Preventing recidivism and homelessness:housing strategies forex offenders Mark Hurwitz Project Renewal National Conference on Ending HomelessnessJuly 14, 2011
There are 2.4 million Americans behind bars Incarceration Rate Under State and Federal Jurisdiction 1925-2009 Source: U.S. Department of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, statistical series “Prisoners in State and Federal Institutions.”
Incarceration Rate in OECD Countries2008-2009 The US has 5% of the world’s population and 23% of its prisoners Rate per 100,000 population Source: Pew Center on States, International Centre for Prison Studies (ICPS) at King’s College London.
Rates of Institutionalization, including Jails, in the United States 1934-2001 Growth in prisons followed the shrinkage of mental hospitals Rate per 100,000 adults Source: An Institutionalization Effect: The Impact of Mental Hospitalization and Imprisonment on Homicide in the United States, 1934 – 2001 by B. E. Harcourt, The Law School The University of Chicago, 2009
Black male high school dropouts have a 68% chance of imprisonment before the age of 35 Cumulative risk of imprisonment by age 30-34 men born 1945-1949 men born 1975-1979 Source: Becky Pettit, Bryan Sykes, and Bruce Western, “Technical Report on Revised Population Estimates and Analysis Tables for the Pew Public Safety and Mobility Project” (Harvard University, 2009).
Spending on corrections outpaces every other category except medicaid General fund expenditures for corrections Source: Pew Center on States
Probation and parole accounts for 69% of correctional population but 12% of state spending Source: Pew Center on States
One day in prison costs more than 10 days on parole or 22 days on probation Source: Pew Center on States
j Prison Expenditures By Block Brooklyn, NY (Eric Cadora, 2004) Million dollar blocks indicate huge potential for justice reinvest-ment
The three year recidivism rate for State Prison inmates released in 2004 was 43.3 percent. If states could reduce their recidivism rates by just 10 percent, they could save more than $635 million combined in one year alone in averted prison costs. Nationally, 35% of prison admissions are a result of parole violations
“A prison that deprives prisoners of basic sustenance, including adequate medical care, is incompatible with the concept of human dignity and has no place in civilized society.” – United States Supreme Court, Brown v. Plata The supreme court says overcrowding is cruel and unusual punishment
A conceptual framework for interventions Sequential Intercept Model: Munetz and Griffen 2006 At each stage there are opportunities for
Systems level change
Service level change
How do homelessness and incarceration interact?
Increased visibility/ target for law enforcement
Reduced access to treatment for mental illness and substance abuse
Broken social and family bonds
Difficulty obtaining employment
Disruption in benefits
“Collateral consequences” such as public housing bans
How can we build collaborations that break the cycle?