Ergonomics In The Textile Industry 1223539106896608 9
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Ergonomics In The Textile Industry 1223539106896608 9 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Ergonomics in the Textile and Apparel Industries
  • 2. Introduction
    • Challenges Facing the Industry Today:
      • Competition From Overseas Companies With Access to Inexpensive Labor
      • Shortage of Available US Textile Workers
      • Annual Turnover Rates Ranging From 30% to Over 100%
  • 3. Introduction
    • Challenges Facing the Industry Today
      • Learning Curves of Several Months to Attain Needed Skill Levels for Many Jobs
      • Difficulty in Applying Modern Automation Technologies to Fabrics Processing
  • 4. Ergonomics
    • Improving Ergonomic Conditions Can Improve Productivity and Safety - Enhance Competitiveness
    • Reduce Worker Compensation Costs
    • Provide More Reliable Workforce
    • May Include Allocating High Risk Jobs to Machines Where Possible (They Will Be Going Overseas Anyway)
  • 5. Injuries and Illnesses Among Textile and Apparel Workers
    • 70% of Sewing Machine Operators Using Foot Controls Report Back Pain
    • 35% Report Persistent Low Back Pain
    • 25% Have Suffered a Compensable Cumulative Trauma Disorder (CTD)
      • 81% of CTDs Were to the Wrist
      • 14% of CTDs to the Elbow
      • 5% of CTDs to the Shoulder
  • 6. Injuries and Illnesses Among Textile and Apparel Workers
    • 49% of Workers Experience Pain in the Neck
    • Absenteeism Increases as Working Conditions Worsen
    • Loss of Workers Due to Injuries or Turnover is Associated With Working Conditions
  • 7. Tasks Associated With Injuries and Illnesses
    • Hand Sewing and Trimming are Stressful to All Upper Limbs
    • Stitching Tasks are Associated With Pain in the Shoulders, Wrists, and Hands
    • Ironing by Hand is Associated With Elbow Pain
    • Garment Assembly Tasks are Associated With CTDs of the Hands and Wrists
    • Foot Operated Sewing is Associated With Pain in the Back
  • 8. Static Postures and CTDs
    • Analysis Reveals That 40% of Operators at Sewing Machines Stoop Forward > 20 o Throughout the Machine Cycle
    • 60% Tilt Their Heads Forward > 20 o Throughout the Machine Cycle - Why?
      • Visual Demands of the Work
      • Geometry of the Work Station
      • Inadequate Seating
  • 9. Postural Stress and Lighting
    • Precise Stitching Tasks are Visually Demanding
    • Thread and Fabric Often Offer Little or No Visual Contrast
    • 36% of Operators Feel Lighting is Inadequate
    • Surveys Found Light Levels at Less Than 60% of Recommended Levels
    • Operators Lean Forward to See Their Work
  • 10. Seating
    • Straight Backed Wooden or Metal Chairs are Typical in the Industry
    • Chairs Often Lack Cushioning
    • Chairs Often Lack Adjustable Back Rests
    • Chairs Often Lack Height Adjustability
    • Improved Seating is Readily Available
  • 11. PsychoSocial Considerations
    • Psychomotor Demands are High (Speed, Accuracy, Coordination)
    • Positive Attitudes Toward Work are Inversely Related to Increased Monotony and Fatigue
    • Positive Attitudes Toward Work are Directly Related to Job Satisfaction
  • 12. Work Organization
    • As Many as 100% of Piecework Operators in High Manipulation Jobs Have Symptoms of CTDs
    • Workers in Piecework are 4 Times as Likely to Develop Severe Disabilities as Hourly Workers
    • Workers in Piecework are 9 Times as Likely to Develop Arthritic and Osteoarticular Disorders as Hourly Workers
    • As Duration of Employment in Piecework Increases, So Does Severe Disabilities
  • 13. Duration of Exposure
    • Machine Operators Experience Cumulative Damage to the Neck and Shoulders Over Time
    • Risk for Persistent Neck and Shoulder Pain Increases With Years of Employment as a Machine Operator
    • Work for More Than Eight Years as Machine Operator Increases Risks For Neck and Shoulder Pain
  • 14. Solutions - A Comprehensive Ergonomics Program
    • Training for Supervisors and Managers
    • Awareness Training for Employees
    • Job Analyses and Implementation of Controls
    • Worker Involvement and Participation
    • Medical Management
    • Recommended by National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
  • 15. WorkStation Redesign - Sewing Machines
    • 30” Fixed TableTop Height
    • Point of Operation Between 4-7” Above TableTop
    • Sewing Machine Tilted 11 o Toward Operator
    • For Jobs of Longer Duration Sewing - Bench Mounted Arm Rests
    • Adjustable Chair
    • Adjustable Foot Rest With Movable Machine Control
  • 16. Work Enhancements
    • Foam Padded Edges to Sharp Table Edges
    • Provide Cloth Upholstered Adjustable Chairs
    • Angle Packing Boxes to Workers With Tilt Equipment
    • Provide Anti-Fatigue Matting for Standing Workers
    • Improved Lighting
    • Require Rest Periods
    • Job Rotations
  • 17. Automated Materials Handling
    • Eliminates Heavy Lifting by Operators or “Bundle Boys”
    • Uses Pre-Programmed Hanging Conveyor
    • Moves Only One or a Few Work Pieces Per Hanger
    • Computer Controlled - Movement Tracked by Bar-Coded Hangers and Series of Scanners
    • Delivers Work to Queue Near Operator
  • 18. Automated Materials Handling
    • Strong on Pre-Programmed Use But Weak on Flexibility (Short Term Changes, etc.)
    • Technology is Rapidly Improving
    • Future Models Will Direct More Work to the Queues of the Most Productive Workers and Less to Slower Workers or Beginners
  • 19. Modular Manufacturing Concept
    • Conventional Textile/Apparel Industries Use the Progressive Bundle System - Each Operator is Assigned to a Single Operation
    • In Modular Mfg. a Complete Garment is Produced in a Modular Cell
    • Cells May Have 10 Operators and 20 Machines
    • Operators Are Not Assigned to a Single Operation But Move Between Workstations
  • 20. Modular Manufacturing Concept
    • Teams of Operators are Responsible for Work Planning and Management, Product Quality, etc.
    • Employees are Empowered - Boosts Morale
    • A Variety of Motions are Used by Each Operator - Reduces Risk for CTDs and Relieves Static Postures
    • Can Be Reconfigured Rapidly, Providing Great Flexibility
  • 21. Modular Manufacturing
    • Significantly Reduced Absenteeism
    • Necessitates Better Ergonomic Designs of Workstations to Accommodate Different Operators
    • Many Operations Converted to Standing Workstations Instead of Seated Workstations
    • Employees Paid on a Group Incentive System
  • 22. Additional Resources
    • American Textile Manufacturers Institute (ATMI) Washington DC
    • ATMI Quest for Best in Safety and Health Program
    • Must Have Comprehensive Program to Join
    • Must be Willing to Interact With Other Members Companies
    • Nearly Half of ATMI Member Companies Participate
  • 23. Additional Resources
    • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
    • 800-35-NIOSH
    • NIOSH Publication: Elements of Ergonomics Programs , January 1997
  • 24. Questions and Answers
  • 25. This program developed by David Mahone, CNA Insurance Companies, Chicago IL Corporate Underwriting Center