Methods And Approaches
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Methods And Approaches






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    Methods And Approaches Methods And Approaches Presentation Transcript

      • Johann Seidenstücker,
      • Karl Plötz,
      • H.S Ollendorf,
      • Johann Meidinger
      • L2 was learned to read and translate literary texts
      • Speaking and listening skills are neglected
      • Vocabulary based on the texts used
      • Sentence as the basic unit of teaching and language practice
      • Grammar taught in a deductive way
      • L1 is the basic medium of instruction
      • Classes conducted exclusively in the target language.
      • Only everyday vocabulary and sentences were taught.
      • Grammar was taught inductively.
      • Correct pronunciation and grammar were emphasized.
      • New teaching points were introduced orally.
      • Listening and speaking skills were developed.
      • Oral skills were practiced by question-answer
      • exchanges between teachers and learners.
      • Maximilian Berlitz
      • Harold Palmer
      • A.S Hornby
      Theory of language British Structuralism Oral practice of L2 Structures Theory of learning Behaviorism
      • Repetition
      • Memorization
      • Four skills taught through structures
      • Accuracy in grammar and pronunciation is considered crucial
      • Structures are taught orally and then practiced in reading and writing activities
      • Students are expected to apply learned structures in outside situations
      • Listen and repeat what the teacher says (initial stage)
      • Active participation required (advanced stage)
      • Teacher = model
      • Creates situations using questions and commands with the structures needed
      • Textbook as a guide of the learning process
      • Visual aids crucial to show grammatical structures
      • Pronunciation
      • Revision (to prepare for new work if necessary)
      • Presentation of new structure or vocabulary
      • Oral practice (drilling)
      • Reading of material containing the taught structure or writing exercises
    • Theory of language Theory of learning Structural Linguistics Language is a system of elements linearly arranged Behaviorism
      • L2 learning process = habit
      • Teaching L2 =teaching aspects of its cultural system
      • Grammar is taught inductively
      • Speech precedes written form
      Stimulus (Input) Organism (Learner) Response Behavior (Verbal behavior)
      • Reinforcement
      • No reinforcement
      • U.S Army
      • Charles Fries
      • Learner=organism
      • Responds to stimuli
      • Center of the learning process
      • Promoter of classroom interaction
      • (Teacher Students)
      • Judges the students’ performance
      • Assists the teacher to develop language skills in the learner
      • Teacher-oriented materials
      • Printed materials are not used in initial stages
      • Tape recorders and audiovisual equipment are central
      • Listening activities (dialogues) that contain the grammar structures of the lesson
      • Choral repetition of the dialogues
      • Adaptation of the dialogue by changing key words and then is acted out
      • Writing activities introduced after oral drills
      • Reinforcement of ral drills in lab activities.
    • Theory of language Theory of learning “ Language = Communication” “ Language is what a speaker needs to know to be communicatively competent in speech community” (Hymes, D) Cognitivism
      • Language learning = learning to communicate
      • Effective communication is sought
      • Contextualization is basic
      • Learner-centered
      • The structure of language reflects its functional and communicative uses
      • Language is a system for the expression of meaning
      • U.S Army
      • Charles Fries
      • Aquisition vs. Learning
      • Meaningful learning
      • Linguistic competence Fuctional performance
      • Learner contributes as much as he/she gains (Breen and Candlin)
      • Text-based
      • Facilitator
      • Researcher
      • Mediator
      • Learner
      • Counselor
      • Needs analyst
      • Group process manager
      • Varied
      • Tak-based
      • Realia
      • Presentation of a brief dialogue(discussion of setting and situation, function)
      • Oral practice (asking questions)
      • Use of different resources (visual aids) to exemplify and explain language
      • Learner discovery of grammar rules (oral and written form)
      • Oral and written production
      • Informal assesment
      • Homework (Finocchiaro and Brumfit)
    • Theory of language Structuralism
      • Chunks instead of single lexical items
      Theory of learning Behaviorism
      • L1 and L2 are parallel processes
      • Listening precedes speaking
      Sv (Verbal stimulus) R (Physical Movement) The BIO Program Brain Lateralization
      • TPR directed to right-brain learning
      • Learner acquires language through motor movement (a right hemisphere activity) and then the left hemisphere will produce more abstract language procesess.
      Stress Reduction
      • Focuses on meaning interpreted through movement rather than on language forms
      • Listener and performer
      • Learners monitor and evaluate their own progress
      Chooses, models and presents the materials to be used in class Controls the input given
      • Printed materials are optional
      • Realia
      • Visual aids may be used to complement teacher’s explanation
      • Review on commands taught in previous sessions
      • Introduction of new commands
      • Asking questions
      • Role reversal (students give commands to classmates)
      • Reading and Writing activities are done (teacher writes vocabulary on the board)
      • James Asher
    • Theory of language Theory of learning Structuralism Cognitivism
      • Learning to learn
      • Inner criteria
      • Near-native fluency
      • Language is separated from its social context and taught through artificial situations
      • Lessons follow a sequence of lexical complexity
      • Grammar taught inductively
      • Caleb Gattegno
      • Sentence is considered the basic unit of teaching
      • Use of Cuisenaire words
      • Words in color
      • Learners are expected to be independent, autonomous, responsible in their own learning
      • As silent as possible
      • Neutral-observer
      • Assistant
      • Sets the mood
      • Models the actions
      • Performance critic
      • Colorful visual aids are crucial
      • Color-coded charts divided in rods.
      • Prononciation charts are called “Fidels”
      • The 1st part of the lesson focuses on pronunciation
      • The teacher models, then students repeat.
      • Sentence patterns, structure, and vocabulary are practiced
    • Theory of language Holistic (cognitive and affective) Theory of learning Constructivism Whole-person learning
      • Focuses on near-native language mastery
      • Language with communicative purposes
      • Syllabus negotiated between teacher and learner
      • Promotes students interaction
      • Learning is a “whole-person process”
      • Charles A. Curran
      S = security A = agression R = retention/ reflection D =discrimination
      • Learners are members of a community
      • Learning is achieved collaborately
      • Teacher=counselor
      • Provides a pleasant, relaxed learning environment
      • Assists learners instead of judging them
      • Materials developed by the teacher (if needed)
      • Informal greetings made
      • Teacher states the purpose of the session
      • a volunteer records a message in L1
      • Teacher translates and then everybody repeats and creates a similar message.
      • Reflection period
      • From the material recorded the teacher writes some sentences on a board
      • Clarifying stage
    • Theory of language Theory of learning
      • Specific objectives depend on the learners’ needs
      • Focuses on receptive skills (listening and reading), productive skills (speaking and writing) should be allowed to “emerge”
      • Tracy Terrel
      • Stephen Krashen
      • Language for communicative purposes
      • The acquisition/learning hypothesis
      • The monitor hipothesis
      • The natural order hipothesis
      • The input hypothesis
      • The affective filter hypothesis
      • Pre-production stage: participates (not necessarily in L2)
      • Early-production stage: Students answer questions in L2
      • Speech-emergent phase: students get involved in role-plays, games, give opinions
      • Primary source of comprehensible input in L2
      • Creates a friendly atmosphere
      • Varies classroom activities to promote meaningful learning
      • Use of realia rather than textbook
      • Visual aids are essential
      • Games
      • Adopts techniques and activities from various methods. E.g: TPR
    • Theory of language Theory of learning
      • Aims to develop speaking quickly
      • Mastering of wide variety of vocabulary in L2
      • Presentation and performance
      • Unconscious learning
      • Learner’s mental state is considered important
      • Georgi Lozanov
      Structuralism Cognitivism
      • Hypnotism
      Lexis centered/memorization
      • Smoking and drinking are prohibited during the course
      • Sucess depend on learner’s mental state
      • Pseudo-passive state
      • They are given a new name and personal history within the target culture
      • Situation-designer
      • Maintains a formal attitude during the lesson
      • Encourages participation
      • Text and tapes
      • Music as a meas of relaxation
      • Comfortable furniture
      • Oral review section
      • Presentation of new content after a few minutes of silence and relaxation
      • Music session
    • Richards, J ; Rodgers, T. “Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching” 5th ed.1989. Melbourne. Cambridge University Press Stern, H. “Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching” 2nd ed. 1984. London Oxford University Press
    • THANKS! [email_address]