Introduction to logic

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Introduction to logic

  1. 1. Introduction to Logic A Short History  Though the concept of causation has of ‘Causation’ emerged in Pre- Socratic philosophy, it was probably Plato who first stated the principle of causality: However, Aristotle was the first philosopher to give an extensive account of causes.
  2. 2. Aristotle View of Causation: Aristotle viewed cause from a wider perspective. A cause for Aristotle is notsimple but compound in nature consisting mainly of four factors. Introduction to Logic
  3. 3. Intrinsic causes Extrinsic causes Material cause:  Efficient causeMaterial cause of a thing is Efficient cause is the skill orthe matter or the substance theout of which the effect is energy necessary forProduced. producing the effect. Formal cause:  The final causeFormal cause of an effect The final cause of a thing is means the very purpose for whichthe new shape or the form that the change is brought in.is given on the substance for The the purpose behind theproduction of an object or production of the effect iseffect. the final cause of the thing.
  4. 4. Causality –  Mill defines cause as theMill sum total or group of invariable and unconditional antecedents.
  5. 5. Introduction to Logic. DEVELOPMENT OF THE SEQUENCE VIEW OF CAUSATION : ACCORDING TO VENN, THIS VIEW HAS PASSED THROUGH THREE STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT. 1) THE POPULAR STAGE 2) THE SCIENTIFIC STAGE 3) THE SPECULATIVE STAGE
  6. 6. Introduction to Logic  At this stage, from The Popular Stage: various causes, the dominant cause was singles out and regards it as the whole cause. Similarly, out of many effects, only dominant effect was considered as a whole.
  7. 7. A distinction wasmade betweenCause and mere co-existence. Cause isto be consideredmore scientific thanthe co-existence.
  8. 8. This stage goes a step farther than thescientific stage. At this stage, the effect isalso regarded, like the cause, as complex, asum-total of consequents
  9. 9. Causes and Conditions: Condition:A condition is anything that exercises some influence upon the effect and is essential for bringing it about. Cause:From many of conditions, we select one and call it the cause, and refer to the others as mere conditions. Thus, scientifically speaking, cause is a sum-total of all the condition, positive as well as negative
  10. 10. Popularity of Causes: Mill’s Doctrine: Mill urges that one and the same effect may be due to any one of several causes, that the same effect may be produced sometimes by one cause and sometimes by another
  11. 11. 1- If there are many variable causes for a given effect, then Mill’s definition of cause as a group of invariable antecedents collides with it. 2- Secondly, Mill is wrong in saying that different causes can produce exactly the same effect. 3- Plurality of causes is also against the law of uniformity which says that the Same effect is produced by the same cause, butplurality of causes says that the same effect can be producedby different causes.
  12. 12. 1- Mechanical composition of 2- Chemical compositionCauses and Homogeneous of Causes andInter-mixture of Effects Heterogeneous Inter- mixture of Effects When a number of causes  When a number of combine in such a way causes combine in such that the joint effect if of a way that the joint the same kind or same effect is different in Kind nature, then it is called from the separate Homogeneous Inter- effects, we have a mixture of effects. heterogeneous inter- mixture of effects.
  13. 13. Introduction to Logic Further two types of heterogeneous effects.Transformations Causes and effects can be mutually converted into each other.Example Hydrogen and oxygen make water and water can be separated into hydrogen and oxygen.Non-Transformations: The effects are not convertible into their causes.Example Bones and blood Can’t be converted into their causes.
  14. 14. Cause and effectoften act andreact on eachother, and theirmutual action andreaction is knownas Mutuality ofcause and effect.

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