0801 cell cycle
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0801 cell cycle



IBSL/IBHL Biology chapter/topic 2.5

IBSL/IBHL Biology chapter/topic 2.5



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    0801 cell cycle 0801 cell cycle Presentation Transcript

    • Mitosis and the Cell Cycle
    • Why is mitotic cell division necessary?
      • 1. Asexual reproduction : ex: bacteria (binary fission)
      • 2. To replace damaged or dead cells
      • 3. Growth and embryonic development of the organism
      dividing bone marrow cells  new blood cells Sand dollar embryo Amoeba reproducing
    • Binary Fission: how some bacteria reproduce
    • frog embryo
    • Phases of Mitosis
      • Interphase (NOT PART OF MITOSIS)
      • Chromatin has already duplicated (DNA replication complete) but is not visible to naked eye
      • Early prophase :
      • Spindle microtubules are growing
      • Chromatin condenses and is packed into discrete chromosomes
      • Late prophase :
      • Each chromosome consists of two identical chromatids formed by DNA replication in interphase and held together by a centromere
      • Spindle microtubules extend from each pole to the equator
      • Prometaphase:
      • nuclear envelope disappears
      • spindle microtubules attach to sister chromatids
      • Metaphase:
      • sister chromatids line up on the metaphase plate
      • mitotic spindle forms
      • Anaphase:
      • centromeres split, sister chromatids separate and each one is pulled to opposite ends of the cell
      • cell begins to lengthen
      • by the end of anaphase, there are 2 complete sets of genetic material at each pole
      • Telophase:
      • nuclear envelope starts to reappear
      • microtubule assembly starts to disintegrate
      • chromatids begin to loosen
      • Cytokinesis:
      • The cell divides to form 2 cells with genetically identical nuclei
    • Animal Cell Division
    • Plant Cell Division
    • eukaryotic chromosomes (orange) in a kangaroo rat epithelial cell
    • Differences in Cell Division Between Plant and Animal Cells
    • Differences in Cell Division Between Plant and Animal Cells
      • Plant Cells
        • There are no centrioles in plant cells
        • After anaphase, a new cell wall is formed across the equator of the cell, with plasma membrane on both sides. This divides the cell into two cells
      • Animal Cells
        • Centrioles are found at each pole of animal cells during mitosis
        • After anaphase, the plasma membrane at the equator is pulled inwards until it meets in the center of the cell, dividing it into two cells
    • cell plate: dividing plant cell
    • onion root tip: lots of dividing cells