1981 <ul><li>In August of 1981, the National Commission on Excellence in Education was chartered under the authority of 20 U.S.C. 1233a. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Their goal was to review & synthesize the data on the quality of learning & teaching in the nation's schools, colleges, and universities, both public and private. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
A Nation at Risk <ul><li>The National Commission on Excellence published a report: </li></ul><ul><li>A Nation at Risk , which found that the American school system was falling behind compared to education institutions around the world. </li></ul><ul><li>The notion of equal education for all regardless of race or class or economic status had not been met. </li></ul><ul><li>They reported several risk factors. </li></ul>
Risk Factors <ul><li>School curriculum had become weak and was without a central purpose. Students were packed in large numbers into classrooms. Courses offered were general and lacked clarity. </li></ul><ul><li>It was recommended that high school graduation requirements be strengthened to require minimum credits in English, mathematics, science, social science, and computer science. </li></ul>
Reasons for downfall of American Education System <ul><li>Time was another factor which showed that American students spent less time on schoolwork. Schools didn’t encourage nor develop study skills in their students. </li></ul><ul><li>The Commission’s report found that teaching was not producing enough academically able students. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher preparation programs needed substantial improvement. </li></ul><ul><li>A serious shortage of teachers was also indicated in this report. </li></ul>
Risk Factors <ul><li>The report concluded that the expectations had drastically declined. Teachers had become relaxed on homework, courses lacked difficulty and rigor, enrollment in less demanding classes had increased, and outdated textbooks had been used throughout the country. </li></ul><ul><li>It was recommended that schools adopt more rigorous and measurable standards, and higher expectations, for academic performance using challenging materials in an environment that supports learning and authentic accomplishment. </li></ul>
Improving America’s Schools Act of 1994(IASA) <ul><li>Restructured the Elementary & Secondary Education Act of 1965(ESEA). </li></ul><ul><li>ESEA was designed to focus federal funding on poor schools with low achieving students. </li></ul><ul><li>Title I focus shifted from poor students to all students. </li></ul>
1994-2000 <ul><li>Paradigm shift begin to occur in the Education industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Many states implemented content standards and performance standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Data was collected and used for improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation of large scale assessment programs. </li></ul>
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001(NCLB) <ul><li>Reauthorize ESEA in dramatic ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of achievement testing of students in kindergarten through high school. </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability in schools. </li></ul><ul><li>Set standards for grade-level achievement and develop a system to measure the progress of ALL students and subgroups of students in meeting those state determined grade level standards. </li></ul>
Four themes of NCLB <ul><li>Improving academic achievement of the economically disadvantage. </li></ul><ul><li>Highly qualified teachers & principals. </li></ul><ul><li>Making education more accountable. </li></ul><ul><li>Parental involvement. </li></ul>
U.S. Education Process ??? NCLB Improving America’s School Act Of 1994 (IASA) A Nation at Risk The Education Act of 1965
References <ul><li>Jorgensen, M, & Hoffman, Jenny. (2003, December). History of the no child left behind act . Retrieved from http://www.pearsonassessments.com/NR/rdonlyres/D8E33AAE-BED1-4743-98A1-BDF4D49D7274/0/HistoryofNCLB.pdf . </li></ul><ul><li>Sam Dillon, 02-21-2010, Obama to Seek Sweeping Change in :”No Child” Law, Retrieved June 29, 2010 from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/01/education/01child.html . </li></ul>
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