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Security Precautions for the Hospitality Industry


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  • 1. Security Precautions for the Hospitality Industry
    Joel Bartimmo
    Lawrence Nagazina
    Juan Manuel Ospina
  • 2.
  • 3. Topics
    • Overview of Terrorism
    • 4. Impact that Terrorism Has On the Hospitality and Tourism Industry
    • 5. Common Vulnerabilities
    • 6. Potential Indicators of Terrorist Activity
    • 7. Protective Measures
    • 8. Legal Framework and Government
    • 9. Post 9/11 Tourism Related Attacks
    • 10. Management Plan
  • Overview of Terrorism
    • According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), terrorism is defined as “…the use of force or violence against persons or property in violation of the criminal laws of the United States for purposes of intimidation, coercion, or ransom.”
    • 11. Individuals, groups, or states with primary objective to:
    • 12. Create fear among the public.
    • 13. Try to convince citizens that their government is powerless to prevent terrorism.
    • 14. Get immediate publicity for their causes.
    • 15. Inflict casualties (fatalities, injuries, illnesses).
    • 16. Damage or destroy facilities and disrupt facility operations.
    • 17. Theft of materials, equipment, products, and information.
  • Overview of Terrorism (cont.)
    Acts of Terrorism Include:
    • Threats of Terrorism
    • 18. Assassinations
    • 19. Kidnappings/Hostage Taking
    • 20. Hijackings
    • 21. Arson
    • 22. Bomb Scares and Bombings
    • 23. Automatic Weapons or Grenade Attacks
    • 24. Cyber Attacks (Computer-Based)
    • 25. The use of Chemical, Biological, Nuclear and Radiological Weapons
  • Why Hospitality & Tourism?
    • Size and volume
    • 26. Easy to infiltrate
    • 27. Provide guaranteed international attention
    • 28. Impact can be massive
    • 29. Cost effective means of getting point across
    • 30. Represent ideologies and values terrorist are against
    • 31. Symbol of western consumption and corruption
    • 32. Toppling country’s economic viability, will effect the political structure
    • 33. Way of protecting their values, religious beliefs and societal norms
  • Common Vulnerabilities
    Facilities associated within the Commercial Facilities Sector of the DHS operate on the principle of open public access, meaning general public can move freely throughout these facilities without the deterrent of highly visible security barriers. The majority of the facilities in this sector are privately owned and operated, with minimal interaction with the Federal Government and other regulatory entities. The Commercial Facilities Sector consists of the following eight subsectors:
  • 34. Common Vulnerabilities (cont.)
    There is no universal list of vulnerabilities that applies to all assets of a particular type within an infrastructure category. “Common” vulnerabilities should be interpreted as having a high likelihood of occurrence, but not as applying to each and every individual facility or asset. Some common vulnerabilities for hotels include:
    Guest drop-off and pick-up points that may not provide a safe distance in order to mitigate blasts from explosives in vehicles
    Parking garages that may have open access to the public with little to no screening
    A limited security force
  • 35. Potential Indicators
    Potential indicators of surveillance may include:
    • Persons discovered with a suspicious collection of casino/hotel maps, photos, or diagrams with facilities highlighted
    • 36. Personnel being questioned off-site about practices pertaining to the facility or the facility’s supporting infrastructure (e.g., electricity and natural gas lines)
    • 37. Theft of employee or contractor ID cards or uniforms
    • 38. A noted pattern or series of false alarms requiring a response by law enforcement or emergency services
    Observable anomalies or incidents that may be indicators of an imminent attack include:
    • Persons in crowded areas wearing unusually bulky clothing
    • 39. Unattended vehicles illegally parked near entrance, exit areas, or places where large numbers of patrons gather
    • 40. Unattended packages (e.g., backpacks, briefcases, boxes or luggage)
    • 41. Indications of unusual substances near air intakes
  • Crisis Recognition
    Stage 2: The Acute Crisis Stage – Whether the crisis appears suddenly or a symptom morphs into an urgent matter, immediate action is required. How long it continues is a matter of how much additional damage occurs. The key, of course, is to minimize the amount of that subsequent damage, however that's not always possible. Due to the nature of the situation, funds will need to be allocated directly to the problem area. By diverting funds from one area to another, a natural imbalance is created and only those companies that plan and set up strategic fund accounts will be able to survive.
    Stage 1: The Prodromal Stage – This is the "early warning" period. Sometimes referred to as the "pre-crisis" stage, it's when you get first glimpse of the potential of the crisis-to-come. The time frame in which the problem is dealt as well as how it is handled that will influence the repercussions faced. The reason why the Prodromal Stage is so important is that it's much easier to manage a crisis before it begins.
    Stage 3: The Chronic Stage – The "post-mortem" phase or make it or break it point. The attacks have subsided, clean-up has begun, and now it's time to investigate what happened and what did not, and make a decisive management decision based on the outcome. This could be the beginning of recovery for some firms or a death knell for others (Darling &Kash, 1998). Companies and managers can get accustomed to quick fixes, thus never truly addressing the crisis. They perceive issues as tolerable and have an attitude of we’ll deal with it as it comes instead of preparing for the future.
    Stage 4: The Crisis Resolution Stage – Problems that pertain to crises are often misinterpreted, causing management to think that everything has been resolved. In reality the problem or crisis has been neglected. Companies today are becoming more pro-active when sorting out symptoms, but the problem still remains in the area of implementation. If you don’t know how to resolve a crisis, it won’t matter how good your company is at detecting the symptoms.
  • 42. Strategic Implementation
  • 43. Preventative Measures
    • Strategic Forecasting -Based on prediction. Managers today have several forecasting techniques at their disposal (i.e. qualitative, opinion quantification, extrapolation, simulation and cause and effect methods). It assumes the organization can adapt to major or broad changes.
    • 44. Contingency Planning -Alternative moves taken when events don’t play out as expected. Safeguard companies and better prepare them to handle crisis situations.
    • 45. Issue Analysis -Alert the decision makers of trends that are occurring in the external environment. This information should be used to maneuver companies into more advantageous waters.
    • 46. Scenario Analysis -Involves thinking about favorable and unfavorable situations that might arise, and the company’s alternatives for preventing, facilitating or thwarting the processes that caused the situations.
  • Protective Measures
    • Planning and Preparedness
    • 47. Designate a security director
    • 48. Conduct threat analyses, vulnerability assessments, consequence analysis, risk assessments and security audits on a regular basis
    • 49. Cyber Security
    • 50. Develop and implement a security plan for computer hardware and software
    • 51. Personnel
    • 52. Conduct background checks on employees
    • 53. Incorporate security awareness into employee training programs
  • Protective Measures (cont.)
    • Access Control
    • 54. Photo identification badges for employees
    • 55. Barriers
    • 56. Install building perimeter barriers (sculptures, flower pots, fences, bollards, shallow ditches, high curbs)
    • 57. Monitoring & Surveillance
    • 58. Install and monitor CCTV systems
    • 59. Communications
    • 60. Install systems that provide communication with all people at the facility, and can work in concert with law enforcement and emergency responders
    • 61. Incident Response
    • 62. Identify alternate rallying points for coordinated evacuations
  • DHS Protective Programs
    • Site Assistance Visits (SAVs)
    • 63. Surveillance Detection Training for Critical Infrastructure and Key Resource Operators and Security Staff
    • 64. Protective Security Advisor (PSA) Program
    • 65. Homeland Security Information Network (HSIN)
    • 66. “Protect Your Workplace” Campaign
    • 67. Protective Measures Course
    • 68. Surveillance Detection Course
    • 69. Active Shooter Awareness Materials
    • 70. Bomb-making Materials Awareness Program (BMAP)
    • 71. Protective Measures Guide for U.S. Sports Leagues
    • 72. Mass Evacuation Planning Guide and Template
  • Terrorist Attacks in Hotels
    • Most militant attacks happen in American chains in foreign countries, mostly Middle East and Asia
    • 73. They target western businessman, officials and well-off locals
    • 74. Luxury hotels are target of choice
    • 75. Small bombs are preferred weapons as they “will cause more carnage if placed in the lobby of a hotel”
  • Jakarta Bombings – July 17, 2009
    • 2 bombs exploded, in J.W. Marriott and Ritz Carlton Hotels
    • 76. 12 deaths and more than 50 injuries
    • 77. Preventing measures while and prior attack:
    • 78. Intense checks for guests and staff
    • 79. Luggage inspected with explosive detector
    • 80. Sniffer dogs
    • 81. Metal detector
    • 82. Police found undetonated explosives in a guest room
    • 83. Suspects: JemaahIslamiah network
  • 84. Counter-terrorism Policies
    • Governments should act in hand with security forces, intelligence groups and the police
    • 85. Aim: uncover terrorist plots, the trafficking of weapons, money and personnel in and out of countries
    • 86. Objectives: protection of the middle to lower economy, anti-corruption policies, a healthy investment environment for foreign countries, and create resilience toward terrorist attacks
  • The U.S. National Counter-Terrorism Center (NCTC)
    • “Nation’s primary organization for analyzing and integrating all foreign and domestic terrorism related intelligence possessed or acquired by the United States”
    • 87. Mission: to leverage all elements of national power to ensure terrorists do not strike the US again
    • 88. Alliances: NCTC partners with Intelligence and law enforcement communities, allies overseas and the American society. As well as with entities, agencies or organizations to underline causes that turn young boys into terrorists
  • U.S. Government Requirements
    • Sound policies
    • 89. Concerted U.S. government effort
    • 90. International cooperation – Form partnerships with non-state actors, multilateral organizations, and foreign governments to enhance counterterrorism objectives and national security of theU.S.
  • Choosing a Lawsuit Location
    • To decide on a location both the plaintiffs and the defendant must be or have any relation to the lawsuit location
    • 91. Interests in deciding a forum: an adequate access to evidence and relevant sites, to witnesses, adequate enforcement of judgments, and the practicalities and expenses associated with the litigation
    • 92. Case #1: Egypt inadequate forum because of place of attack and strong anti-Americans and anti-Israelis sentiments in the country, and plaintiffs would be unable to testify under Egyptian legal system
    • 93. Case #2: Similar situation with case #1. However, defendants moved for dismissal on the ground of forum claiming information critical to its defense could be obtained only in Egypt and Egyptian court would better apply Egyptian tort law
    • 94. Difference in cases: In case #2, court concluded Egypt had a greater interest in the litigation than New York because it is committed to protecting its tourist industry, Egyptian court would be more familiar with Egyptian law and because of the relation of 2 pending cases in Egypt
  • The Fourth Amendment
    • A person paying for a guest room has legitimate expectation of privacy in his/her hotel room
    • 95. Case #1: Police identified suspected drug dealer entering a motel room. They entered the room with managers consent, found cocaine and arrested criminals. Defendants appealed claiming Fourth Amendment right, refused as they were past c/o time and there was no legitimate expectation of privacy after c/o
    • 96. Case #2: Sheriff conducted random warrant check of the motel via guest registry list and found guest with an arrest warrant
    • 97. “the random check of the motel registry revealing his whereabouts constitutes a violation of his privacy rights under article I, section 7 of the Washington State Constitution”
    • 98. Nevertheless, “unwanted random checks discourage the business of lawful patrons at motels, interfere with business operations, and compromise the duty and responsibility of a hotel operator to protect its guests against privacy violations”
  • Management Plan
    • Security measures to implement in hotels:
    • 99. Change perspective
    • 100. Create a culture shift
    • 101. Utilize credible resources to reduce liability
    • 102. Go beyond the basics (background checks, screening measures)
    • 103. Plan ahead
  • Prevention Methods in At-Risk Areas
    • Enhance security – do background checks before checking in guests
    • 104. Employ further checks to employees
    • 105. Have 1 or 2 securities constantly walking around the hotel
    • 106. Reinforce security protocols through additional training
    • 107. Place X-ray scanners
    • 108. Inspect each room at least once a day
    • 109. Pressure governments of trouble zones for further security
    • 110. React within the society, participate in prevention programs, protection and vigilance
    • 111. Invest in security!!
  • Conclusion
    Be Proactive, Not Reactive!