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  • 1. 1State Level Science Exhibitions 2008-09 Guidelines Department of Education in Science and Mathematics National Council of Educational Research and Training Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016 STATE LEVEL SCIENCE EXHIBITIONSSTATE LEVEL SCIENCE EXHIBITIONSSTATE LEVEL SCIENCE EXHIBITIONSSTATE LEVEL SCIENCE EXHIBITIONSSTATE LEVEL SCIENCE EXHIBITIONS FOR CHILDREN 2008– 2009FOR CHILDREN 2008– 2009FOR CHILDREN 2008– 2009FOR CHILDREN 2008– 2009FOR CHILDREN 2008– 2009 ANDANDANDANDAND 3636363636THTHTHTHTH JAWAHARLAL NEHRUJAWAHARLAL NEHRUJAWAHARLAL NEHRUJAWAHARLAL NEHRUJAWAHARLAL NEHRU NATIONAL SCIENCE EXHIBITIONNATIONAL SCIENCE EXHIBITIONNATIONAL SCIENCE EXHIBITIONNATIONAL SCIENCE EXHIBITIONNATIONAL SCIENCE EXHIBITION FOR CHILDREN - 2009FOR CHILDREN - 2009FOR CHILDREN - 2009FOR CHILDREN - 2009FOR CHILDREN - 2009 GUIDELINES FORGUIDELINES FORGUIDELINES FORGUIDELINES FORGUIDELINES FOR PREPARATION OF EXHIBITS AND MODELS AND ORGANIZING THE STATE LEVEL SCIENCE EXHIBITIONS FOR CHILDREN 2008-09 STATE LEVEL SCIENCE EXHIBITIONS PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IN SCIENCEAND MATHEMATICS NATIONALCOUNCILOF EDUCATIONALRESEARCHAND TRAINING SRI AUROBINDO MARG, NEW DELHI 110 016 Telefax: 011-26561742 Website:www.ncert.nic.in
  • 2. 2State Level Science Exhibitions 2008-09 Guidelines Department of Education in Science and Mathematics National Council of Educational Research and Training Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016 STATE LEVEL SCIENCE EXHIBITIONSSTATE LEVEL SCIENCE EXHIBITIONSSTATE LEVEL SCIENCE EXHIBITIONSSTATE LEVEL SCIENCE EXHIBITIONSSTATE LEVEL SCIENCE EXHIBITIONS FORFORFORFORFOR CHILDREN 2008– 2009CHILDREN 2008– 2009CHILDREN 2008– 2009CHILDREN 2008– 2009CHILDREN 2008– 2009 AND 3636363636THTHTHTHTH JAWAHARLAL NEHRU NATIONAL SCIENCE EXHIBITIONJAWAHARLAL NEHRU NATIONAL SCIENCE EXHIBITIONJAWAHARLAL NEHRU NATIONAL SCIENCE EXHIBITIONJAWAHARLAL NEHRU NATIONAL SCIENCE EXHIBITIONJAWAHARLAL NEHRU NATIONAL SCIENCE EXHIBITION FOR CHIDLREN - 2009FOR CHIDLREN - 2009FOR CHIDLREN - 2009FOR CHIDLREN - 2009FOR CHIDLREN - 2009 CONTENTS Page No. 1. Guidelines for the Preparation of Exhibits and Models 3 2. Guidelines for organizing one day Seminar on Popularisation of Science 17 3. Guidelines for organizing the State Level Science Exhibitions for Children 2008-09 Objectives 18 Call for Entries 19 Screening, Evaluation and Monitoring of Entries 21 Criteria for Evaluation of Exhibits 23 Expenditure Norms 25 4. Proformas I. Maintenance of Accounts 27 II. Information about Participating Schools 28 III. Information about Nature and Number of Exhibits Displayed 29 IV. Panel of Judges- Sub Theme Wise 30 V. Information about the Exhibit/Model 31 5. Exemplary Write up of an Exhibit “Vermiwash for Sustainable Development” displayed in the 33rd Jawaharlal Nehru National Science Exhibition for Children 2006, Pune 33 6. Contact Address 37
  • 3. 3State Level Science Exhibitions 2008-09 Guidelines Department of Education in Science and Mathematics National Council of Educational Research and Training Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016 GUIDELINES FOR THE PREPARATION OF EXHIBITS AND MODELS INTRODUCTION All children are naturally motivated to learn and arecapableoflearning.Theyarenaturallearners andknowledgeistheoutcomeoftheirownactivity. Children learn through interactions with the environment around, nature, things and people - boththroughactionsandthroughlanguages.They construct knowledge by connecting new ideas totheirexistingideasbasedonmaterials/activities presented to them. The structuring and restructuring of ideas are essential features as childrenprogressinlearning.Theyactivelyengage with the world around them, exploring, responding, inventing, working things out, and interpreting. In order to stimulate creativity and inventiveness in science, National Curriculum Framework 2005 emphasizes on activities, experiments, technological modules, etc. NCF- 2005 also encourages implementation of co- curricular activities (even if these are not part of theexamination)throughamassiveexpansionof non-formal channels such as organization of scienceexhibitionatthenationallevelforschool students,withfeedereventsatschool/block/tehsil /district/region/statelevels.Theobjectivemust betosearchandnurtureinventive/creativetalent amongstudents.NCF-2005furtherenvisagesthe up-gradation of current activity in this regard by manyordersofmagnitude,throughco-ordination of state and central agencies, NGOs, teacher associationsetc.,financialsupportandmobilization ofexpertsinthecountry.Suchamovementshould graduallyspreadtoeverycornerofIndiaandeven acrossSouthAsia,unleashingawaveofcreativity andscientifictemperamongyoungstudentsand theirteachers. Theteachingofsciencemustenablechildren to examine and analyze their everyday experiences.Everyresourcemustbeexploredto enable children to express themselves and to handle objects. Concerns and issues pertaining to the environment should be given importance onallpossibleoccasionsthroughawiderangeof activities involving outdoor project work. Some oftheinformationandunderstandingflowingfrom such activities and projects could contribute to theelaborationofapubliclyaccessibledatabase, whichwouldinturnbecomeavaluableeducational resource.Well-plannedstudentprojectsmaylead toknowledgegeneration.Suchprojectsmaythen get a place for display in various science exhibitions. TheNationalCouncilofEducationalResearch and Training, New Delhi organizes Jawaharlal Nehru National Science Exhibition for Children (JNNSEC) every year for popularizing science amongstchildren,teachersandpublicingeneral. This exhibition is a culmination of various exhibitionsorganizedinthepreviousyearbythe States, UTs and other organizations at district, zonal, regional and finally at the state level. Selected schools from all States and Union Territories,theKendriyaVidyalayaSangathan,the Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti, Department of AtomicEnergyCentralSchools,CBSEaffiliated public(independent)SchoolsandDemonstration
  • 4. 4State Level Science Exhibitions 2008-09 Guidelines Department of Education in Science and Mathematics National Council of Educational Research and Training Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016 Multipurpose Schools of Regional Institutes of Education participate in this national level exhibition.Likepastseveralyearssuchexhibitions are to be organized from district to state level during the year 2008-09 too. These would form the first phase of preparation for the 36th JawaharlalNehruScienceExhibitionforChildren to be organized in November 2009. The main theme for the State Level Science ExhibitionsforChildren(SLSEC)2008-09would be ‘Science & Technology for Global Sustainability’. Over the last few hundred years, the human impactontheglobalenvironmenthasincreased. Various activities of human are affecting nature andthreateningenvironmentalsystem.Children need to understand linkages between local and globalissues.Theyalsoneedtoexplorehowthey cancontributetothecauseofglobalsustainability. Globalsustainabilityaddressesthechallengesof reconfiguringhumanactivitiessothatoursociety, environment and economy are able to meet our present needs while also preserving biodiversity andnaturalecosystemindefinitely.Inthedaysto come,globalsustainabilitywillbethedrivingforce changingthewayweworkandlive. Themainobjectivesare: ♦ toprovideaforumforchildrentopursue theirnaturalcuriosityandinventivenessto quenchtheirthirstforcreativity; ♦ to make children feel that science is all aroundusandwecangainknowledgeas well as solve many problems also by relating the learning process to the physicalandsocialenvironment; ♦ to lay emphasis on the development of science and technology as a major instrument for achieving goals of self- reliance and socio-economic and socio- ecological development; ♦ toencouragechildrentovisualizefuture of the nation and help them become sensitiveandresponsiblecitizens; ♦ to develop awareness about the importanceofscienceandtechnologyin effectively managing the resources of planet earth leading to national development vis-à-vis the global sustainability; ♦ to develop critical thinking about global issues to maintain healthy and sustainablecommunities; ♦ to emphasize the role of science and technology for producing good quality andenvironmentalfriendlymaterialsfor the use of society; ♦ to enable managing agriculture, food, water, health, energy and natural resources keeping in view the global sustainability; ♦ to appreciate the role of science and technologyinopeningnewavenuesinthe area of agriculture, fertilizer, food processing, biotechnology, water harvesting, water management, energy resources, disaster management etc.; ♦ to apply mathematical modelling to visualizeandsolveproblemspertainingto day to day life. It is envisaged that teachers and students would try to analyze all aspects of human endeavor with a view to identify where and how the new researches and development in science and technology can bring effective management of the resources of the earth for global sustainability. The organization of science exhibitions would also provide opportunities to all participating students, teachers and visitors to get acquainted with different kinds of equipment, devices and
  • 5. 5State Level Science Exhibitions 2008-09 Guidelines Department of Education in Science and Mathematics National Council of Educational Research and Training Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016 techniques. This exercise would enable the students and teachers to generate scientific ideas for addressing various problems of the society. In order to facilitate the preparation of exhibits and models for display and the organization of State Level Science Exhibitions during 2008-09, six sub-themes have been identified. These are: 1. AgricultureandFoodSecurity 2. HarnessingEnergy 3. Conservation of Natural Resources 4. CombatingClimateChanges 5. DisasterManagement 6. MathematicalModelling Theimportanceofeachsub-themeinthecontext of the main theme and a number of ideas for development of exhibits are given as follows. However, these ideas are only suggestive. Participants are free to develop exhibits based on other related ideas of their choice. THEME: Science & Technology forGlobalSustainability 1.Agriculture and Food Security Agriculture,directlyorindirectlyhasbeenthemain source of livelihood for the majority of Indian population. Despite industrialization, Indian economy is heavily dependent on agricultural progress. About700millionpeopleofourcountry depend on agriculture and related activities for their livelihood. Agriculture contributes nearly 30%tothenationalincomeandaccountsfornearly 20% of the total value of India’s export. It is the main source of food grains and it provides raw materialstomanyindustries.Initiativesstartedfor anoverallagriculturaldevelopmentinthecountry include improvement in science and technology capabilities,productionandsupplyofagricultural inputs like seeds and fertilizers, public policy measureslikelandreformsetc.Oneofthegreatest assets in rural areas could be an intelligent and effective use of emerging technologies such as biotechnology,microbiology,geneticengineering etc. Itisimportanttoemphasizeonallfronts,like research,education,trainingandextensiontofully realizetheagriculturalpotentialofthecountryby integratingagriculturewithotheralliedareaslike horticulture, cash crops and energy crops production,livestockproduction,fisheries,agro- forestry, etc. Inviewoftheabove,theagriculturalactivities that lead to food production are no longer a subject of classical farming only. The modern agriculturecannotsustainitselfwithoutthesupport ofresearchworkdonebyscientistsinthefieldof plantbreeding;improvedvarietyofseeds;genetic engineering; biotechnology etc.; industries (chemical fertilizers and pesticides, tractors, farmingmachinesandmaterials);transports(road, rail,waterways);energy(electricity,diesel,petrol); management (storage, processing, preserving, qualitycontrolandmaintenance)andmanyother sectors. The main aim of this sub-theme are to make ourschoolchildrenandteachersrealizetheneed of studying and removing the constraints responsible for knowledge gap on rural professionsandbuildingcapacityinfoodsecurity. Food resources development is one of the most important areas of human activity. Applicationoftheknowledgeofvariousscientific principles has played an important role in providing new technologies for improving food production. For the first time in human history, the world is able to grow sufficient food for its 6.6 billion inhabitants. But it is also a reality that one in 8 people still do not have enough food to eatandalmostonein3peopleismalnourished.It is ironical that quite a large amount of food is grossly wasted by some sections of our global
  • 6. 6State Level Science Exhibitions 2008-09 Guidelines Department of Education in Science and Mathematics National Council of Educational Research and Training Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016 society. This problem needs immediate and appropriateattention.About18,000childrenofthe worlddiedailyasadirectorindirectconsequence ofinadequatenutrition.Peoplecanreachtheirfull intellectualandphysicalpotentialtocontributeto socialandeconomicdevelopmentofacountryonly when they are well fed and well nourished. Therefore,itisimportanttoachievefoodsecurity forall.Foodsecurityexistswhenallpeopleatall timeshavephysical,socialandeconomicaccess to safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needsforaproductiveandhealthylife. With the help of science and technology, we canenhanceouragriculturalknowledgetoachieve food security to reduce hunger, malnutrition and povertyandfacilitateequitable,environmentally, socially and economically sustainable development. The exhibits/models in this sub-theme may pertain to: • studiesofimpactclimaticchangesonthe agriculture; • managingchangesincropyieldwhichmay resultduetoclimaticchangesarisingfrom globalwarming; • eco-forestry to protect and restore ecosystemforsustainableforestpractices/ preserving and enhancing forest biodiversity; • preservationandconservationofsoiland judicioususeofwater; • conventional biotechnological practices e.g. breeding techniques, tissue culture etc.; application of biotechnology, microbiology, genetic engineering and genomicstoagricultureforimprovedand highyieldingvarieties; • organicfarming/organicfertilizersversus chemical fertilizers; biodynamic liquid manure/greenmanure; • planning and managing energy crops (Salix, Poplar, Jatropha, Jojoba etc.); • useofbiotechnologyforeconomicallyand ecologicallysustainablebiofuels; • environment friendly measures of pest control; • applicationofbiotechnologyandgenetic engineeringinimprovinganimal breeds and production of animal products that are used as food; • growing fodders in hydroponics environment; • innovative/inexpensive/improved i n d i g e n o u s t e c h n o l o g i e s methods of irrigation /harvesting/storage/ processing/preservation/conservation/ transportofagriculturalproductsandfood materials; • innovative/improved practices for reducingcostofcultivation; • growingplants/fruitswithoutseeds; • identificationofmedicinalplantsandtheir applications; • effect of electric and magnetic fields on thegrowthofplants; • sugarlevelsinplantsapatdifferenttimes and dates; • geneticvariationsamongplants; • factorsaffectingseedgermination; • bestconditionsformushroomproduction andgrowthofferns; • tropismsinplantsandgrowthhormones etc.; • indigenous designs of farm machinery, agriculture implements and practices;
  • 7. 7State Level Science Exhibitions 2008-09 Guidelines Department of Education in Science and Mathematics National Council of Educational Research and Training Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016 • strategiestoeliminatefoodinsecurity; • cultivating biofuel as windbreaks at agriculturalland/restorationofdegraded areas/habitatofnaturalbiodiversity; • maintaining balance of cultivation between food and biofuel; • issues related to animal health and food security; • food production and demand of quality food/foodstability; • advantages and disadvantages of geneticallymodified(GM)food; • foodsecurityandfoodqualitymeasures; • nutritioneducation/healthyeatinghabits andfoodutilizationbybody; • consequencesofinadequateconsumption of nutritious food, deficiency diseases resulting from inadequate /unbalanced diet of food insecure people; • peppering/ mulching for weed management and root development in soil; etc. 2. Harnessing Energy After food and water, energy is our most basic need.Allactivitiesrequireenergytoperform.The social and economic development of a country and living standard of its inhabitants depends on the availability and proper utilization of energy resourcesofthatcountry.Energyisanimportant concernthatdifferentiatestheglobalrichand the global poor and the social and economic inequalitiesthatresult. All conventional sources of energy are exhaustible.Fossilfuelssupplynearly75%ofthe world’senergy.Butfossilfuelsarebeingdepleted hundredthousandtimesfasterthantheyarebeing formed. At the current rate of consumption, known reserves of petroleum will be exhausted inabout35years,naturalgasesinabout52years andcoalsometimewithin200years. Inthecontextofglobalsustainability,thegreat concern about energy is not about diminishing supplies. It is rather that our current models of harnessing energy are unsustainable because of environmental,economic,geographicalandequity issues.Ourcurrentenergymodelsrelyon(i)fossil fuelsthatcausesmogandacidrainandarelinked withglobalwarming;(ii)traditionalbiomassfuels that provide about 10% of world energy, but contributetodeforestation,desertificationandair pollution; (iii) hydroelectric power stations that provide about 5.5% of energy consumed but linked with environmental refugee; (iv) Nuclear powerstationsthatprovidejustover6%ofworld energy but generates radioactive wastes that require long term safe disposal. Redesigning system of harnessing energy could not only minimizeenvironmentalimpactsbutalsoprovide tremendous economic opportunities to fast developingcountrylikeIndia. One of the important and obvious way of redesigning system for harnessing energy is to develop and shift to clean and non-conventional energyresourceswhichareeithernonexhaustible or renewable such as solar energy, wind energy, geo-thermal energy, energy from biomass and biogas, ocean thermal energy, wave energy and energy from other emerging technologies. Our country is making efforts in this direction. The technology to exploit such non-conventional sources of energy must have to be efficient and capableofbeingoperational. Anotherimportant point is to make efficient use of existing energy resources and their more equitable distribution. As per the data available, two third of energy is currentlywastedworldwide. Ourcountryisendowedwithenormoussolar energy. It can generate upto 20 MWsolar power per square kilometer land area that can be used forvarietyofapplications.Thegrosswindpower
  • 8. 8State Level Science Exhibitions 2008-09 Guidelines Department of Education in Science and Mathematics National Council of Educational Research and Training Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016 is estimated to be about 45,000 MW, but presently our country is producing only 13,000 MWwindpower.Thedemandofelectricenergy is growing at a rate faster than any other form of energy. Its requirement in India is primarily met through a network of thermal (about 70%) hydroelectric (about 14%) and nuclear (about 4%) power station and remaining from other resources.Nuclearelectricityholdsmuchgreater potentialofpowersupplyinfuture. In this scenario, we need to design, develop and innovate new and economically viable technologies to harness energy from alternative resources. The exhibits/models in this sub-theme may pertain to: • various ways of harnessing geothermal energy such as energy from hot springs/ geothermal desalinization/geothermal heating–controllingheatingandcooling of a building using underground heat by vertical/horizontal loops/geothermal power/electricity generated from naturally occurring geological heat sources; • models of green building/environment buildingwhichharvestenergy,waterand materials; • green roof technologies/roof mounted solar technologies such as solar water heater,solarlightingsystem; • heating system of a building by solar heater; • models/innovative designs of domestic hydroelectricgenerator; • devices to make breeze funneling towards your home; • methods of heat retention in materials/ heatcontrolinthedesignofhouse; • solarcooker/solardistiller/solardryerfor food processing/solar heated houses; • solarthermalelectricity/communitysolar project; • innovativedesignsandinstallationofsolar tower; • hybridsolarlighting(solarilluminationby routing daylight into the interior part of thebuildingbyreflectingafocusedbeam of sunlight on the end of optical fiber cables); • studies of variation in sunshine intensity atagivenplacefordevelopingindigenous method of its usage, etc; • projectsformeasuringavailabilityofsolar/ windenergyinagivenarea; • model of wind turbine for domestic use withvertical/horizontalaxis; • designsoflownoisewindfarm; • windmill/watermillforgrindinggrains/ drawing water from the well and to generateelectricity; • water sensitive urban design to mitigate watershortage; • watercrisismanagement; • useoftidalwaves/oceancurrents/salinity gradientforgeneratingelectricity; • wave energy from oscillating water column/ ocean thermal energy conversion / tidal barrage generator, etc; • energy from biomass such as seaweeds, human/animal wastes, keeping in view environmentalconcerns; • improvised technologies for effective usageofbiofuels; • innovative designs of bio gas/bio mass plant;
  • 9. 9State Level Science Exhibitions 2008-09 Guidelines Department of Education in Science and Mathematics National Council of Educational Research and Training Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016 • biodieselfromplantoils(obtainedfrom canola, palm oil, micro algae oil, waste vegetableoil,etc); • low cost liquid fuel (bio-ethanol, bio- methanol from cellulose biomass by improvingconversiontechniques); • bioenergyforpovertyalleviation; • impactofbio-energyonfoodsecurity; • models/designs of fuel-efficient automobiles/machines; • innovativedesignsofinternalcombustion engine which can function on various biofuels; • production of electrical energy from mechanicalenergy/nuclearresources; • mechanism of extraction, storage and processingoffossilfuels;etc. 3. Conservation of Natural Resources Earthnaturalresourcesarefinite. Itmeansthatif we use them continuously we will eventually exhaustthem. Conservationofnaturalresources preserves the ecological diversity and our life supporting systems – water, air and soil. India has abundant natural resources and its economydependslargelyontheproperutilization of these resources. Deforestation, overgrazing, indiscriminateminingandfaultytillagepractices have led to severe soil erosion. Over irrigation and over harvesting of agricultural lands have resultedintosalinityofsoil,waterloggingandland degradation. Overuse of tube-wells has substantiallylowereddowntheundergroundwater table.Industrialeffluents,forestfireandunplanned growthhaveledtoseverewaterandairpollution. Over 2.4 billion people lack access to proper sanitation facilities and 1.1 billion people lack accesstosafedrinkingwater.Shortageofnatural resourcescripplespublichealthsystemalso. Thesealarmingchangesinournaturalworld aremattersofconcern. OverhalfofIndia’snatural forests are gone, one third of its wetland are drainedout,70%ofitssurfacesarepolluted,8% of land is occupied by garbage, 40% of its mangroves are wiped out and with continued hunting and trades of wild animals and commerciallyvaluableplants,thousandsofplants andanimalspeciesareheadingtowardsextinction. AccordingtoamajorreportofWorldWideFund for Nature (WWF), the world’s largest independent conservation body of wildlife population, no one can escape the impact of biodiversity loss because reduced biodiversity translates into greater vulnerability to natural disastersandgreatereffectsfromglobalwarming. Wehavenotonlydegradedournaturalresources but are also now using them beyond an environmentallysustainablelevel:25%morethan the planet can replace. The air, the water, the man, the animals, the plants and planktons, the soil and bacteria are all invisiblyinter-linkedinalifesustainingsystemof the earth. The objective of this theme is to enable children to realize the importance of conserving and enhancing our natural resources for global sustainability. The exhibits/models in this sub-theme may pertain to: • plans for proper management of natural resourcesandmonitoringofthechanges in wildlife population caused by human encroachment; • restorationofdegradedareasandhabitat ofnaturalbiodiversity; • ecologicalstudiesofplantsandanimals; • efficientmethods ofharvestingandusing plankton;
  • 10. 10State Level Science Exhibitions 2008-09 Guidelines Department of Education in Science and Mathematics National Council of Educational Research and Training Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016 • Schemes/designs to help reduce production cost and conservation of variousrawmaterials; • sustainablelandusepractices/ecologically sustainablefarmingmethods; • recyclingofwater,materials,solidwastes; • devices /methods that control air/water/ landpollution; • impact of pollution on living and non- living; • preservation/conservation/ management of soil / water; • factorsnecessaryforsoil formation; • analysis of soil samples for their components; • stopping depletion of essential micronutrientsinthesoil; • forest conservation/management; • river water sharing and its efficient and equitableuse; • desilting and renovation of ponds, tanks andreservoirs; • technologies to manage water shortages and water surpluses; • self regulating water harvesting system/ rainwater harvesting and storage in a manner that evaporation and transportationlossesareminimized; • wastewatertreatmentandrecycling; • participatorywatersheddevelopmentand management; • communitygardening; • development of low cost technology for producing potable water; • designofasensitivewatermeter; • seawaterusealongthecoastal areas for raisingmangroveandsalicomiaplantation togetherwithagriculture; • stabilization of sand dunes by growing thornybushes; • model of canals to minimize losses by water seepage; • innovative/improvised designs for reducing waste in extraction and processingofminerals; • innovative methods of exploration and preservingmineralsandcrudeoiletc; • costeffectiveheatingandcoolingsystem ofbuildings,etc.; • modelstocontrollossofnaturalresources due to disasters; etc. 4. Combating Climate Changes Climate changes are emerging as perhaps the greatestenvironmentalchallengeof21st Century. Climatechangesrefertoanysignificantchangein measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitationorwind)lastingfordecadesoreven longer.Thesechangesmayresultfromchangein earth’s orbit around the Sun, change in intensity of sun-rays, change in ocean circulation, and variousactivitiesofhuman(likeburningoffossil fuels,deforestation,urbanization,desertification etc.) that change the atmospheric composition. Theclimateisalwayschanging,butscientistsare concernedthatglobalwarmingcausedbyhuman activities has overtaken natural fluctuations in climate and that this is having serious consequences for people and the planet. It can upset the delicate ecological balance of the earth anditslivingorganism. Data of tree growth, tropical air temperature and carbon dioxide emission collected over 16 yearsindicatethatawarmingclimatemaycause thetropicalforesttogiveoffmorecarbondioxide
  • 11. 11State Level Science Exhibitions 2008-09 Guidelines Department of Education in Science and Mathematics National Council of Educational Research and Training Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016 than they take up. Climate changes affect all - plants,peopleandanimals.Humanhealthcanbe affecteddirectlyorindirectlybyclimatechanges, in part, through extreme period of heat and cold, storms, smog episode and climate sensitive diseasessuchasmalaria,yellowfeveranddengue. Foodinsecurity,waterstress,exposuretoclimate disasterduetoerraticweatherpatterns,declining health, collapsing ecosystem are various consequencesofclimatechanges. Floods, droughts, famines and conflicts resulting from climate changes also threaten the developmentalgoal.Ourlivesandlivelihoodare destroyed when we are deprived of land, food, water, forest, natural resources, and energy. About700millionpeopleofIndiadepending directly on climate sensitive sectors such as agriculture,forestandfisheriesforthelivelihood willfacethebruntoftheconsequencesofclimate changes. Goodthingisthatchangeshavebeengradual so far. Therefore, the effects of climate changes have the potential to be manageable. In this scenario,weneedsustainabilityliteracyforall,to betterunderstandtheworldinwhichweliveand face the future with hope and confidence. The objective of this sub theme is to foster awarenessabouttheeffectofclimatechangeson globalsustainabilityandtohelpchildrenbecome environmentally and socially responsible global citizensbytakingmeasuresforcombatingclimate changes.Childrenshouldbecomeawarethatwe candomanythingsinourdailylifethatcanhave effectonourimmediatesurroundingsandonplaces asfarasAntarctica,becauseclimaticchangesissues arenotconfinedtotheboundaryofonecountry. The exhibits/models in this sub-theme may pertain to : • design anddevelopmentofanautomatic weather-recordingdevices; • useofecofriendlyandinnovativedevices thatmayhelpincombatingclimatechange; • humansusceptibility toinfectiousdiseases throughmalnutritionduetoclimatestress andwaystocontrollingthem; • adoption of living being to increased temperaturefortheirsurvival; • estimating one’s carbon footprint on the globe; • conditionsofdrought,flood,famine,and effective measures required to combat them; • reducing green house effect; • effectofclimatechangeoncarboncycle and water cycle; • activities that add/reduce CO2 in atmosphere; • estimatation of school’s green house gases emissionandwaystomitigatetheir impactsonschoolclimate; • reclamation of riverbanks and flood affected areas for the rehabilitation of landlesspeople; • controllingwater-borneinfectionrelated diseases; • managing/recyclingsolidwastes; • innovative designs/methods of waste waterrecycling/reclamation; • ground water recharging using water of impairedquality; • innovative technologies/designs of sanitation/hygienerelated issues; • desertificationofsoilanditsremedy; • desalination technology to remove salt andothermineralsfromwater; • measure to control air pollution/water pollution;
  • 12. 12State Level Science Exhibitions 2008-09 Guidelines Department of Education in Science and Mathematics National Council of Educational Research and Training Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016 • innovativedesigns/technologiesofgreen power/environmentalfriendlyelectricity generation; • usingrecycledwaterinindustries/home; • drippercloggingremovalinwastewater irrigation; • innovative methods to reduce ozone pollution; • variousmethodsofair/waterpurification/ effectofpollutiononlivingbeings;etc. 5. Disaster Management Disastershavesignificantrelationshipwithnatural resource management, poverty alleviation and sustainable development. Various disasters can cause political instability and conflicts, demographicimbalance,unemployment,damage to infrastructure, lowering the quality of life and obviouslylossofdifferentbio-organisms. Thereischaosanddisorganizationintheevent of any natural or manmade disaster. People are affected and disturbed. The issue of disaster can bemanagedbymakingallpossiblepreparedness tofacilitatepropercoordinationamongdifferent componentsofthesystemsuchascommunication, medical, fire fighting agencies, police, social workers, media and other agencies. The whole system altogether must know what to do and at what time to do. Preparedness, coordination amongst different agencies, planning and clear vision of action to be taken are the keys to any disastermanagement. Geoclimatic conditions of India make the country prone to certain natural disasters like drought,flood,cycloneandearthquake,cyclone, drought and flood; 60% of Indian landmass is pronetoearthquakeofvaryingdegree,8%oftotal area to cyclone,68% to drought, 0.5 million hectaretoflood.75%oftheannualrainfalloccurs during monsoon months.As a result, almost all theriverscarryheavydischargewiththemduring thosemonths. Inthecurrent decade,thedamage in terms of human sufferings, loss of life, agriculturalproductivityandeconomiclosseshave been astronomical. Forecasting, warning and communicating using advanced technologies; settingup,maintainingreviewingandupgrading ofpreparednessmeasures;sensitization;training; exercise and behavioral change programmes of thecommunity;effectiveenforcementofbuilding safety codes and information management are some of the issues related with disaster management. Inourcountry,theissueisalsoabouttheneed for effective resource mobilization and speedy action. What should we do when faced with a flood,cyclone,quakeoranyotherdisasterwhen weareathome,schooloratwork?Trainedlocal teams should be equipped to deal swiftly and efficiently in any emergency. Science and technology can be of great help as in most disastersresponsetimeiscrucialtopreventfurther loss. Theobjectiveofthissub-themeistoincrease awareness of the dangers posed by disasters and to help children find measures for effective mitigationofthosedangers. The exhibits/models in this sub-theme may pertain to : • better information and public address systemsintheeventofdisastertoprevent chaosandconfusion; • access of clean and safe drinking water intheeventofdisaster; • extendinglogisticsupportsduringvarious calamities, undertaking rescue and rehabilitationmeasuresduringcalamities; • improvised/improved devices for effectivecommunicationbetweenvarious
  • 13. 13State Level Science Exhibitions 2008-09 Guidelines Department of Education in Science and Mathematics National Council of Educational Research and Training Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016 emergency services – medical, police, militaryandotheradministrativebodies/ committees; • various measures/models for planning, preparedness and co-ordination of differentagenciesintheeventofdisaster/ community level preparedness for the various man-made disasters such as gas leakage,nuclearaccidents,battery/bomb explosionsetc.; • useofgeo-stationarysatellitesinproviding informationpertainingtometeorological processes; • technologies in forecasting and warning of cyclones, floods and storms; • innovativedesigns offloodalarm/flood forecasting and cyclone warning networks; • informationmanagementfromshipsand oceans buoys – use of radars in cyclone detection; • various flood preventing measures such as construction of raised platforms, embankment of rivers, maintenance of mangrovesandothermitigationmeasures; • to ensure the effectiveness of drainage system for clearance of sewage before monsoonseason/tocarryoffstormwater; • emergencymechanismsandmobilization centers/improvementincommunication andtransportationsystem; • information management and early warningsystemsforflashfloods; • studies of the impact of global warming onhumanhealth(spreadofepidemiclike dengue,malaria,yellowfeveretc.); • reconstruction of riverbanks in flood affected areas for agricultural and rehabilitationoflandlesspeople; • studiesofthechangesinanimalbehavior as a warning to natural disaster; • designs and development of automatic weather recording devices; etc. 6. Mathematical Modelling Mathematical modelling is the process of transformation of a physical situation into mathematical analogies with appropriate conditions. Physicalsituationsneedsomephysical insightintotheproblem. Thenitissolvedbyusing variousmathematicaltoolslikepercentage,area, surface area, volume, time and work, profit and loss,differentialequations,probability,statistics, linear, non-linear programming etc. It is a multi- step process involving identifying the problem, constructing or selecting appropriate models, figuringoutwhatdataneedtobecollected,deciding number of variables and predictors to be chosen for greater accuracy, testing validity of models, calculatingsolutionandimplementingthemodels. Itmaybeaniterativeprocesswherewestartfrom a crude model and gradually refine it until it is suitableforsolvingtheproblemandenablesusto gain insight and understanding of the original situation. It is an art, as there can be a variety of distinct approaches to the modelling, as well as science,forbeingtentativeinnature. Inmathematicalmodelling,wedonotperform anypracticalactivity,wedonotinteractwiththe situationdirectly,e.g.wedonottakeanysample of blood from the body to know the physiology, and still our mathematical tools reveal the actual situations. Therapiddevelopmentofhighspeed computers with the increasing desire for the answers of everyday life problems have led to enhanceddemandsofmodellinginalmostevery area. The objective of this sub-theme is to help childrentoanalyzehowmathematicalmodelling canbeusedtoinvestigateobjects,events,systems and processes. It can be visualized by the followingdiagram:
  • 14. 14State Level Science Exhibitions 2008-09 Guidelines Department of Education in Science and Mathematics National Council of Educational Research and Training Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016 Belowisgivenanexampleofmathematical modelling for estimating the profitability of a company which sells its products at a fixed price: Step 1: Understanding the problem: Weneed toknowtheprofitabilityofacompanyundersome restrictions/constraints. Step 2: Mathematical Description: Here we suppose the costs are of two types: fixed and variable. The fixed costs are independent of number of units produced (e.g. rent and rates), whilethevariablecostsincreasewiththenumber produced (e.g. materials). Initiallyweassumethatthevariablecostsare directly proportional to the number of units produced – this should simplify our model. The companyhasacertainamountofmoneycoming in form of sales and wants to ensure that it is maximum. For convenience, we assume that all unitsproducedaresoldimmediately. Step 3: Solving the mathematical problems: Let x be the number of units produced and sold, C be the total cost of product (in Rs.) I be the income from sales (in Rs.) and P be the profit(in Rs.). Our assumptions above states that C consists of two parts: fixed cost a (in Rs.) and variable cost b (in Rs.) Then C = a + bx (1) Also income I depends on selling prices s (Rs. perunit). Thus I = sx (2) TheprofitPisthenthedifferencebetweenincome and costs, i.e., P = I – C = sx – (a+bx) = (s – b) x – a (3) We now have a mathematical model of the relationship (1) – (3) between the variables x, C, I,P,a,bands. Thesevariablesmaybeclassified as: Physical situation Mathematical model Introducephysical laws andsymbols Mathematical solution Solve Solutionof original problem Interpret Accept the models Compare with observation Ingoodagreement Not in goodagreem ent Modify hypotheses Morepreciselytheabovediagrammaybefurther explainedasfollows: Formulate real model Assumption formodel Formulate mathematical model Solve mathematical problem Usemodel toexplain, predict, decide, design etc. Validate model Interpret solution
  • 15. 15State Level Science Exhibitions 2008-09 Guidelines Department of Education in Science and Mathematics National Council of Educational Research and Training Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016 Independent (or decision ) x Dependent C, I and P Parameters a, b and s. Step 4: Solving the mathematical problem: The manufacturer, knowing x, a, b and s can determine P. He/She can also see that to break- even (i.e. no loss and no profit), he/she must produce a s–b units (how?) Themodelisbestsummarizedasfollows: Costs O break-even point Number of units produced fixedcost total cost income Fig. : Graph between number of unit produced and costs Step 5: Interpreting the solution: The model agreeswithoutintuitioninthatiffewunitsaresold a loss will result, but if lots of units are sold a profit will result. If the break-even point proves to be unrealistic, then a non-linear model could betriedoutoroursimplifyingassumptionsabout cashflow(resourcesfromearningandinvestment) can be amended. Step 6: Validiting the model: Taking the relationships(1)–(3)anddatafromvariousfirms, theprofitmaybeestimatedandverified. The exhibits in this sub-theme may pertain to: • mathematicalmodellingtosolvevarious problemsofoureverydaylife/environment relatedproblems; • mathematical modelling and computer simulationofclimatedynamics/production of weather phenomena based on a numberofpredictors; • mathematical modelling in physical geographysuchasrotationandrevolution of earth, precession and equinoxes etc.; • mathematicalmodellingtopredictorbital pathofcomets,meteorsandotherminor planets; • mathematical modelling to show how diseasemightspreadinhumanintheevent ofepidemics/bioterrorism; • mathematical modelling to predict the devastating effects of wars/nuclear explosions; • mathematical modelling to show spread of forest fire depending on the types of trees, weather and nature of the ground surface; • mathematical modelling to demonstrate theactionofmedicinesinhumansystem; • mathematicalmodellingoftheworkingof heart, brain, lungs, kidneys, bones and endocrinesystem; • computerdiagnosisofhumandiseases; • mathematical modelling of fluid flow in drain,spillways,rivers,etc.; • using mathematical modelling and computer simulation to improve cancer therapy/woundhealing/tissuesformation/ cornealwoundhealing; • mathematical modelling of intracellular biochemicalreactionsandmetabolisms; • mathematicalmodellingtoappreciateart
  • 16. 16State Level Science Exhibitions 2008-09 Guidelines Department of Education in Science and Mathematics National Council of Educational Research and Training Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016 of science such as snowflakes, coloured colloidalsolutionetc.; • mathematical modelling to study predator-prey relation; • mathematicalmodellingtoshowcountry/ world population 20 years from now; • mathematicalmodellingtodescribetraffic flow/stockmarketoptions; • studiesofstorageandretrievaltechniques forcomputersystems; • data manipulation and information managementtechniques; • statisticsandrandomnumberproblems; • developingvideogames; • mathematicalmodellingonsocialinsects suchashoneybees,termitesetc.toknow howtheyuselocalinformationtogenerate complex and functional patterns of communication; • mathematical modelling of maximum speedinfibreopticlinks; • mathematicalmodellingofhighlyabstract problems arising from control and communicationprocessesinthebrain; • mathematical modelling of urban city planning; • mathematical modelling to prevent an unwanted future/to understand various naturalandunnaturalphenomena; • mathematicalmodellingtoshowtheeffect ofclimatechanges/globalwarming; • mathematical modelling on balance of carbon cycle; etc.
  • 17. 17State Level Science Exhibitions 2008-09 Guidelines Department of Education in Science and Mathematics National Council of Educational Research and Training Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016 GUIDELINESFORORGANIZINGONE-DAYSEMINARON POPULARIZATIONOFSCIENCE Global WarmingGlobal WarmingGlobal WarmingGlobal WarmingGlobal Warming Global Warming Global warming is an important environ- mental issue ever to confront. This concern arises from the fact that our everyday ac- tivities are leading to changes in the atmo- sphere. This will significantly alter our planet’s heat and radiation balance. Green house gases emissions have caused global average temperature to rise by 0.74°C since the beginning of 20th century. If appropri- ate corrective measures are not considered seriously, the global temperature may in- crease upto 2°C by the end of this century. As a result of global warming, the mean sea level is rising at an average rate of about 1.5mm/year. It is certain that global warm- ing would adversely affect global sustainability. Erratic weather patterns, changes in agricultural yields, sea level rise and submerging of low level areas, species extinction, increase in the ranges of disease vectors and social conflicts are some of the consequences of global warming. Therefore it would be relevant to organize one-day seminar on issues related to global warming. The objective of the seminar is to facilitate interactions among children, academicians, industries and institutions to enhance public awareness and participation in resolving the issue of global warming. Goals ♦ To generate awareness about the various effects of global warming; ♦ To make children realize the inter linkages of agriculture, food, health, sanitation,ecology,andenvironment withglobalwarming; ♦ To provide children, opportunities for debates on the issues related to global warming and possible solutions. Suggested Activities • Organization of lecture and demonstration programme that provides opportunity for an interaction of eminent scientists with general public and students. • Demonstration of some experiments related to global warming. • Screening of films, video and radio programmes, slides shows, publications etc. on the issues related to Global Warming. • Organization of poster competition, drama, debate, etc.
  • 18. 18State Level Science Exhibitions 2008-09 Guidelines Department of Education in Science and Mathematics National Council of Educational Research and Training Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016 OBJECTIVES The purpose of science exhibition is to develop scientific attitude in the young generation of our countrytomakethemrealizetheinterdependence of science, technology and society and the responsibilityofthescientistsoftomorrow. These objectives may be achieved by presenting the exhibitsasanexcitingexperienceofcreativityof children, innovations through improvisations of science kits, and various devices and models for providing solutions to many present and future socio-economic problems particularly those confronted in the rural areas, using available materialsandlocalresources. Theexhibitionwillhelpchildrenandteachers tolearnfromeachotherexperienceandmotivate them to design and develop something new and novel. It will also provide a medium for popularizing science and increasing awareness among the public towards it. The objectives of organizingscienceexhibitionsmaybrieflybeput asfollows: stimulating interest in science and technology and inculcating scientific spiritinyoungergeneration; exploringandencouragingscientificand technologicaltalentamongchildren; inculcating in them a sense of pride in theirtalent; makingchildrenrealizetherelationship between science and technology and society; understanding the need for proper managementfortheoptimumutilization of resources and prevailing technologies; providing exploratory experiences, encouraging creative thinking and promoting psychomotor and manipulative skills among children throughselfdevisedexhibitsormodels or simple apparatus; encouragingproblemsolvingapproach and developing appropriate technologies,especiallyforruralareas andintegratingscientificideaswith daily lifesituations; inculcating intellectual honesty, team spirit and aesthetic sense among the participants; popularizingscienceamongmassesand creatinganawarenessregardingtherole of science and technology in socio- economic and sustainable growth of thecountry; developingappropriatetechniquesfor communicationofscience,technology andits management. GUIDELINES FOR ORGANIZINGTHE STATE LEVELSCIENCE EXHIBITIONS FOR CHILDREN 2008-2009
  • 19. 19State Level Science Exhibitions 2008-09 Guidelines Department of Education in Science and Mathematics National Council of Educational Research and Training Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016 CALL FOR ENTRIES The main theme for the State Level Science Exhibitions 2008 – 2009 and for the 36th JawaharlalNehruNationalScienceExhibitionfor Children – 2009 would be Science & Technology for Global Sustainability. The identifiedsixsub-themesare: 1. AgricultureandFoodSecurity 2. HarnessingEnergy 3. Conservation of Natural Resources 4. CombatingClimateChanges 5. DisasterManagement 6. MathematicalModelling In order to facilitate the preparation of exhibits and models for display in district to state level science exhibitions during 2008 - 2009, GUIDELINES FOR THE PREPARATION OFEXHIBITSANDMODELS arealsobeing communicated. (i) Children from all schools [including government, government-aided, public and private, catholic, mission, armed-forces (Army, Air Force, Navy, Sainik, BSF, ITBP, Assam- Rifles, CRPF, Police etc.), DAV management, MaharshiVidyaMandir,SaraswatiVidyaMandir, Navyug, Municipality, Bharitya Vidya Bhavan, Science Clubs etc.] are eligible to participate in statelevelscienceexhibitions.Preferencemaybe given for students in senior classes (i.e. in secondary and higher secondary stages). Note for all state level science exhibitions coordinators belonging to state/UT governments: Itmaypleasebeensuredthatentriesfromchildren belongingto: • KendriyaVidyalayaSangathan; • NavodayaVidyalayaSamiti; • Department of Atomic Energy Central Schools; • CBSE affiliated Public Schools (independentschools);and • DemonstrationMultipurposeSchoolsof RegionalInstitutesofEducation are not forwarded to NCERT for consideration for participation in Jawaharlal Nehru National Science Exhibition for Children-2009. These organizations are conducting their own science exhibitionsseparately.Theseorganizationswould also be sending their selected entries for consideration for participation in JNNSEC – 2009. (ii) Wide publicity should be given for inviting entries. GUIDELINES FOR THE PREPARATION OF EXHIBITS AND MODELS for display in district to state level science exhibitions during 2008 – 2009 should beprovidedtoallschools.Theseguidelinesmay also be translated in local languages, if possible, andbegivenwidepublicity.Thismayalsobegiven ontheInternetweb-site(s)oftherespectivestates/ union territories and other participating organizations.Itisalsoenvisagedthatguidelines beprintedinlocallanguage(s),Hindi,andEnglish in the form of a booklet for their dissemination amongalltheschoolsforgeneratingtheideasfor developing the exhibits and models. These guidelinescanalsobeviewedonNCERTwebsite (www.ncert.nic.in). (iii) Public Sector Undertakings, Industries, and otherNon-GovernmentOrganizationsworkingin the areas (where these science exhibitions are organized) may also be invited to participate as the exhibits displayed by them would be of instructionalvalueforthechildrenandteachers.
  • 20. 20State Level Science Exhibitions 2008-09 Guidelines Department of Education in Science and Mathematics National Council of Educational Research and Training Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016 I M P O R T A N TI M P O R T A N TI M P O R T A N TI M P O R T A N TI M P O R T A N T Besides the popularization of science, the objectiveoforganizationofscienceexhibitions atdifferentlevelsisalsotoidentifyandnurture inventive/creative talent among students. Childrenmustbeencouragedtoexploreevery resource to enable them to express and to handleobjects.Theymustbegivenallfreedom toexpresstheirowncreativityandimagination. Theroleofparents,teachers,andpeergroups may be in the form of financial support and discussions. The tendency of procuring the ready-made projects must be ruled out. An exhibitmustbeabletobringoutthescientific ability of the children, whether the model is traditional or an improvement over the traditionalmodelorinnovative.Skillsinvolved in constructing the exhibit/model, the degree ofneatnessandcraftsmanshipinvolvedmust also be taken into account.
  • 21. 21State Level Science Exhibitions 2008-09 Guidelines Department of Education in Science and Mathematics National Council of Educational Research and Training Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016 SCREENING, EVALUATION AND MONITORING OF ENTRIES (i) Ascreeningcommitteeshouldbesetupto finalize the selection of entries from the variousinstitutionsforparticipationinthe State Level Science Exhibition For ChildrenincaseDistricts/RegionalLevel ScienceExhibitionarenotbeingorganized by the state/UT. (ii) TheScreeningCommitteemayconsistof representatives of SISE/SIE and some selected representative institution(s).All recordsaboutthemeetingofthecommittee should be maintained. The selection procedure adopted should lay more emphasisonthequalityoftheexhibitsrather thanquantity.Itshouldbeensuredthatthe exhibits are not crude and hazardous and have good finish and are presentable. (iii) The above-mentioned Screening Committee or a separate panel of judges should evaluate the exhibits according to thecriteriaofEvaluationattachedherewith. Bestthreeexhibitsineachsub-themefrom each category viz., higher secondary and others must also be selected by the said panelofjudges. (iv) A separate list of the selected entries of the exhibits and models under each sub- theme (to be displayed in the state level scienceexhibition)mustbeprepared.This mustcontainthenameoftheexhibit/model, names of the student(s) and guiding teacher(s), name of the school and a brief information about the exhibit (may be in two sentences only). This list may also be distributedamongallparticipatingchildren and teachers.Acopy of this list should be forwarded to NCERT together with the formalreportoftheexhibition. Suchalistmaybepreparedinaccordance withtheNCERTun-pricedpublicationon “List of Exhibits”, to be displayed in Jawaharlal Nehru National Science Exhibition for Children. It is published every year and distributed to all participatingchildren,teachers,andvisitors during the JNNSEC. A copy of this may be obtained from the Head, Department of Education in Science and Mathematics, National Council of Educational Research and Training, Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110016. (v) AformalreportoftheStateLevelScience Exhibition and One-Day Seminar On Popularization Of Science should reach NCERT within one month after the conclusion of the exhibition. It would includethefollowing: (a)Datesandvenueofexhibition. (b) Proforma No.I - V duly filled up (c) List of schools participating and the number of students/teachers
  • 22. 22State Level Science Exhibitions 2008-09 Guidelines Department of Education in Science and Mathematics National Council of Educational Research and Training Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016 participating as per the proforma attached. Break-up of the male and female participants should also be given. It should also reflect on the number of rural and urban schools, thatparticipatedintheexhibition. (d) List of entries of the exhibits and models being displayed in the state levelscienceexhibition,asexplained in paragraph (iv) above. Number of exhibits displayed under each sub- theme should also be mentioned separately. (e) Highlightsoftheexhibitionincluding otheractivities suchaslectures,film shows, book exhibition etc. and participation of other scientific/ industrialorganizations. (f) Panel of judges for evaluating the exhibits/models displayed in the exhibition (in accordance with the CriteriaforEvaluationofExhibits). (g) Listofselectedexhibitsbeingsentfor considerationfordisplayinJNNSEC – 2009 bearing the name of student, teacher,schooletc.andtheirwriteups forconsiderationforparticipationin JNNSEC – 2009. (A proforma for informationabouttheexhibit/model is also attached for this purpose.) (h) Numberofvisitorstotheexhibition. THEREPORT ANDANDANDANDAND PROFORMA NOS. I - VPROFORMA NOS. I - VPROFORMA NOS. I - VPROFORMA NOS. I - VPROFORMA NOS. I - V SHOULD STRICTLYFOLLOWTHEABOVE FORMATAND BE FORWARDED WITHIN ONE MONTH AFTER THE CONCLUSION OF THE EXHIBITION TO: Dr. Shashi Prabha COORDINATOR STATE LEVEL SCIENCE EXHIBITIONS FOR CHILDREN 2008–STATE LEVEL SCIENCE EXHIBITIONS FOR CHILDREN 2008–STATE LEVEL SCIENCE EXHIBITIONS FOR CHILDREN 2008–STATE LEVEL SCIENCE EXHIBITIONS FOR CHILDREN 2008–STATE LEVEL SCIENCE EXHIBITIONS FOR CHILDREN 2008– 20092009200920092009 DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IN SCIENCEAND MATHEMATICS NATIONALCOUNCILOF EDUCATIONALRESEARCHAND TRAINING SRI AUROBINDO MARG, NEW DELHI - 110 016 Telefax: 011-26561742 e-mail:sciencencert@yahoo.co.uk Website:www.ncert.nic.in
  • 23. 23State Level Science Exhibitions 2008-09 Guidelines Department of Education in Science and Mathematics National Council of Educational Research and Training Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016 CRITERIAFOR EVALUATION OFEXHIBITS TheJawaharlalNehruNationalScienceExhibition forChildren,organizedeveryyearbytheNCERT, receivesentriesforconsiderationforparticipation from States/UTs selected from the State Level ScienceExhibitionsheldintheprecedingyear.In order to keep a uniform criteria for evaluating the exhibits in all States/ UTs and on the basis of thefeedbackreceivedfromdifferentagencies,the following criteria for judging the exhibits is suggested (the percentage given in bracket are suggestiveweightages): 1. Involvement of children’s own creativityandimagination(20%); 2. Originality and innovations in the exhibit/model(15%); 3. Scientificthought/principle/approach (15%); 4. Technical skill/ workmanship/ craftsmanship(15%); 5. Utility/educational value for layman, children etc.; (15%) 6. Economic (low cost), portability, durability etc. (10%); and 7. Presentation – aspects like demonstration, explanation, and display(10%). It is further advised to divide the entries into two categories, viz., (i) upto secondary level; and (ii) highersecondarylevel.Onthebasisofthecriteria suggested above, three entries from each sub- theme may be selected and be forwarded to NCERT for consideration for participation in JNNSEC-2008. Besides the popularization of science, the objective of this activity is to search and nurture inventive/creative talent among children. Judges are requested to evaluate the entries on the basis of pupils’ involvement. Every effort must be made to rule out the tendency of procuring the ready- made projects. Judges may assess whether the model has been able to bring out as to how the scientific ability of the student has been stretched –– whether the model is traditional or an improvement over the traditional model or it is innovative. Various skills involved in constructing the exhibit/model, the degree of neatness and craftsmanship may also be taken into account. General layout of the exhibit, relevance, clarity of charts accompanying the exhibit and overall attractiveness to the layman and children should also be assessed. Working models should be encouraged.
  • 24. 24State Level Science Exhibitions 2008-09 Guidelines Department of Education in Science and Mathematics National Council of Educational Research and Training Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016 State:___________Duration:___________ STATELEVELSCIENCEEXHIBITIONSFORCHILDREN2008-09 THEME:Science&TechnologyforGlobalSustainability VENUE:……………………………………………………. JUDGES’PROFORMAFOREVALUATIONOFPARTICIPATINGENTRIES–SUBTHEMEWISE SUB-THEME:AGRICULTUREANDFOODSECURITY/HARNESSINGENERGY/ CONSERVATIONOFNATURALRESOURCES/COMBATINGCLIMATE CHANGES/DISASTERMANAGEMENT/MATHEMATICALMODELLING (Pleaseputtickmark onthesub-themebeingevaluated) Date:_________________Signature…………………………... Name:DesignationandAffiliation: S. N o. Codeofthe Exhibit Involvementof childrenown creativityand imagination. 20% Originality/Inno vationsinthe exhibit/model 15% Scientific Thought/Princ iple/ Approach 15% Technical Skills/Workmanship/ Craftsmanship 15% Utility/ Educational Valuesfor Laymanand Children 15% Economic (lowcost) Portability/ Durability 10% Presentation 10% Total 100% 1 2 3 4 .. .. .. n … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …
  • 25. 25State Level Science Exhibitions 2008-09 Guidelines Department of Education in Science and Mathematics National Council of Educational Research and Training Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016 EXPENDITURE NORMS The ‘Grant-in-Aid’provided by the NCERT to respective states/UTs is a catalytic grant for organizing the State level science exhibitions and One-Day Seminar on ‘Popularization of Science’. States and UTs are expected to spend the additional expenditure,ifany,fromthestatefunds.The funds given to the states/UTs are to be utilized exclusively for meeting the travel and boarding costs of participating students and their teachers and experts. It is suggested that the following norms of payment may be followed: A. For organizing the One-Day Seminar on Popularization of Science: (i) Honorarium to five (three outstation and two local) experts/scientists may be disbursed at the rate of Rs. 400.00 each. Note: The expert/scientist should be preferably from a research institute/laboratory/ university. (ii) Traveling allowance to three outstation experts/scientists from a maximum distance of 500 km may be disbursed as per the state/ central government rules. (iii) Daily allowance and incidental charges to five (three outstation and two local) experts/scientists for a maximum of three days (for outstation experts) and for one- day (for local experts) duration may be disbursed as per state government rules. (iv) Conveyance charges to two local experts/scientists may be disbursed as per state/central government rules. (v) Contingency grant for tea/coffee with light snacks; typing/ photocopying/cost of transparencies/transparency pens etc.,: Rs. 2,000.00 B. For Organizing the State Level Science Exhibitions: (i) Only one student and one teacher may be permitted to participate with each exhibit. However, for more than one exhibit from any one school, only one teacher may be permitted to participate. (ii) Traveling allowance: actual second-class sleeper rail/bus (non-AC) fare.
  • 26. 26State Level Science Exhibitions 2008-09 Guidelines Department of Education in Science and Mathematics National Council of Educational Research and Training Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016 (iii) Incidental charges: Rs. 25.00 each way for outward and inward journeys subject to a maximum of Rs. 50.00 provided the journey time by rail or bus is more than 6 hours. For journeys less than 6 hoursnoincidentalchargesshould be paid. (iv) Boarding expenses: Rs. 50.00 per head per day for each participant for a maximum of 4 days. (v) Local conveyance charges may be disbursed as per state/central government rules. It is necessary to maintain a separate account for the expenditure of the grants- in-aid provided by the NCERTand the same should be forwarded to the NCERT, along with all relevant vouchers and receipts, in original within ONE month of the close “Verified and passed for payment of Rs. ………………………………… (Rupees …………………………………………………………………………. Only). (To be signed by the Coordinator/In-charge of the State Level Science Exhibition)” of the exhibition for adjustment in the NCERTaccount.Allvouchersmaybesigned by the Coordinator/In-charge of the exhibition.All those vouchers/receipts that are in regional language should accompany with a translated copy in English certified by the Coordinator/In-charge of the State Level Science Exhibitions to facilitate audit and settlement of accounts. Only those Vouchers/Receipts against such items of expenditure, which are covered under the expenditure norms, may please be sent to this department for adjustment/settlement of accounts. All payments exceeding Rs. 5000.00 should be supported by payee’s receipt with a revenue stamp. It may please be ensured that each Voucher/ Receipt against the expenditure is duly verified for the amount and then passed for payment. The specimen of this certificate is indicated below for convenience:
  • 27. 27State Level Science Exhibitions 2008-09 Guidelines Department of Education in Science and Mathematics National Council of Educational Research and Training Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016 STATE LEVELSCIENCE EXHIBITIONS FOR CHILDREN 2008– 2009 PROFORMANO.I MAINTENANCE OF ACCOUNTS State/Union Territory: ________________________________ Dates of Exhibition: ________________________________ Venue of Exhibition: ________________________________ CertifiedthattheexpenditureshavebeenmadeinaccordancewiththenormsandGuidelinesasgiven by the NCERT for organizing the State Level Science Exhibition. It is also certified that no other voucherisincluded. SignatureoftheIn-Charge(ControllingOfficer) Seal RECEIPT EXPENDITURE Voucher No. Date of Receipt Particulars of Grant Amount Received Voucher No. Date of Expenditure Particulars (Head-wise) Amount Spent Signature of Coordinating Officer Draft No. Dated Other income, if any Balanced Refunded to NCERT, if any, vide Total Total
  • 28. 28State Level Science Exhibitions 2008-09 Guidelines Department of Education in Science and Mathematics National Council of Educational Research and Training Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016 STATE LEVELSCIENCE EXHIBITIONS FOR CHILDREN 2008 - 2009 PROFORMA No. II INFORMATION ABOUT PARTICIPATING SCHOOLS State/Union Territory: ________________________________ Dates of Exhibition: ________________________________ Venue of Exhibition: ________________________________ *G: Government. A Government School is that which is run by the State Government or Central Government or Public Sector Undertaking or an Autonomous Organization completely financed by the Government. LB: Local Body. ALocal Body School is that which is run by Panchayati Raj and Local Body Institutions such as Zila Parishad, Municipal Corporation, Municipal Committee or Cantonment Board. PA: Private Aided. A Private Aided School is that which is run by an individual or a private organisation and receives grants from the Government or Local Body. PU: Private Unaided.APrivate Unaided School is that which is managed by an individual or a private organization does not receive any grant from the Government or Local Body. Participants from the School Teachers Students Type of School* No. of Schools Tribal/ Rural /Urban Number of Exhibits/ Models Male Female Total Boys Girls Total SC/ST T R G U T R LB U T R PA U T R PU U Total
  • 29. 29State Level Science Exhibitions 2008-09 Guidelines Department of Education in Science and Mathematics National Council of Educational Research and Training Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016 STATELEVELSCIENCEEXHIBITIONSFORCHILDREN2008-09 PROFORMANO.III INFORMATIONABOUTNATUREANDNUMBEROFEXHIBITSDISPLAYED State/UnionTerritory:______________________________ DurationofExhibition:______________________________ VenueofExhibition:______________________________ NaturalandNumberofExhibitsDisplayedSub-themes Innovative/Improvised Apparatus/Working Model StaticModelStudy/SurveyReportAnyother TotalNo.of Exhibits Agricultureand FoodSecurity HarnessingEnergy Conservationof NaturalResources CombatingClimate Changes Disaster Management Mathematical Modelling GrandTotal
  • 30. 30State Level Science Exhibitions 2008-09 Guidelines Department of Education in Science and Mathematics National Council of Educational Research and Training Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016 State:___________Duration:___________ STATELEVELSCIENCEEXHIBITIONSFORCHILDREN2008-09 PROFORMANO.IV THEME:Science&TechnologyforGlobalSustainability VENUE:……………………………………………………. PANELOFJUDGES–SUBTHEMEWISE* SUB-THEME:AGRICULTUREANDFOODSECURITY/HARNESSINGENERGY/ CONSERVATIONOFNATURALRESOURCES/COMBATINGCLIMATE CHANGES/DISASTERMANAGEMENT/MATHEMATICALMODELLING (Pleaseputtickmark onthesub-themebeingevaluated) *Respectivejudgesmayhavetheiropinions,suggestionsandcommentsabouttheorganizationofscienceexhibition.NCERTwelcomesallsuch opinions.Kindlyenclosethemonseparatesheets. S.No.NameoftheJudgesDesignationOfficialAddress,Phone, Fax,e-mail ResidentialAddress, phone,Mobile
  • 31. 31State Level Science Exhibitions 2008-09 Guidelines Department of Education in Science and Mathematics National Council of Educational Research and Training Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016 36th JAWAHARLAL NEHRU NATIONAL SCIENCE EXHIBITION FOR CHILDREN – 2009 THEME: SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGYAND GLOBALSUSTAINABILITY PROFORMA NO. V INFORMATION ABOUT THE EXHIBIT/MODEL 1. TITLEOFTHEEXHIBIT/ ___________________________________ MODEL(BLOCKLETTERS) ___________________________________ 2. Sub-theme: (Tick only one) Agriculture and Food Security / Harnessing Energy/ Conservation of Natural Resources/ Combating Climate Changes/ Disaster Management/ Mathematical Modelling 3. NAME(S)OFTHE _________________________________ (M/F) STUDENT(S)withSEX _________________________________ (M/F) (BLOCKLETTERS) _________________________________ (M/F) _________________________________ (M/F) 4. NAME(S)OFTHE _________________________________ (M/F) TEACHER(S)withSEX _________________________________ (M/F) (BLOCKLETTERS) 5. NAMEANDCOMPLETEADDRESSOFTHESCHOOL(BLOCKLETTERS): ———————————————————————————————————— ———————————————————————————————————— ——————————————————— PIN ——————————————— 6. Type of the school*: Government/Local Body/Private Aided/Private Unaided/Any Other (Please specify) _____________________ _________________ 7. Affiliation of the School: State Board/ICSE/CBSE Any Other (Please specify) ________________ 8. Location of the School: Tribal/Rural/Urban 9. Nature of the Exhibit/Model: Innovative/Improvised Apparatus/Working / Static Model /Study Report Any Other (Please specify) ________________ 10. Approximate Cost of the: Rs. _____________ Exhibit/Model 11. Requirement for Display: i. Shamiana/Open space/Dark room: ____________________________ ii. Table size: Length: _____ m; width: ______ m. iii. Water supply: Yes/No iv. Number of electrical points: No.: _____ (5 Amp); No.: _______ (15 Amp) * Government: A Government School is that which is run by the State Government or Central Government or Public Sector Undertaking or an Autonomous Organisation completely financed by the Government; Local Body: A Local Body School is that which is run by Panchayati Raj and Local Body Institutions such as Zila Parishad, Municipal Corporation, Municipal Committee or Cantonment Board; Private Aided: A Private Aided School is that which is run by an individual or a private organisation and receives grants from the Government or Local Body; Private Unaided: Private Unaided School is that which is managed by an individual or a private organisation and does not receive any grant from the Government or Local Body.
  • 32. 32State Level Science Exhibitions 2008-09 Guidelines Department of Education in Science and Mathematics National Council of Educational Research and Training Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016 12. Source of Inspiration/Help for Preparing the Exhibit/Model: (Please explain briefly about the nature and form of help received from the following) i. From Teachers/School ………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ii. From Parents ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… iii. From Peer group ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… iv. Any other ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… 13. Brief Summary (Please explain the purpose and the scientific principle involved in the exhibit/model in not more than three lines). ——————————————————————————————————— ——————————————————————————————————— ——————————————————————————————————— 14. WRITE-UP OF THE EXHIBIT/MODEL (not more than 1000 words) in the following format (Note: Proper submission of the write-up will ensure that if selected for participation in the 36th Jawaharlal Nehru National Science Exhibition for Children – 2009, it will be considered for publication in the booklet titled: Structure and Working of Science Models. For convenience an exemplary write-up is also given next.): (a) Introduction: 1. Rationale behind construction of the exhibit; and 2. The scientific principle involved. (b) Description: 1. Materials used for the construction; 2. Construction and working of the exhibit/model; and 3. Applications, if any. (c) References: Books, journals or magazines referred for preparation of the exhibit/model. (d) Illustrations: 1. Black and white line diagram of the model, illustrating the working of the exhibit. 2. Close-up photographs of the exhibit. Note: i. Please neither pin nor paste the photographs of the exhibits. Enclose them in a separate envelope. Also do not write anything on the photograph. ii. Please do not enclose the photographs of participating student(s) and their guide teacher(s). (Signaturesofallstudentsandteachers)
  • 33. 33State Level Science Exhibitions 2008-09 Guidelines Department of Education in Science and Mathematics National Council of Educational Research and Training Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016 An ExemplaryWrite up of an Exhibit “VERMIWASH FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT” displayed in the 33rd Jawaharlal Nehru National Science Exhibition for Children 2006, Pune VERMIWASH FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Student Pratik Sampatrao Patil TilakHighSchkool MangalwarPeth Karad, Satara (Maharashtra) Teacher Sanjay Bapurao Pujari RATIONALE BEHIND CONSTRUCTION OFTHE EXHIBIT InIndia,firstrevolutionwasimplementedbyourlatePrimeMinisterPanditJawaharlalNehru,under the guidance of Dr. Karwar, Dr. Swaminathan and Dr. Borlaug. During first green revolution the importedsyntheticfertilizers,pesticides,growthpromoters,hydridvarietiesofplantswereintroduced inagriculture. Nodoubtthefoodproductionincreasedsubstantially. However,overtheyearsexcess use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides have adversely affected the eco-system like soil, water and food due to pollution. According to a satellite survey done by Dr. Bharat PawarV.S.I, Manjai, Pune in Sangli district of Maharashtra state, about 42 per cent land has become saline and non-productive. At the same time to meet the basic needs such as food, clothing and shelter of ever increasing population, it is essential to increase food production on a continuous basis. Now, India is at the threshold of a second green revolution with greater emphasis on organic farming. Keepingthisinmind,wehavedevelopedthemodelforpreparingVermiwash,whichcanbe usedasanexcellentnutrientforavarietyofcrops. Thepresentmodelsuggestsfivemajormodification overtheconventionaltechniqueavailableatpresent. Itsuseinthefield,particularlyondifferenttypeof cropsandfruittreeshaveshownbothqualitativeandquantitativeimprovementonthecropyield. SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLE INVOLVED Earthworms that live in moist soil absorb water around them through their skin, which enters in their coelomicfluid.Thewaterthatearthwormsexudefromtheirbodyasapartoftheirosmoregulatoryand excretory function enriches the soil in natural situations. The earthworms exude excess water along withorganicandinorganicmaterialsproducedinsidetheiralimentarycanal. Alongwithfecalmatterthe enzymes,symbioticgutbacteria,fungiare alsoreleasedoutbythem. This isrichinorganicmaterand minerals andiscalledvermiwash. MATERIALS USED FOR CONSTRUCTION Plastic/glass rectangular jars (4 Nos), fabricated iron stands (3 Nos), 1.5 m long rubber pipe with ½ cmdiameter,1.0mlongplasticpipewith2.5cmdiameter,2-3traysto displayvarietyofearthworms, a small plastic bowl for collection of vermiwash, 10 kg fine sand, 15 kg coarse sand, 12 kg partly decayeddungwithleafmould,1.25cmtap,cylindricalplasticdrum(1No),vessel(10litrecapacity– 1 No), 5 bricks, water controller/regulators (5 pieces), one circular piece of Netlon mesh, ½ kg matureearthwormandsilicongel/feviquick.
  • 34. 34State Level Science Exhibitions 2008-09 Guidelines Department of Education in Science and Mathematics National Council of Educational Research and Training Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016 CONSTRUCITONAND WORKING OF THE MODEL Incylindricaljar,firstalayerofbrickupto7.5cmheightislaid. Abovethislayer,wespreadalayerof 5 cm thick coarse sand and a third layer of 2.5 cm fine sand. On the top of third layer we spread the netlon mesh. At the center of the cylindrical jar we fix a perforated plastic pile of 50 cm length. The space around this pipe is then filled with 10 cm thick layer of dung and decayed litter. On the mouth of this jar, a circular ring of iron is fitted to which a water controller with four water outlets is fixed as shown in Figure 23.1.Water from a tank is supplied to the water controller with the help of a rubber pipe that has a regulator fixed on it. Atap is fitted at the bottom of this unit to collect the vermiwash. The supply to the water controller is adjusted so that water gets released drop by drop in the unit at a rate of 250 ml per day. At the same time about ½ kg matured earthworm are put in the unit on the neltonmesh. After4to5days,vermiwashbeginstodripfromthetapfixednearthebottomoftheunit. This may, however, not be of good quality. The vermiwash collected after 10 days is rich in both organicandinorganiccompoundsdesirableforhealthygrowthofcrops. APPLICATION 1. Vermiwashactsas planttonic,becauseitcontainsnumberofmicroorganisms,actinomycetes, enzymes,hormonesandothermulti-nutrients. 2. Vermiwashincreasesresistanceofplantsagainstvariousbacterial,viralandfungaldiseases. 3. Vermiwash increases 15 per cent vegetative and reproductive growth in fruit and flower bearing plants. Ultimately it results in increase up to 40 per cent to 80 per cent in yield. Fig. 23.1
  • 35. 35State Level Science Exhibitions 2008-09 Guidelines Department of Education in Science and Mathematics National Council of Educational Research and Training Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016 4. Itisverygoodfoliarspray,preventsdetachmentofflowers,helpsinfruitsetting,theirgrowth insize,providesbettertastebesidesgivingthemwithbetterluster,highqualityandlowtoxic residues. In plants grown for flowers, use of vermiwash results in increased size, colour, lusterandquality(postharvesting)offlowers. 5. Ifvermiwahisusedinnurseryforcutting,graftingandlayering90percentland, moreplants canstayhealthy,therebyenhancing theyield. 6. Useofvermiwahdoesnotcausepollutionofwaterandsoil. Ithelpsproducequalityfoodfor bettermentofhumanpopulationandotheranimals. 7. Five variants of the model have been designed to produce vermiwah. These models vary in design as well as size. Vermiwash produce has been successfully tried out on 27 crops of differenttypes. CHEMICALANALYSIS OFVERMIWASH 1. pH-7.63 to 7.9 9. N-150 ppm or 0.20 mg/lit 2. P2 O5 -44 ppm or 12.82mg/lit 10. K2 O-260ppmor2220mg/lit 3. Zn-0.02 ppm or 5 mg/lit 11. Cu-0.01 ppm or 2 mg/lit 4. E.C.-6.30 Mmhos/cm or 21.30 dsm. 12. Fe-0.06 ppm, or 2 mg/lit 5. Na-8.00 ppm or 1610 mg/lit 13. Mn-0.50 ppm or 2 mg/lit 6. Mg-360 ppm or 1225 mg/lit 14. Ca-3.0 ppm. 7. Bacteria 1.12/1.03 cfu/ml 15. Fungi – 1.46/103 cfu/ml 8. Cytokinin – 800 ppm or .084 mg/lit 16. Zylokinin REFERENCES Books (i) Ismail S.A., 1997, Vermicology – The Biology of Indian Earthworms, Orient Longman Ltd,Chennai. (ii) KaleR.D.,EarthwormCinderellaofOrganicFarming,PrismbookPvt.Ltd,Bangalore. (iii) Kotpal R.L., Annelida, Rastogi Prakashan, Meerut. (iv) MaratheA.D. andAgarkar V.S. Applied Zoolgy, N.P. Pune. (v) Nair N.C. and Arumugam N.A. Text book of Invertebrates, Saras Publicaiton, Kanyakumari. (vi) Pawar K.R. and DesaiA., AText book of Applied Zoology, Nirali Prakashan, Pune. (vii) SatheT.V., Vermiculture Organic Farming, Daya Publishing House, New Delhi (viii) Shukla U., Economic Zoology, Rastogi Prakashan, Meerut. (ix) Sharma A.K., 2004, A handbook of Organic Farming, Agrobios of India. (x) StephensonJ.,1923,TheFaunaofBritishIndiaOligochaeta,Taylor&Francis,London.
  • 36. 36State Level Science Exhibitions 2008-09 Guidelines Department of Education in Science and Mathematics National Council of Educational Research and Training Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016 (xi) Talshikar S.D., Earthworms in Agriculture. (xii) Verma L.N., 1993, Biofertilizer in Agricultures, Rastogi Prakashan, Meerut. (xiii) Venkataraman P.R., Economic Zoology,V. Publisher, Kottayam. Journals/Magazines (i) Bahl K.N., 1947, Excretion in the Oligochaeta, Biol. Rev. (22:109-147) (ii) Barkley K.P., 1959, Earthworms & Soil Fertility, JournalAgric. Res.(10:371-376). (iii) Ismail S.A. & Kaleemurrahman M., 1981, Report on Occurrence of Bioluminescence in the Earthworm Lampito Mauritii, Current Sience (50-55) (iv) Julka J.M., 1983, A new genus & species of earthworm (Octochaetidai:Oiligochaeta) from South India, Geobios New Report (2:48-50). (v) Kale R.D., Bano K., Vinayaka K. & Bhagyaraj D.A., 1986, Suitability of neem cake as an additive in earthworm feed and its influence on establishment of microflora – JournalofSoilBiology,Ecology(6:98-103). (vi) Kale R.D., 1986, Feed for poultry and aquaculture, J. Agri. (22:339-344). Websites 1. http://www.kissankerala.net/jsp 2. http://www.naturewatch.ca/english/worm watch/resouses/key/index 3. http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/seta/stories 4. http://www.nrri.umn.edu/worms/key/diagram 5. http://www.naturewatch:ca/english/wormwatch/resources/forms/location 6. http://www.kau.edu/pop/vermicompost
  • 37. 37State Level Science Exhibitions 2008-09 Guidelines Department of Education in Science and Mathematics National Council of Educational Research and Training Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016 ContactAddress Dr. Shashi Prabha COORDINATOR STATE LEVEL SCIENCE EXHIBITIONSSTATE LEVEL SCIENCE EXHIBITIONSSTATE LEVEL SCIENCE EXHIBITIONSSTATE LEVEL SCIENCE EXHIBITIONSSTATE LEVEL SCIENCE EXHIBITIONS FOR CHILDREN 2008– 2009FOR CHILDREN 2008– 2009FOR CHILDREN 2008– 2009FOR CHILDREN 2008– 2009FOR CHILDREN 2008– 2009 DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IN SCIENCEAND MATHEMATICS NATIONALCOUNCILOF EDUCATIONALRESEARCHAND TRAINING SRI AUROBINDO MARG, NEW DELHI - 110 016 Telefax: 011-26561742 e-mail:sciencencert@yahoo.co.uk Website:www.ncert.nic.in

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