Methods And Approaches

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  • 1. UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGÓGICA EXPERIMENTAL LIBERTADOR INSTITUTO PEDAGÓGICO DE CARACAS DEPARTAMENTO DE IDIOMAS MODERNOS CÁTEDRA DE LINGÜÍSTICA METODOLOGÍA ILE Borges, Carla G . Caracas, March 2009
  • 2.  
  • 3.
    • Johann Seidenstücker,
    • Karl Plötz,
    • H.S Ollendorf,
    • Johann Meidinger
    • L2 was learned to read and translate literary texts
    • Speaking and listening skills are neglected
    • Vocabulary based on the texts used
    • Sentence as the basic unit of teaching and language practice
    • Grammar taught in a deductive way
    • L1 is the basic medium of instruction
  • 4.
    • Classes conducted exclusively in the target language.
    • Only everyday vocabulary and sentences were taught.
    • Grammar was taught inductively.
    • Correct pronunciation and grammar were emphasized.
    • New teaching points were introduced orally.
    • Listening and speaking skills were developed.
    • Oral skills were practiced by question-answer
    • exchanges between teachers and learners.
    • Maximilian Berlitz
  • 5.
    • Harold Palmer
    • A.S Hornby
    Theory of language British Structuralism Oral practice of L2 Structures Theory of learning Behaviorism
    • Repetition
    • Memorization
    • Four skills taught through structures
    • Accuracy in grammar and pronunciation is considered crucial
    • Structures are taught orally and then practiced in reading and writing activities
    • Students are expected to apply learned structures in outside situations
  • 6.
    • Listen and repeat what the teacher says (initial stage)
    • Active participation required (advanced stage)
    • Teacher = model
    • Creates situations using questions and commands with the structures needed
    • Textbook as a guide of the learning process
    • Visual aids crucial to show grammatical structures
    • Pronunciation
    • Revision (to prepare for new work if necessary)
    • Presentation of new structure or vocabulary
    • Oral practice (drilling)
    • Reading of material containing the taught structure or writing exercises
  • 7. Theory of language Theory of learning Structural Linguistics Language is a system of elements linearly arranged Behaviorism
    • L2 learning process = habit
    • Teaching L2 =teaching aspects of its cultural system
    • Grammar is taught inductively
    • Speech precedes written form
    Stimulus (Input) Organism (Learner) Response Behavior (Verbal behavior)
    • Reinforcement
    • No reinforcement
    • U.S Army
    • Charles Fries
  • 8.
    • Learner=organism
    • Responds to stimuli
    • Center of the learning process
    • Promoter of classroom interaction
    • (Teacher Students)
    • Judges the students’ performance
    • Assists the teacher to develop language skills in the learner
    • Teacher-oriented materials
    • Printed materials are not used in initial stages
    • Tape recorders and audiovisual equipment are central
    • Listening activities (dialogues) that contain the grammar structures of the lesson
    • Choral repetition of the dialogues
    • Adaptation of the dialogue by changing key words and then is acted out
    • Writing activities introduced after oral drills
    • Reinforcement of ral drills in lab activities.
  • 9. Theory of language Theory of learning “ Language = Communication” “ Language is what a speaker needs to know to be communicatively competent in speech community” (Hymes, D) Cognitivism
    • Language learning = learning to communicate
    • Effective communication is sought
    • Contextualization is basic
    • Learner-centered
    • The structure of language reflects its functional and communicative uses
    • Language is a system for the expression of meaning
    • U.S Army
    • Charles Fries
    • Aquisition vs. Learning
    • Meaningful learning
    • Linguistic competence Fuctional performance
  • 10.
    • Learner contributes as much as he/she gains (Breen and Candlin)
    • Text-based
    • Facilitator
    • Researcher
    • Mediator
    • Learner
    • Counselor
    • Needs analyst
    • Group process manager
    • Varied
    • Tak-based
    • Realia
    • Presentation of a brief dialogue(discussion of setting and situation, function)
    • Oral practice (asking questions)
    • Use of different resources (visual aids) to exemplify and explain language
    • Learner discovery of grammar rules (oral and written form)
    • Oral and written production
    • Informal assesment
    • Homework (Finocchiaro and Brumfit)
  • 11. Theory of language Structuralism
    • Chunks instead of single lexical items
    Theory of learning Behaviorism
    • L1 and L2 are parallel processes
    • Listening precedes speaking
    Sv (Verbal stimulus) R (Physical Movement) The BIO Program Brain Lateralization
    • TPR directed to right-brain learning
    • Learner acquires language through motor movement (a right hemisphere activity) and then the left hemisphere will produce more abstract language procesess.
    Stress Reduction
    • Focuses on meaning interpreted through movement rather than on language forms
  • 12.
    • Listener and performer
    • Learners monitor and evaluate their own progress
    Chooses, models and presents the materials to be used in class Controls the input given
    • Printed materials are optional
    • Realia
    • Visual aids may be used to complement teacher’s explanation
    • Review on commands taught in previous sessions
    • Introduction of new commands
    • Asking questions
    • Role reversal (students give commands to classmates)
    • Reading and Writing activities are done (teacher writes vocabulary on the board)
    • James Asher
  • 13. Theory of language Theory of learning Structuralism Cognitivism
    • Learning to learn
    • Inner criteria
    • Near-native fluency
    • Language is separated from its social context and taught through artificial situations
    • Lessons follow a sequence of lexical complexity
    • Grammar taught inductively
    • Caleb Gattegno
    • Sentence is considered the basic unit of teaching
    • Use of Cuisenaire words
    • Words in color
    Awareness
  • 14.
    • Learners are expected to be independent, autonomous, responsible in their own learning
    • As silent as possible
    • Neutral-observer
    • Assistant
    • Sets the mood
    • Models the actions
    • Performance critic
    • Colorful visual aids are crucial
    • Color-coded charts divided in rods.
    • Prononciation charts are called “Fidels”
    • The 1st part of the lesson focuses on pronunciation
    • The teacher models, then students repeat.
    • Sentence patterns, structure, and vocabulary are practiced
  • 15. Theory of language Holistic (cognitive and affective) Theory of learning Constructivism Whole-person learning
    • Focuses on near-native language mastery
    • Language with communicative purposes
    • Syllabus negotiated between teacher and learner
    • Promotes students interaction
    • Learning is a “whole-person process”
    • Charles A. Curran
    S = security A = agression R = retention/ reflection D =discrimination
  • 16.
    • Learners are members of a community
    • Learning is achieved collaborately
    • Teacher=counselor
    • Provides a pleasant, relaxed learning environment
    • Assists learners instead of judging them
    • Materials developed by the teacher (if needed)
    • Informal greetings made
    • Teacher states the purpose of the session
    • a volunteer records a message in L1
    • Teacher translates and then everybody repeats and creates a similar message.
    • Reflection period
    • From the material recorded the teacher writes some sentences on a board
    • Clarifying stage
  • 17. Theory of language Theory of learning
    • Specific objectives depend on the learners’ needs
    • Focuses on receptive skills (listening and reading), productive skills (speaking and writing) should be allowed to “emerge”
    • Tracy Terrel
    • Stephen Krashen
    • Language for communicative purposes
    • The acquisition/learning hypothesis
    • The monitor hipothesis
    • The natural order hipothesis
    • The input hypothesis
    • The affective filter hypothesis
  • 18.
    • Pre-production stage: participates (not necessarily in L2)
    • Early-production stage: Students answer questions in L2
    • Speech-emergent phase: students get involved in role-plays, games, give opinions
    • Primary source of comprehensible input in L2
    • Creates a friendly atmosphere
    • Varies classroom activities to promote meaningful learning
    • Use of realia rather than textbook
    • Visual aids are essential
    • Games
    • Adopts techniques and activities from various methods. E.g: TPR
  • 19. Theory of language Theory of learning
    • Aims to develop speaking quickly
    • Mastering of wide variety of vocabulary in L2
    • Presentation and performance
    • Unconscious learning
    • Learner’s mental state is considered important
    • Georgi Lozanov
    Structuralism Cognitivism
    • Hypnotism
    Lexis centered/memorization
  • 20.
    • Smoking and drinking are prohibited during the course
    • Sucess depend on learner’s mental state
    • Pseudo-passive state
    • They are given a new name and personal history within the target culture
    • Situation-designer
    • Maintains a formal attitude during the lesson
    • Encourages participation
    • Text and tapes
    • Music as a meas of relaxation
    • Comfortable furniture
    • Oral review section
    • Presentation of new content after a few minutes of silence and relaxation
    • Music session
  • 21. Richards, J ; Rodgers, T. “Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching” 5th ed.1989. Melbourne. Cambridge University Press Stern, H. “Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching” 2nd ed. 1984. London Oxford University Press
  • 22. THANKS! [email_address]