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Mitosis  and the Cell Cycle
Why is mitotic cell division necessary? <ul><li>1.  Asexual reproduction : ex: bacteria (binary fission) </li></ul><ul><li...
Binary Fission: how some bacteria reproduce
frog embryo
Phases of Mitosis
<ul><li>Interphase  (NOT PART OF MITOSIS) </li></ul><ul><li>Chromatin has already duplicated (DNA replication complete) bu...
<ul><li>Prometaphase: </li></ul><ul><li>nuclear envelope disappears </li></ul><ul><li>spindle microtubules attach to siste...
<ul><li>Anaphase: </li></ul><ul><li>centromeres split, sister chromatids separate and each one is pulled to opposite ends ...
<ul><li>Telophase: </li></ul><ul><li>nuclear envelope starts to reappear </li></ul><ul><li>microtubule assembly starts to ...
Animal Cell Division
Plant Cell Division
eukaryotic chromosomes (orange) in a kangaroo rat epithelial cell
Differences in Cell Division Between Plant and Animal Cells
Differences in Cell Division Between Plant and Animal Cells <ul><li>Plant Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are  no centri...
cell plate: dividing plant cell
onion root tip: lots of dividing cells
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0801 cell cycle

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IBSL/IBHL Biology chapter/topic 2.5

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Transcript of "0801 cell cycle"

  1. 1. Mitosis and the Cell Cycle
  2. 2. Why is mitotic cell division necessary? <ul><li>1. Asexual reproduction : ex: bacteria (binary fission) </li></ul><ul><li>2. To replace damaged or dead cells </li></ul><ul><li>3. Growth and embryonic development of the organism </li></ul>dividing bone marrow cells  new blood cells Sand dollar embryo Amoeba reproducing
  3. 3. Binary Fission: how some bacteria reproduce
  4. 4. frog embryo
  5. 5. Phases of Mitosis
  6. 6. <ul><li>Interphase (NOT PART OF MITOSIS) </li></ul><ul><li>Chromatin has already duplicated (DNA replication complete) but is not visible to naked eye </li></ul><ul><li>Early prophase : </li></ul><ul><li>Spindle microtubules are growing </li></ul><ul><li>Chromatin condenses and is packed into discrete chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Late prophase : </li></ul><ul><li>Each chromosome consists of two identical chromatids formed by DNA replication in interphase and held together by a centromere </li></ul><ul><li>Spindle microtubules extend from each pole to the equator </li></ul>
  7. 7.
  8. 8. <ul><li>Prometaphase: </li></ul><ul><li>nuclear envelope disappears </li></ul><ul><li>spindle microtubules attach to sister chromatids </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphase: </li></ul><ul><li>sister chromatids line up on the metaphase plate </li></ul><ul><li>mitotic spindle forms </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Anaphase: </li></ul><ul><li>centromeres split, sister chromatids separate and each one is pulled to opposite ends of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>cell begins to lengthen </li></ul><ul><li>by the end of anaphase, there are 2 complete sets of genetic material at each pole </li></ul>
  10. 10.
  11. 11. <ul><li>Telophase: </li></ul><ul><li>nuclear envelope starts to reappear </li></ul><ul><li>microtubule assembly starts to disintegrate </li></ul><ul><li>chromatids begin to loosen </li></ul><ul><li>Cytokinesis: </li></ul><ul><li>The cell divides to form 2 cells with genetically identical nuclei </li></ul>
  12. 12.
  13. 13. Animal Cell Division
  14. 14. Plant Cell Division
  15. 15. eukaryotic chromosomes (orange) in a kangaroo rat epithelial cell
  16. 16. Differences in Cell Division Between Plant and Animal Cells
  17. 17. Differences in Cell Division Between Plant and Animal Cells <ul><li>Plant Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are no centrioles in plant cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After anaphase, a new cell wall is formed across the equator of the cell, with plasma membrane on both sides. This divides the cell into two cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Animal Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Centrioles are found at each pole of animal cells during mitosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After anaphase, the plasma membrane at the equator is pulled inwards until it meets in the center of the cell, dividing it into two cells </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. cell plate: dividing plant cell
  19. 19. onion root tip: lots of dividing cells
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