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THE BIOMECHANICS OF INSTEP
KICK IN SOCCER
MOHD ISYAMUDDIN BIN JUMAAT
MUHAMMAD HAFIZ BIN IBRAHIM
MOHAMMAD SHAHNUR BIN MOHD SHAH
NUR HEIDIYATUN BINTI MOHD SALLEH
The instep kick technique is one of
the important aspect of a soccer
• Instep kicking is related to higher
ball speed and less knee and hip
rotation in the coronal and the
transverse plane compared with
other kicks. (Kellis & Katis, 2010)
• Success of an instep soccer kick also
depends on various general factors
such as:– the distance of the kick from the goal,
– the air resistance,
– the technique of the main kick which is
best described using biomechanical
analysis. (Kellis & Katis, 2010)
Instep Kick Sequence Motion In Real
Planting one foot at the side
of the ball with kicking foot
extended to the back
The swing through of the kicking
foot to kick the ball with the
instep of the foot
• This study is conducted to investigate the
factors affecting the efficiency of a kick using
an instep kick, that is:- The last stride length.
- The effective angle of thigh flexion and
extension before kicking.
- Relationship of the velocity between the
ACCURACY IN KICKING
ACCURACY IN KICKING
KICKING AT THE
TYPE OF KICKING
TYPE OF KICKING
VELOCITY OF THE
VELOCITY OF THE
Lees, A., Asai, T., Andersen A. B., Nunome, H., & Sterzing, T. (2010). The biomechanics of ki
A review. Journal of Sport Sciences, 28(8):805-817.
Angle Of Extension Of The
Last Stride Length
24 years old
Suhaimi bin Abd
22 years old
22 years old
Former state school
• APAS SYSTEM (Ariel Performance Analysis System)
The Phases of Instep Kick
Follow Through Phase
Graph 1. The velocity of the joints in instep kick phases.
APAS RESULTS (Best Subject)
Velocity of The shank
Graph of the relationship of velocity between thigh and shank
Graph 2. The velocity relationship between the thigh and shank (Subject 3)
Velocity 5 Point of Instep Kick
The graphs beside showing the
velocity of shoulder, hip, knee,
ankle and foot.
The approach phase of Subject
3 take the shortest time
compared to the others.
Besides, the follow through
phase for subject 3 is the
longest compared to the others.
The graphs also show that the
sequence of instep kick is
shoulder, hip, knee, ankle and
the last is foot.
Graph 3. The velocity relationship between
Result of The Average Angle Velocity
Among The Subjects
- 0. 57
Table 3. Average angle of joints velocity.
• Last Stride Length
- From the results shown, subject 3 made a long
last stride length (135cm) which improves the
accuracy of instep kick. (Refer table 2)
- While the last stride length of the other 2 subject
is in between 133cm and 120cm.
- Stoner and Ben-Sira (1981) reported that the
longer last stride length among the professional
player in between 1.69m – 1.59m.
- Based on the results, it is proven that the higher
last stride length will increase accuracy.
• Angel Extension of the thigh
- In this research, subject 1 extended his thigh at 108
degrees, subject 2 at 90 degrees and the subject 3 at
113 degrees for their largest angle of thigh extension. (
Refer Table 1)
- Subject 3 had a biggest thigh extension angle while
backswing compared to subject 2 and 1.
- The higher thigh angle while backswing with higher
angle of leg extension is better because it can generate
more power in kicking and increase the distance of ball
reach and accuracy (Linthorne & Patel, 2010). The
study found that the best thigh extension angle is >100
• Angle Knee Flexion
- In this research, we found that the minimum angle of
knee flexion for subject 1 is 82°, subject 2 is 118° and
subject 3 is 72° degree. Subject 3 got the smaller angle
compared to the subject 1 and 2 in maximum knee
flexion angle. (Refer Table 2)
- The smaller the knee flexion angle will produce more
force while kicking and will influence the speed of the
ball (Linthorne & Patel, 2010). In this study provide
that the best knee flexion angle is <100 degree.
• Velocity of the Joint
- Based on the APAS results shown, subject 3
had the fastest joint velocity except for the
shoulder velocity. (Refer Table 3)
- For the summation of forces, higher velocity
of joint will produce and provide higher
velocity on the next joint.
• The higher the distance of last stride length in
range 1.35m – 1.69m will generate more
velocity as well as momentum to produce high
force and power when kicking the ball (Stoner
and Ben-Sira, 1981).
• This study showed that the bigger thigh
extension (120° – 100°) the smaller angle of
knee flexion (40° – 80°) while kicking will
generate more force and power.
• This is because it can generate more power in
kicking and increase the distance of ball reach
and accuracy. (Linthorne & Patel, 2010).
• The fastest velocity of the segment will
generate more power in the summation force
• Thousands of thanks and gratitude to:
Mr. Jamili and Mr. Hakimi for the help on the apparatus
and technical settings and measurements through our
Ms Nur Aqilah bt Mokhtar, Ms Nur Amira bt Mahmood
and Ms Safia bt Sulaiman for their help and guidance in
conducting our project
Suhaimi bin Abd Razak, Muhammad Ridzwan bin Ramli,
and Zarulnaim bin Mansur for being our subjects in this
Beloved parents and families, as well as our friends and
course mates for their understanding and help through
out the project
Lees, A., Asai, T., Andersen A. B., Nunome, H., &
Sterzing, T. (2010). The biomechanics of
kicking in soccer: A review. Journal of Sport
Katis A. and Kellis E. (2010). Three-dimensional kinematics and ground
reaction forces during the instep and outstep soccer kicks in
pubertal players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28(11):1233–
Katis A. and Kellis E. (2007). Biomechanical characteristics and
of instep soccer kick. Journal of Sports Science
and Medicine, 6,154-165.
Bubannj S., Stankovic R., Joksimovic S., Bubanjl R., Kozomara G., &
Efthimiadis P. (2010). Kinematics of accurate inside of foot
kick. Kinesiologia Slovenica, 16, 1-2, 75-83.
Reilly T. & Williams A.M., (2003). Science and
Soccer 2nd edition.
Shan, G. & Wilde B. (2012). Know-How of Maximal Instep Kick in
Soccer. Retrieved on May 23, 2012,from
Shan G. & Zhang X. (2011). From 2D leg kinematics to 3D full-body
biomechanics-the past, present and future of scientific
analysis of maximal instep kick in soccer. Sports Medicine,
Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy and Technology 2011, 3:23.
Retrieved on May 15, 2012, from
Narvaez, M. (2012). Teaching the Instep Kick to Beginning Soccer
Players. Retrieved on May 23, 2012,from