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Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
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Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
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Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
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Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
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Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
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Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
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Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
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Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
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Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
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Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
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Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
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Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
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Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
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Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
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Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
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Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
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Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
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Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
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Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
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Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
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Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
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Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
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Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
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Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
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Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
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Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
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Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
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Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
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Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
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Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
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Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
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Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
Automotive engineering powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body
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  • 1. Automotive Engineering
  • 2. Note from the Publisher This book has been compiled using extracts from the following books within the range of Automotive Engineering books in the Elsevier collection: Blundell, M and Harty, D. (2004) The Multibody Systems Approach to Vehicle Dynamics, 9780750651127 Brown, J., Robertson, A.J. and Serpento, S. (2001) Motor Vehicle Structures, 9780750651349 Davies, G. (2003) Materials for Automobile Bodies, 9780750656924 Fenton, J. and Hodkinson, R. (2001) Lightweight Electric/ Hybrid Vehicle Design, 9780750650922 Garrett, T.K., Newton, K. and Steels, W. (2000) The Motor Vehicle 13e, 9780750644495 Happian-Smith, J (2001) Introduction to Modern Vehicle Design, 9780750661294 Heisler, H. (1998) Vehicle and Engine Technology, 9780340691861 Martyr, A.J. and Plint, M.A. (2007) Engine Testing 3e, 9780750684392 Pacejka, H. (2005) Tyre and Vehicle Dynamics, 9780750669184 Reimpell, J., Stoll, H. and Betzler, J. (2001) Automotive Chassis: Engineering Principles, 9780750650540 Ribbens, W. (2003) Understanding Automotive Electron- ics, 9780750675994 Vlacic, L. and Parent, M. (2001) Intelligent Vehicle Tech- nologies, 9780750650939 The extracts have been taken directly from the above source books, with some small editorial changes. These changes have entailed the re-numbering of Sections and Figures. In view of the breadth of content and style of the source books, there is some overlap and repetition of material between chapters and significant differences in style, but these features have been left in order to retain the flavour and readability of the individual chapters. Units of measure Units are provided in either SI or IP units. A conversion table for these units is provided at the front of the book. Upgrade to an Electronic Version An electronic version of Automotive Engineering, the Automotive Engineering e-Mega Reference, 9781856175784 A fully searchable Mega Reference eBook, providing all the essential material needed by Automotive Engineers on a day-to-day basis. Fundamentals, key techniques, engineering best practice and rules-of-thumb at one quick click of a button Over 1,500 pages of reference material, including over 1,000 pages not included in the print edition Go to http://www.elsevierdirect.com/9781856175777 and click on Ebook Available
  • 3. Automotive Engineering Powertrain, Chassis System and Vehicle Body Edited by David A. Crolla Amsterdam $ Boston $ Heidelberg $ London $ New York $ Oxford Paris $ San Diego $ San Francisco $ Sydney $ Tokyo Butterworth-Heinemann is an imprint of Elsevier
  • 4. Butterworth-Heinemann is an imprint of Elsevier Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, UK 30 Corporate Drive, Suite 400, Burlington, MA 01803, USA First edition 2009 Copyright Ó 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publisher Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier’s Science Technology Rights Department in Oxford, UK: phone (+44) (0) 1865 843830; fax (+44) (0) 1865 853333; email: permissions@elsevier.com. Alternatively visit the Science and Technology website at www.elsevierdirect.com/rights for further information Notice No responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas contained in the material herein. Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, in particular, independent verification of diagnoses and drug dosages should be made British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN: 978-1-85617-577-7 For information on all Butterworth-Heinemann publications visit our web site at elsevierdirect.com Printed and bound in the United States of America 09 10 11 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
  • 5. Contents Section 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENGINE DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 Piston-engines cycles of operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Section 2 ENGINE TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.1 Measurement of torque, power, speed and fuel consumption; acceptance and type tests, accuracy of the measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Section 3 ENGINE EMISSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 3.1 Emissions control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Section 4 DIGITAL ENGINE CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 4.1 Digital engine control systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Section 5 TRANSMISSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 5.1 Transmissions and driveline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Section 6 ELECTRIC VEHICLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 6.1 Battery/fuel-cell EV design packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Section 7 HYBRID VEHICLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 7.1 Hybrid vehicle design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Section 8 SUSPENSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .