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0801 cell cycle
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IBSL/IBHL Biology chapter/topic 2.5

IBSL/IBHL Biology chapter/topic 2.5

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  • 1. Mitosis and the Cell Cycle
  • 2. Why is mitotic cell division necessary?
    • 1. Asexual reproduction : ex: bacteria (binary fission)
    • 2. To replace damaged or dead cells
    • 3. Growth and embryonic development of the organism
    dividing bone marrow cells  new blood cells Sand dollar embryo Amoeba reproducing
  • 3. Binary Fission: how some bacteria reproduce
  • 4. frog embryo
  • 5. Phases of Mitosis
  • 6.
    • Interphase (NOT PART OF MITOSIS)
    • Chromatin has already duplicated (DNA replication complete) but is not visible to naked eye
    • Early prophase :
    • Spindle microtubules are growing
    • Chromatin condenses and is packed into discrete chromosomes
    • Late prophase :
    • Each chromosome consists of two identical chromatids formed by DNA replication in interphase and held together by a centromere
    • Spindle microtubules extend from each pole to the equator
  • 7.
  • 8.
    • Prometaphase:
    • nuclear envelope disappears
    • spindle microtubules attach to sister chromatids
    • Metaphase:
    • sister chromatids line up on the metaphase plate
    • mitotic spindle forms
  • 9.
    • Anaphase:
    • centromeres split, sister chromatids separate and each one is pulled to opposite ends of the cell
    • cell begins to lengthen
    • by the end of anaphase, there are 2 complete sets of genetic material at each pole
  • 10.
  • 11.
    • Telophase:
    • nuclear envelope starts to reappear
    • microtubule assembly starts to disintegrate
    • chromatids begin to loosen
    • Cytokinesis:
    • The cell divides to form 2 cells with genetically identical nuclei
  • 12.
  • 13. Animal Cell Division
  • 14. Plant Cell Division
  • 15. eukaryotic chromosomes (orange) in a kangaroo rat epithelial cell
  • 16. Differences in Cell Division Between Plant and Animal Cells
  • 17. Differences in Cell Division Between Plant and Animal Cells
    • Plant Cells
      • There are no centrioles in plant cells
      • After anaphase, a new cell wall is formed across the equator of the cell, with plasma membrane on both sides. This divides the cell into two cells
    • Animal Cells
      • Centrioles are found at each pole of animal cells during mitosis
      • After anaphase, the plasma membrane at the equator is pulled inwards until it meets in the center of the cell, dividing it into two cells
  • 18. cell plate: dividing plant cell
  • 19. onion root tip: lots of dividing cells