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Managers do manythings they areresponsible for makingsure the business ororganizationaccomplishes what it issupposed toaccomplish.
A business manager’s job can bedefined as the art and science thatcombines ideas methods andresources to produce and market aproduct profitably.A managers job can also be describedas the allocation direction and controlof limited resources to achieve thegoals of the firm efficiently.
1- PlanningIt is the basic function of management. It deals withchalking out a future course of action & deciding in advancethe most appropriate course of actions for achievement ofpre-determined goals. According to KOONTZ, “Planning isdeciding in advance - what to do, when to do & how to do. Itbridges the gap from where we are & where we want to be”.A plan is a future course of actions. It is an exercise inproblem solving & decision making. Planning isdetermination of courses of action to achieve desired goals.Thus, planning is a systematic thinking about ways & meansfor accomplishment of pre-determined goals. Planning isnecessary to ensure proper utilization of human & non-human resources.
2- OrganizingIt is the process of bringing together physical,financial and human resources and developingproductive relationship amongst them forachievement of organizational goals. Accordingto Henry Fayol, “To organize a business is toprovide it with everything useful or itsfunctioning i.e. raw material, tools, capital andpersonnel’s”.
3-StaffingIt is the function of manning the organizationstructure and keeping it manned. Staffing hasassumed greater importance in the recent years dueto advancement of technology, increase in size ofbusiness, complexity of human behavior etc. Themain purpose of staffing is to put right man on rightjob. According to Kootz & O’Donell, “Managerialfunction of staffing involves manning theorganization structure through proper and effectiveselection, appraisal & development of personnel tofill the roles designed un the structure”.
4- DirectingIt is that part of managerial function which actuatesthe organizational methods to work efficiently forachievement of organizational purposes. Directionis that inert-personnel aspect of managementwhich deals directly with influencing, guiding,supervising, motivating sub-ordinate for theachievement of organizational goals. Direction hasfollowing elements: Supervision Motivation Leadership Communication
5- ControllingIt implies measurement of accomplishment against thestandards and correction of deviation if any to ensureachievement of organizational goals. The purpose ofcontrolling is to ensure that everything occurs inconformities with the standards. According to TheoHaimann, “Controlling is the process of checking whetheror not proper progress is being made towards theobjectives and goals and acting if necessary, to correct anydeviation”. Therefore controlling has following steps: Establishment of standard performance. Measurement of actual performance. Comparison of actual performance with the standards and finding out deviation if any. Corrective action.
Most businesses change as the age of thepeople and the business changes, goals,activities, and involvement change. These canbe understood by considering the three stages ifthe life cycle:1- entry or establishment.2- growth and survival.3- exit or decline.
1- entry or establishment.the entry stage has been characterized by acareer progression ladder knowntraditionally as the agricultural careerladder. It consists of the following steps:begin as a hired worker or as family labor,gradually acquire a basic set of machineryor livestock, rent land, establish partownership of farmed land, and become theprinciple operator of the farm.
1- become a partner of an alreadyestablished farm.2- obtain finance to purchase capitaland land.3- become a laborer / manager in anexisting business and gradually investin the business.4- marry into a farming family.(the key to entry are managementskills, land tenure, and capital)
2- growth & survival stagethis stage involves strategies toimprove efficiency and expand theresource base of the business.
3- exithere the farmer plans and reachesretirement, resources and managerialresponsibilities are transferred to thenext generation or other parties.A cooperation may or may not gothrough this stage.
Business plan• It is essential to have a realistic, working business plan when youre starting up a business.• A business plan is a written document that describes a business, its objectives, its strategies, the market it is in and its financial forecasts. It has many functions, from securing external funding to measuring success within your business.
There are many benefits to creating and managing a realistic business plan.• help you spot potential pitfalls before they happen• structure the financial side of your business• efficiently focus your efforts on developing your business• work as a measure of your success
1- executive summary.2- general description of the farm ( type of business,products & services, markets, location, history of the farm,owners)3- strategic plan ( vision, mission, goals, objectives, externaland internal analysis, business strategy, strategy evaluationand control).3- marketing plan( target market, pricing strategy, productquality, market risk)4- production & operation management( productionprocess, raw material, production and operationmanagement).5- financial management6- organization and staffing plan
The manager• What are the characteristics of a good manager?• What are the functions of a manger?