Invasive species and
Overexplotation
Exotic: Organisms that have been introduced
by human activity into an ecosystem where...
Harmful Impacts
1.
2.
3.
4.

Out-compete native species.
Cause disease in native species.
Prey on native species to point ...
Paper Mulberry in Islamabad
• Native to eastern Asia.
• Introduced for its scenic value, but is now
replacing the native f...
Purple loosestrife
• Introduced from Europe and dominated many
North America wet land.
• So aggressive that it chokes out ...
Zebra mussels
• First introduced in the Great Lakes by ballast
water.
• Multi-billion dollar threat.
• They out-compete na...
Comb jelly
• 1982
Black Sea introduction is
accidentally by ballast water.
• It caused a dramatic drop in fish
populations...
lamprey
• Primitive jawless fish—has a sucker mouth
• Parasite that attaches to large fish
• Came into the Great Lakes fro...
Fire Ants
• In southern United State, diversity of insect
species decline 40% after the invasion of
exotic fire ants
• abu...
Brown Tree snake
• Introduced onto number of Pacific islands
• It devastate endemic bird population by
eating eggs, nestli...
OVER EXPLOTATION
Def: Overexploitation is the use, by the
human, of a natural resources to an extant,
that is not sustaina...
extensive use of wildlife for both food and
traditional medicines
5. Improve methods of harvesting leading to the
empty ha...
International trade in fur
Mamo Bird
• A single ceremonial cloaks worn
by Hawaiian king were made
from feathers of Mamo bi...
The Great Auk
• The bird had few natural predators, it has no fear 
of human which made them easier to hunt.
• It was foun...
Bluefin tuna
• The northern bluefin tuna is currently seriously 
overexploited. 
• Scientists say 7,500 tons annually is t...
The Amphibian and Reptile Industry
,Food:
• Certain frog species are particularly
persecuted along with a few lizards, tur...
• CORAL REEF
• The rich diversity of marine life inhabiting
coral reefs attracts bioprospectors. Many
coral reefs are over...
• Other species affected by overexploitation
include:
• The international trade in fur: chinchilla,
and numerous cat speci...
• RHINOCEROS become rare due to
overexploitation the price of its horns rises
making its more value able on black
market ....
• CONTROL OF OVER EXPLOITATION:
• 1. RIGHTS TO SPECIFIC HARVESTING
TERRITORY were rigidly controlled.
• 2. Hunting and har...
Invasion species
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Invasion species

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Invasion species

  1. 1. Invasive species and Overexplotation Exotic: Organisms that have been introduced by human activity into an ecosystem where they are not native. Invasive species: Exotic that spreads naturally into natural or semi-natural habitat, they increase in abundance at the expense of native species. Introduction of Invasive species? 1.Accidental introduction. 2.Purposeful introduction and accidental 2
  2. 2. Harmful Impacts 1. 2. 3. 4. Out-compete native species. Cause disease in native species. Prey on native species to point of extinction. Degrade habitats so that native are no longer to persist. Invasive species of Pakistan • • • • Eucalyptus plant was imported Australia. Consume more water (disturbed water table). It harm plants growth near by. from 3
  3. 3. Paper Mulberry in Islamabad • Native to eastern Asia. • Introduced for its scenic value, but is now replacing the native flora at an alarming rate. • High consumption of water, which leaves less water to sustain the native flora. 4
  4. 4. Purple loosestrife • Introduced from Europe and dominated many North America wet land. • So aggressive that it chokes out native plants, destroying wildlife habitat 1968 1978 5
  5. 5. Zebra mussels • First introduced in the Great Lakes by ballast water. • Multi-billion dollar threat. • They out-compete native mussels. • Within two year of introduction , they reached densities of 700,000. 6
  6. 6. Comb jelly • 1982 Black Sea introduction is accidentally by ballast water. • It caused a dramatic drop in fish populations by competing for the same food sources . • Biological control was tried with Beroe ovata, another comb jelly, with some degree of success has been achieved. 7
  7. 7. lamprey • Primitive jawless fish—has a sucker mouth • Parasite that attaches to large fish • Came into the Great Lakes from the Atlantic Ocean • Only about 1 in 7 fish survive attack by lamprey 8
  8. 8. Fire Ants • In southern United State, diversity of insect species decline 40% after the invasion of exotic fire ants • abundance of northern bobwhite in Texas has decline over a 20 year period(effect at nestling stage) • Nuisance to people. 9
  9. 9. Brown Tree snake • Introduced onto number of Pacific islands • It devastate endemic bird population by eating eggs, nestling and adult birds. • Invasive species has driven 8 of 11 forest species extinct. 10
  10. 10. OVER EXPLOTATION Def: Overexploitation is the use, by the human, of a natural resources to an extant, that is not sustainable. • Also called as overharvesting. Causes of Overexploitation 1.Possibly rich countries over consume. 2.Increase in human population number. 3.Lack of incentive to conserve biodiversity. 4.Results from large ,poor ,rural population and 11
  11. 11. extensive use of wildlife for both food and traditional medicines 5. Improve methods of harvesting leading to the empty habitat. EXAMPLES: Commercial exploitation of whale • Whales are slaughtered for spermaceti oil (oil form sperm whale) meat, baleen(whale bone) leads to the decrease in the population of the whale. • International whaling commission IWC regulates whale hunting. 12
  12. 12. International trade in fur Mamo Bird • A single ceremonial cloaks worn by Hawaiian king were made from feathers of Mamo birds. • A single cloak use the feathers of 70,000 birds of this now extinct species.  Carolina parakeet • The only parrot species native to the eastern United States, was hunted for crop protection and its feathers. 13
  13. 13. The Great Auk • The bird had few natural predators, it has no fear  of human which made them easier to hunt. • It was found in Canada, Greenland, Iceland,  Norway and great Britain. • Being flightless it was a       hunters dream. •  The bird was used for • food and feathers. 14
  14. 14. Bluefin tuna • The northern bluefin tuna is currently seriously  overexploited.  • Scientists say 7,500 tons annually is the  sustainable limit, yet the fishing industry  continues to harvest 60,000 tons. • Commercial fishing demonstrates that industry working one species after  another to the point of  diminishing returns a process some time terms fishing down  the food chain. 15
  15. 15. The Amphibian and Reptile Industry ,Food: • Certain frog species are particularly persecuted along with a few lizards, turtles, crocodiles and alligators. • The USA import 2.5 million kilogram frog legs from Japan and India. • Brightly colored frogs, such as the Poison or dart frogs are also threatened by overexploitation for sale in the pet trade. • Because of bright colored they are highly valued by hobbyists. 16
  16. 16. • CORAL REEF • The rich diversity of marine life inhabiting coral reefs attracts bioprospectors. Many coral reefs are overexploited. 17
  17. 17. • Other species affected by overexploitation include: • The international trade in fur: chinchilla, and numerous cat species. • Insect collectors: butterflies • Shell collectors: Marine molluscs • Aquarium hobbyists: tropical fish • Chinese medicine: bears, tigers • Novelty pets: snakes, parrots and primates 18
  18. 18. • RHINOCEROS become rare due to overexploitation the price of its horns rises making its more value able on black market . 19
  19. 19. • CONTROL OF OVER EXPLOITATION: • 1. RIGHTS TO SPECIFIC HARVESTING TERRITORY were rigidly controlled. • 2. Hunting and harvesting in certain areas must be banned. • 3. Prohibition against harvesting female juvenile and undersized animals • 4. Efficient methods of harvesting is not allowed • 5. Certain season of years and time of the days were close for the harvesting. 20

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