Participatory GIS in Empowering Rural Communities:          Case study of a South Indian Village   Nagesh Kolagani, Palani...
Simplifying Open Source GIS for Use by VillagersIn Map Preparation & Map Utilization; For Local Control & Low CostYouth ga...
Outline1. Need for Participatory GIS   Case Study of a South Indian Village2. Software Development   Design and Implementa...
Outline1. Need for Participatory GIS   Case Study of a South Indian Village      Problems      Solutions2. Software Develo...
Location Map of Project Villages in South India                  Parigi villages (22) (phase II)                  E. Palag...
3-d Visualization
Catchment Estimation in Hilly Areas
Up to 1970’s: Community-based Rain Water Harvesting  FOREST               STREAMS                                         ...
Up to 1970’s: Sustainable Water UsageNumber of wells: 76● Open wells
During 1980’s and 1990’s: Excessive Water UsageNumber of wells: 198● Open wells● Tube wells
Since 2002: Water CrisisNumber of wells: 59● Open wells● Tube wells
Falling Ground Water Levels over DecadesGround level 0                   1970s     1980s & 1990s   post-2001            -2...
Problem: Water Crisis since 2002Water-intensive commercial crops           up to 2001  Rain-fed subsistence crops         ...
Solution: Water Harvesting Structures
Blackboard Sketch of Peoples Suggestions
Field Visits to Proposed Locations
A Sample Plan for Proposed StructuresNo location information for facilitating monitoring & visualization
GPS/GIS Map of Peoples SuggestionsFor monitoring & visualization; Enforces participation & field visits
Social Benefit Analysis of Proposed Structures      For facilitating discussions among people
A Structure Well-planned and Constructed by Neighbours
Started working as a Successful Silt Trap within 1 Month
Extending these Lessons to Other Villages
Outline1. Need for Participatory GIS   Case Study of a South Indian Village      Problem: Water Crisis      Solution: PGIS...
Outline1. Need for Participatory GIS   Case Study of a South Indian Village2. Software Development   Design and Implementa...
Google Map of Reservoir and FarmsDoes not know their descriptive data; Does not show other needed features (e.g. wells)
Village Youth gathering such Data using GPS & Questionnaires
Collecting Spatial Data as GPS WaypointsFor point layers:(such as wells)‫‏‬   As GPS way pointsFor line and polygon layers...
A Sample Questionnaire for Farms Layer
School Children Producing GIS Maps from Such Data
villageQGIS: Auto-connecting GPS points
Entering Questionnaire Data into Appropriate GIS layer
Comparison of villageQGIS and QGISUsing villageQGIS software: (e.g. 3 clicks)For each feature of each layer (of type line ...
A Sample Village Map
Querying Attributes of Mapped Features                  ...
Easy Interface to View Complex Data in Simple WaysThis will help villagers understand their problems & solutions and parti...
Default Views: Farms Classified based on Social Data
Multi-Criteria Classification e.g. Technical & Social Data
Interface for Local Experts to Build Custom Views
Outline1. Need for Participatory GIS   Case Study of a South Indian Village2. Software Development   Design and Implementa...
Experiments on Ease-of-Use in Map Preparation● Participants:6 sub-groups of 3 village students each       ● 3 sub-groups u...
Experiments on Ease-of-Use in Map Preparation                   3                                               QGIS      ...
Experiments on Ease-of-Use in Map Preparation                   3        Desired                            spatial       ...
Outline1. Need for Participatory GIS   Case Study of a South Indian Village2. Software Development   Design and Implementa...
Iterative Development of GISFor monitoring & visualization; Enforces participation & field visits
Providing Indian Language InterfaceSimplified User Interface (UI):                     For facilitating participation1. Te...
Porting to Handhelds for On-Site Map Preparation and AnalysisMap preparation as One-step On-site process:                 ...
Mobile SMS based Basic Map Updating and QueryingMap updating:               Map querying:1. Send updated attribute   1. Se...
Browser based Data Entry, Viewing & AdministrationOpen Source UMN Map Server & Adempiere ERP server         Drill down to ...
Integrated DSS for Planning and Implementation
Outline1. Need for Participatory GIS   Case Study of a South Indian Village2. GIS Software Development:   Development   Fi...
Extending through Training Workshops               Days 2, 3 & 4: Village based GPS mappingDay 1: GIS theory classes      ...
Thank You!Credits: To the local youth & To the farmers
Appendix
TutorialInput data:GPS and Questionnaire data about:   - a stream and a reservoir   - farms under that reservoir, etcTask:...
ArcView 3.1 GIS-based Scripts for Automated Map GenerationRun a script and specify location of imported GPS & Questionnair...
Using ArcView 3.1 ScriptsEnter attribute data from each questionnaire table into an Excel file(e.g. c:av_datagps_pdawell_p...
Preparing Maps using ArcView 3.1 GIS without Scripts1. For each point theme:    Based on its questionnaire table file:    ...
Proposed Tablet User Interface
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nagesh_P_GIS

  1. 1. Participatory GIS in Empowering Rural Communities: Case study of a South Indian Village Nagesh Kolagani, Palaniappan Ramu and Koshy Varghese IIT Madras
  2. 2. Simplifying Open Source GIS for Use by VillagersIn Map Preparation & Map Utilization; For Local Control & Low CostYouth gather GPS & attribute data View complex data in simple waysSchool children produce GIS maps Villagers participate better
  3. 3. Outline1. Need for Participatory GIS Case Study of a South Indian Village2. Software Development Design and Implementation Field Trials Iterative Development3. Conclusions
  4. 4. Outline1. Need for Participatory GIS Case Study of a South Indian Village Problems Solutions2. Software Development Design and Implementation Field Trials Iterative Development3. Conclusions
  5. 5. Location Map of Project Villages in South India Parigi villages (22) (phase II) E. Palaguttapalli village (phase I) IIT Madras
  6. 6. 3-d Visualization
  7. 7. Catchment Estimation in Hilly Areas
  8. 8. Up to 1970’s: Community-based Rain Water Harvesting FOREST STREAMS WELLS FARMS RESERVOIRS
  9. 9. Up to 1970’s: Sustainable Water UsageNumber of wells: 76● Open wells
  10. 10. During 1980’s and 1990’s: Excessive Water UsageNumber of wells: 198● Open wells● Tube wells
  11. 11. Since 2002: Water CrisisNumber of wells: 59● Open wells● Tube wells
  12. 12. Falling Ground Water Levels over DecadesGround level 0 1970s 1980s & 1990s post-2001 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 -120 -140 -160 -180Hard rock -200
  13. 13. Problem: Water Crisis since 2002Water-intensive commercial crops up to 2001 Rain-fed subsistence crops since 2002
  14. 14. Solution: Water Harvesting Structures
  15. 15. Blackboard Sketch of Peoples Suggestions
  16. 16. Field Visits to Proposed Locations
  17. 17. A Sample Plan for Proposed StructuresNo location information for facilitating monitoring & visualization
  18. 18. GPS/GIS Map of Peoples SuggestionsFor monitoring & visualization; Enforces participation & field visits
  19. 19. Social Benefit Analysis of Proposed Structures For facilitating discussions among people
  20. 20. A Structure Well-planned and Constructed by Neighbours
  21. 21. Started working as a Successful Silt Trap within 1 Month
  22. 22. Extending these Lessons to Other Villages
  23. 23. Outline1. Need for Participatory GIS Case Study of a South Indian Village Problem: Water Crisis Solution: PGIS-based Water Harvesting2. Software Development Design and Implementation Field Trials Iterative Development3. Conclusions
  24. 24. Outline1. Need for Participatory GIS Case Study of a South Indian Village2. Software Development Design and Implementation Field Trials Iterative Development3. Conclusions
  25. 25. Google Map of Reservoir and FarmsDoes not know their descriptive data; Does not show other needed features (e.g. wells)
  26. 26. Village Youth gathering such Data using GPS & Questionnaires
  27. 27. Collecting Spatial Data as GPS WaypointsFor point layers:(such as wells)‫‏‬ As GPS way pointsFor line and polygon layers:(such as streams and farms)‫‏‬ As GPS tracks: Can not deviate from boundary Difficult for streams, farms, etc due to presence of thorny bushes, etc. OK for roads, etc. As GPS routes: User interface is difficult for use by a villager As GPS way points: To be joined later using GIS
  28. 28. A Sample Questionnaire for Farms Layer
  29. 29. School Children Producing GIS Maps from Such Data
  30. 30. villageQGIS: Auto-connecting GPS points
  31. 31. Entering Questionnaire Data into Appropriate GIS layer
  32. 32. Comparison of villageQGIS and QGISUsing villageQGIS software: (e.g. 3 clicks)For each feature of each layer (of type line or polygon): Constructing lines and polygons from GPS point data: - specify way points to join as a string e.g. “209-213, 218, 221-224” - visually verify correctness of boundary points & joined line/polygon Converting lines and polygons into GIS features: - select layer name from a list box e.g. “streams” or “farms” - fill resulting attribute form with data from questionnaireUsing QGIS software: (e.g. at least 17 clicks)For each feature of each layer (of type line or polygon): - Select desired feature and select option to add new a feature - For each GPS point: (e.g. 209,210,211,212,213,218,221,222,224”) - locate it on the screen, using find button or appropriate label option - draw a line connecting it to previous point - fill resulting attribute form with data from questionnaire - Save
  33. 33. A Sample Village Map
  34. 34. Querying Attributes of Mapped Features ...
  35. 35. Easy Interface to View Complex Data in Simple WaysThis will help villagers understand their problems & solutions and participate better
  36. 36. Default Views: Farms Classified based on Social Data
  37. 37. Multi-Criteria Classification e.g. Technical & Social Data
  38. 38. Interface for Local Experts to Build Custom Views
  39. 39. Outline1. Need for Participatory GIS Case Study of a South Indian Village2. Software Development Design and Implementation Field Trials Iterative Development3. Conclusions
  40. 40. Experiments on Ease-of-Use in Map Preparation● Participants:6 sub-groups of 3 village students each ● 3 sub-groups use Quantum GIS software (Control group) ● 3 sub-groups use villageQGIS software (Test group)● Task:Produce GIS maps from given GPS and Questionnaire data sets
  41. 41. Experiments on Ease-of-Use in Map Preparation 3 QGIS 2.5 villageQGIS 2Ratio of times taken (with QGIS and 1.5 with villageQGIS) 1 0.5 0 1 2 3 Experiment no.
  42. 42. Experiments on Ease-of-Use in Map Preparation 3 Desired spatial QGIS 2.5 accuracy villageQGIS 2Ratio of times taken (with QGIS and 1.5 with villageQGIS) 1 0.5 0 1 2 3 Experiment no.
  43. 43. Outline1. Need for Participatory GIS Case Study of a South Indian Village2. Software Development Design and Implementation Field Trials Iterative Development3. Conclusions
  44. 44. Iterative Development of GISFor monitoring & visualization; Enforces participation & field visits
  45. 45. Providing Indian Language InterfaceSimplified User Interface (UI): For facilitating participation1. Text display in Indian languages:- static text (such as tooltip and button labels)-dynamic text (such as user entered data )2. Attribute data as audio output3. Help/instructions using audio and/or video4. ‘Text-free UI’ (as far as possible) E.g. User entered text in Indian languages
  46. 46. Porting to Handhelds for On-Site Map Preparation and AnalysisMap preparation as One-step On-site process: On-site Map analysis:1. Following map preparation steps can be combined: 1. On-site map analysis for a. Spatial data gathering using GPS better participatory planning, b. Attribute data gathering using PDA/questionnaires implementation and b. Preparating maps using ‘Gram Panchyat QGIS’ monitoring becomes possible.2. This facilitates transparent verification and correction. If internet connection is3. Created/updated map features can immediately be available, this can be an onlinereplicated to a central map server (e.g. open source UMN MapServer) process through web client;through internet, facilitating social and official monitoring. else an offline process using last available data.Examples:1. Samsung Galaxy Tablet 2. Akaash Tablet Rs. 28,000 /- Rs. 2,500 /- 0.565 kg 0.350 kg 10.1 touch screen 7 screen 9 hours battery 2-3 hrs battery Android 3.1 OS 3. Samsung N100 Netbook Rs. 12,290 /- 1.03 kg 10.1 screen 5+ hours battery Ubuntu OS
  47. 47. Mobile SMS based Basic Map Updating and QueryingMap updating: Map querying:1. Send updated attribute 1. Send query as structured SMS to central server and receive basic attribute datadata as structured SMS to (e.g. Basic measurement and expenditure details of such-and-such work) (‘pull’)central server (e.g 2. Send SMS alerts about map updates, etc to registered users such as concernedcompleted works) beneficiaries, officers, etc (‘push’)
  48. 48. Browser based Data Entry, Viewing & AdministrationOpen Source UMN Map Server & Adempiere ERP server Drill down to farms/sub-polts & households Upload & download (push & pull) using mobile SMS,tablets (open source Android OS) & netbooks (Ubuntu OS) Drill down up to individual vouchers
  49. 49. Integrated DSS for Planning and Implementation
  50. 50. Outline1. Need for Participatory GIS Case Study of a South Indian Village2. GIS Software Development: Development Field Trials3. Conclusions
  51. 51. Extending through Training Workshops Days 2, 3 & 4: Village based GPS mappingDay 1: GIS theory classes Day 5: Evaluation & review 51
  52. 52. Thank You!Credits: To the local youth & To the farmers
  53. 53. Appendix
  54. 54. TutorialInput data:GPS and Questionnaire data about: - a stream and a reservoir - farms under that reservoir, etcTask:Create a GIS map: - first using villageQGIS - then using QGIS (or Map Windows GIS)Compare the time taken and map accuracy
  55. 55. ArcView 3.1 GIS-based Scripts for Automated Map GenerationRun a script and specify location of imported GPS & Questionnaire files
  56. 56. Using ArcView 3.1 ScriptsEnter attribute data from each questionnaire table into an Excel file(e.g. c:av_datagps_pdawell_points.txt) and convert it into a tab-delimited text file 1. Run ARCVIEW3.1SETUP.EXE from CD Default directory for installation is C:ESRI. 2. Copy av_data directory from CD to C: 3. Run c:av_dataprojectproj1.apr 4. Run ‘0_main’ script and specify location of imported GPS and PDA files: ‘proj1.apr’ window‘Scripts’ icon‘0_main’ script‘Run’ button‘Select Mapsource File’=c:av_datagps_pdamapsource.txt’Select Attribute Files’=bw_points.txt;fm_polygons.txt;sm_lines.txt
  57. 57. Preparing Maps using ArcView 3.1 GIS without Scripts1. For each point theme: Based on its questionnaire table file: 1. Create a new ArcView table 2. For each record/feature: Copy Name/Long/Lat of appropriate Waypoint from mapsource.txt into the new ArcView table 3. Create a new Event Theme using the new ArcView table 4. Join new table with questionnaire table (after converting it into dBASE format)2. For each line (or polygon) theme: Based on its questionnaire table file: 1. Create a new Theme with shape = line (or polygon) 2. For each record/feature:  recursive 1. Create a new ArcView table 2. Copy Long/Lat of appropriate Trackpoints from mapsource.txt into the new ArcView table 3. Create Event Theme using the new ArcView Table 4. Create new feature by joining these points  recursive 3. Join Attribute table of new theme with questionnaire table file (after converting it into dBASE format)
  58. 58. Proposed Tablet User Interface
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