowledge Mgm t & execute projects / m odules within pre - determ ined Leading and managing large projects or multiple small projects with the aim √ Hospital Hotels Airlines Education Guidance dent Others Role Profile 20 Quality Managem ent Mgmt that includes m obilization, motivation and √ of completing projects on time and on budget to the desired quality, 60 People Bus ines s responsibility with P & L res pons ibility √√ part in Cus tom er Mgm t (Develop and Manage exis ting cus tom er Productive and to the satisfaction of the customer. Also, Takes Knowledge/ process with new pros pect sales Skills NR economically, successfully Master Novice √ √ Main Tasks Project Managem ent TechniquesMgm t ign and Im plem ent s oftware solutions Proposal / Contract Des developing repeat business from√exis Under √ NA Indepen- Guiding 0 Analyze, √ 40 MPP Knowledge Mgm t & execute projects / m odules within pre - determined √√ Hospital Hotels Airlines Education Plan Guidance √ dent Others Es timation Method (IFPUGPeople Mgmt that includes mobilization, m otivation and Quality Managem ent or FFP) √ √ Bus ines s res pons ibility with P & L responsibility √√ 20 Statis tical Methods (7 QC Tools )Knowledge/ proces s with new pros pect s ales Skills NR √ Takes part inCus tomer Mgmt (Develop and Manage existing cus tomer Productive Novice Master √ √ Propos Techniques Des ign and Im plem ent software s olutions √ Metrics Tool Project Managem ental / Contract Mgmt Analyze, √√ √ 0 One of SSAD/ OOAD Techniques MPP √ Knowledge Mgm t & execute projects / m odules within pre - determ ined √√ Plan √ Hospital Hotels Airlines Education Requirem ents ManagemMethod (IFPUG or FFP) Es timation ent with DOORS ent Quality Managem √ √ √ People Mgmt that includes m obilization, motivation and √ Rational Ros Statis tical Methods (7 QC Tools ) e or Sys tem Architect √ √ Takes Knowledge/ process with new pros pect part in sales Skills NR Novice Productive Master √ One CM Tool Metrics Tool or Clearcas e) (VSS or PVCS √ √ Project Managem ent TechniquesMgm t Proposal / Contract √√ One Language Skills (C++,OOAD etc.) One of SSAD/ JAVA, Techniques MPP Knowledge Mgm t √√ √√ One Tes t Tool (Team Tes t or Segue orent with DOORS Mercury) Requirem ents ManagemMethod (IFPUG or FFP) √ √ Es timation Quality Managem ent √ √ Dom ain Knowledge (one of Hos pital, Hotel, Airline, Rational Ros e or Sys tem Architect QC Tools) √ √ Statis tical Methods (7 Knowledge/ Skills NR √ Novice Productive Master JOB PROFILE Technology Knowledge (one of client server, IBM One CM Tool Metrics Tool or Clearcas e) (VSS or PVCS √√ √ m ainframe, Web Bas ed, eComm erce) Project etc.) Managem ent Techniques √ One Language Skills (C++, OOAD Techniques One of SSAD/ JAVA, √√ Project Manager MPP √ Our QMS One Tes t Tool (Team Tes t or Segue orent with DOORS Requirem ents Managem Mercury) √ √ √ Es timation Method (IFPUG or FFP) √ Short Description Leading and managing large projects or multiple small projects with the aim Indus try Quality Standards Rational Ros e Hos pital, Hotel, Airline, Dom ain Knowledge (one of or Sys tem Architect (ISO & CMM) √√ √ Statis tical Methods (7 QC Tools ) √ of completing projects on time and on budget to the desired quality, Englis h-Written Comm unication Tool (VSSclient server, IBM Technology Knowledge (one of or PVCS or Clearcase) One CM Metrics Tool √ √√ √ economically, successfully and to the satisfaction of the customer. Also, Englis h-Oral m ainframe, Web Bas ed, eComm erce) JAVA, etc.) Com m unication Language Skills (C++, √ √√ Add specific One One of SSAD/ OOAD Techniques developing repeat business from exis Under Englis h-Pres Our QMS entation One Tes t Tool (Team Tes t or Segue or Mercury) √ √ √ Main Tasks NA Indepen- Guiding Requirem ents Managem ent with DOORS √ Education &Quality StandardsRational Rosof or SysAt least one of the following: Indus try Training & Knowledge CMM)e Hospital, Hotel, Airline, Dom ain Qualifications (ISO & (one tem Architect √√ √ Guidance dent Others Englis h-Written Comm unication Tool (VSSclient s erver, IBM with 9 yrs experiece in IT Technology Knowledge (one of or PVCS(or equi) One CM BSc or Clearcas e) √√√ Bus ines s res pons ibility with P & L responsibility √ Englis h-Oral Com m unication Bas ed, eCom m erce) (or equi) with 5 yrs experience in IT m ainframe, Web Language Skills (C++, JAVA, etc.) One BE √ √ Cus tomer Mgmt (Develop and Manage existing cus tomer √ Englis h-Pres entation Our QMS One Tes t Tool (Team Tes t (or SeguewithMercury) ME or equi) or 3 yrs experience in IT √ √ √ Analyze, Des ign and Im plem ent software s olutions √ Plan & execute projects / m odules within pre - determ ined √ Education &Quality Standards (ISO & (one of Hos pital,least one of the following: Attitudes Training & Knowledge CMM) Indus try Dom ain Qualifications NR Learning Airline, At Hotel, Average Excellent √ √ competencies required People Mgmt that includes m obilization, motivation and √ Cus tomer Focus Englis h-Written Comm unication BSc (or equi) √ Technology Knowledge (one of client server, IBM with 9 yrs experiece in IT √√ Takes part in sales process with new pros pect √ Helpfullnes s to Peers Englis h-Oral m ainframe, Web Bas ed, eComm erce) (or equi) with 5 yrs experience in IT Com munication BE √ √ Proposal / Contract Mgm t √ Problem Solving Englis h-PresOur QMS entation √ ME (or equi) with 3 yrs experience in IT √ √ Knowledge Mgm t √ Support to Juniors Education &Quality Standards (ISO & CMM) Attitudes Training & Qualifications Indus try NR √ Learning of the following: At least one Average Excellent √ Quality Managem ent √ Initiative Cus tomer Focus Englis h-Written Comm unication √ √ BSc (or equi) with 9 yrs experiece in IT √ Knowledge/ Skills NR Novice Productive Master Support to Seniors Helpfullnes s to Peers Englis h-Oral Com m unication BE (or equi) with √ yrs experience in IT 5 √ √ for: Project Managem ent Techniques √ Problem Solving Englis h-Pres entation √ ME (or equi) with 3 yrs experience in IT √ MPP √ Support to Juniors Education & Training & Attitudes QualificationsNR √ At least one of the following: Learning Average Excellent Es timation Method (IFPUG or FFP) √ Initiative Cus tom er Focus √ √ BSc (or equi) with 9 yrs experiece in IT Statis tical Methods (7 QC Tools ) √ Support to Seniors Helpfullnes s to Peers BE (or equi) with √ yrs experience in IT 5 √ Metrics Tool √ Problem Solving √ ME (or equi) with 3 yrs experience in IT One of SSAD/ OOAD Techniques √ Support to Juniors Attitudes NR √ Learning Average Excellent Requirem ents Managem ent with DOORS √ Initiative Cus tomer Focus √ √ •the project/ dept Rational Ros e or Sys tem Architect √ Support to Seniors Helpfullnes s to Peers √ √ One CM Tool (VSS or PVCS or Clearcas e) √ Problem Solving √ One Language Skills (C++, JAVA, etc.) √ Support to Juniors √ One Tes t Tool (Team Tes t or Segue or Mercury) √ Initiative √ Dom ain Knowledge (one of Hos pital, Hotel, Airline, √ Support to Seniors √ Technology Knowledge (one of client server, IBM √ m ainframe, Web Bas ed, eComm erce) •long term org. needs Our QMS Indus try Quality Standards (ISO & CMM) Englis h-Written Comm unication Englis h-Oral Com m unication Englis h-Pres entation √ √ √ √ √ Education & Training & Qualifications At least one of the following: BSc (or equi) with 9 yrs experiece in IT BE (or equi) with 5 yrs experience in IT ME (or equi) with 3 yrs experience in IT Attitudes NR Learning Average Excellent Cus tomer Focus √ Helpfullnes s to Peers √ Problem Solving √ Support to Juniors √ Initiative √ Support to Seniors √ Use Role Profiles during selection © Rajesh Naik, 2010 Released under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License license 13
  • 14. Competency Framework in Action – Performance Management JOB PROFILE Project Manager Short Description Leading and managing large projects or multiple small projects with the aim of completing projects on time and on budget to the desired quality, economically, successfully and to the satisfaction of the customer. Also, developing repeat business from exis Under Main Tasks NA Indepen- Guiding Guidance dent Others Evaluate for competencies required Bus iness res pons ibility with P & L res ponsibility √ Custom er Mgmt (Develop and Manage exis ting custom er √ Analyze, Des ign and Implement software s olutions √ Plan & execute projects / modules within pre - determined √ People Mgmt that includes mobilization, motivation and √ Takes part in s ales proces s with new prospect √ Propos al / Contract Mgmt √ for the current role Knowledge Mgmt Quality Management Knowledge/ Skills Project Managem ent Techniques MPP Estimation Method (IFPUG or FFP) NR √ Novice Productive √ √ Master √ √ And desired role Statis tical Methods (7 QC Tools ) √ Metrics Tool √ One of SSAD/ OOAD Techniques √ Requirements Managem ent with DOORS √ Rational Rose or System Architect √ One CM Tool (VSS or PVCS or Clearcase) √ One Language Skills (C++, JAVA, etc.) √ One Tes t Tool (Team Tes t or Segue or Mercury) √ Domain Knowledge (one of Hos pital, Hotel, Airline, √ Technology Knowledge (one of client s erver, IBM √ mainframe, Web Based, eComm erce) Our QMS √ Indus try Quality Standards (ISO & CMM) √ Englis h-Written Com munication √ Englis h-Oral Communication √ Englis h-Presentation √ Education & Training & Qualifications At least one of the following: BSc (or equi) with 9 yrs experiece in IT BE (or equi) with 5 yrs experience in IT ME (or equi) with 3 yrs experience in IT Attitudes NR Learning Average Excellent Custom er Focus √ Helpfullnes s to Peers √ Problem Solving √ Support to Juniors √ Initiative √ Support to Seniors √ Job Profile for Set objectives to close Current Role competency gaps Performance Appraisal; Identify action plans to help Development Goal Setting close the gaps Plan Training, education, certification, job rotation, mentoring/ coaching © Rajesh Naik, 2010 Released under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License license 14
  • 15. Competency Framework in Action - Training • Link Training Programs to the Competency Framework Minimum Pre Expected Post Prociency Prociency Training Program Competencies Addressed Level Level # CS-101 Creating Customer Delight Integrity 2 3 Service Orientation 2 4 Interpersonal Skills 1 2 # EX-390 Insurance Basics Insurance Domain 0 2 # PM-445 Negotiating Skills Negotiating Skills 0 3 Interpersonal Skills 2 3 Service Orientation 2 3 Listening Skills 1 3 • Training programs become more focused • Overlapping training programs can be merged/ dropped • Identification of participants is sharper © Rajesh Naik, 2010 Released under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License license 15
  • 16. Refining the Competency Framework • New roles will get added • Definitions of competencies/ proficiencies will get refined • Role requirements will change based on results achieved © Rajesh Naik, 2010 Released under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License license 16
  • 17. SEI’s People CMM® Project • Mission – To help the readiness of organizations to undertake increasingly complex work by helping them attract, grow, motivate, deploy, and retain the talent needed to improve their capability Authors of the P-CMM: Bill Curtis William Hefley Sally Miller © Rajesh Naik, 2010 Released under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License license 17
  • 18. Maturity Levels Level 5 Optimizing Level 4 Continuous Predictable Improvement Level 3 Measured & Defined Empowered Practices Level 2 Competency Managed Based Practices Level 1 Basic HR Initial Operational Practices © Software Engineering Institute © Rajesh Naik, 2010 Released under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License license 18
  • 19. Process Areas © Rajesh Naik, 2010 Released under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License license 19
  • 20. “Learning Organization” Source: TeraQuest © Rajesh Naik, 2010 Released under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License license 20
  • 21. “Culture Of Teamwork” Source: TeraQuest © Rajesh Naik, 2010 Released under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License license 21
  • 22. “Performance Orientation” Source: TeraQuest © Rajesh Naik, 2010 Released under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License license 22
  • 23. “Workforce to Strategy” Source: TeraQuest © Rajesh Naik, 2010 Released under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License license 23
  • 24. References • The Core Competency of the Corporation by CK Prahlad and Gary Hamel (HBR May-June 1990) • Competency-Based Human Resource Management by David D. Dubois • Competence at Work: Models for Superior Performance by Signe M. Spencer, Lyle M. Spencer • The Art and Science of Competency Models: Pinpointing Critical Success Factors in Organizations by Anntoinette D. Lucia and Richard Lepsinger © Rajesh Naik, 2010 Released under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License license 24
  • 25. About this Presentation Author: Rajesh Naik Consulting Partner QAI India Limited rajesh.naik@qaiglobal.com naik.rajeshnaik@gmail.com +91 9845488767 More resources on the subject are available from the creator of this presentation at: http://www.rajeshnaik.com © Rajesh Naik, 2010 This work is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial- ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License license. This means you can use it for non- commercial purposes so long as you include the copyright line “© Rajesh Naik, 2010". If you create derivative works using this work, they should also be made available under a similar license. For further information go to http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ For uses outside the scope of the license, contact Rajesh Naik at naik.rajeshnaik@gmail.com © Rajesh Naik, 2010 Released under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License license 25
  • 26. Thank You Rajesh Naik Consulting Partner QAI India Limited Email rajesh.naik@qaiglobal.com OR naik.rajeshnaik@gmail.com Mobile +91 9845488767 Website www.rajeshnaik.com Also, have a look at the latest “business novel”: Aligning Ferret: How an Organization Meets Extraordinary Challenges By Swapna Kishore & Rajesh Naik Website: http://www.postscript-impressions.com © Rajesh Naik, 2010 Released under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License license 26

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