information system lecture notes

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information system lecture notes

  1. 1. INFORMATION SYSTEM Lecture # 11
  2. 2. Principles ofInformation Systems (Eighth Edition) CHAPTER 5 ORGANIZING DATA AND INFORMATION
  3. 3. PRINCIPLES AND LEARNINGOBJECTIVES Data management and modeling are key aspects of organizing data and information  Define general data management concepts and terms, highlighting the advantages of the database approach to data management  Describe the relational database model and outline its basic features 3 Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition
  4. 4. PRINCIPLES AND LEARNINGOBJECTIVES (CONTINUED) A well-designed and well-managed database is an extremely valuable tool in supporting decision making Edition Principles of Information Systems, Eighth  Identifythe common functions performed by all database management systems and identify popular user database management systems 4
  5. 5. PRINCIPLES AND LEARNINGOBJECTIVES (CONTINUED) The number and types of database applications will continue to evolve and yield real business benefits Edition Principles of Information Systems, Eighth  Identify and briefly discuss current database applications 5
  6. 6. WHY LEARN ABOUT DATABASESYSTEMS?Database systems process and organize large amounts of data Edition Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Examples:  Marketing manager can access customer data  Corporate lawyer can access past cases and opinions 6
  7. 7. INTRODUCTION Database: an organized collection of data Database management system (DBMS): Edition Principles of Information Systems, Eighth group of programs to manage database  Manipulates database  Provides an interface between database and the user of the database and other application programs Database administrator (DBA): skilled IS professional who directs all activities related to an organization’s database 7
  8. 8. DATA MANAGEMENT Without data and the ability to process it, an organization could not successfully complete most business activities Edition Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Data consists of raw facts To transform data into useful information, it must first be organized in a meaningful way 8
  9. 9. THE HIERARCHY OF DATA Bit (a binary digit): represents a circuit that is either on or off Edition Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Byte: typically made up of eight bits Character: a byte represents a character; the basic building block of information  Can be an uppercase letter, lowercase letter, numeric digit, or special symbol Field: typically a name, number, or combination of characters that describes an aspect of a business object or activity 9
  10. 10. THE HIERARCHY OF DATA(CONTINUED) Record: collection of related data fields File: collection of related records Edition Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Database: collection of integrated and related files Hierarchy of data  Bits, characters, fields, records, files, and databases 10
  11. 11. THE HIERARCHY OF DATA (CONTINUED) Figure 5.1: The Hierarchy of DataPrinciples of Information Systems, Eighth Edition 11
  12. 12. DATA ENTITIES, ATTRIBUTES, ANDKEYS Entity: generalized class of people, places, or things (objects) for which data is collected, stored, and maintained Edition Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Attribute: characteristic of an entity Data item: specific value of an attribute Key: field or set of fields in a record that is used to identify the record Primary key: field or set of fields that uniquely identifies the record 12
  13. 13. DATA ENTITIES, ATTRIBUTES, AND KEYS(CONTINUED) Figure 5.2: Keys and AttributesPrinciples of Information Systems, Eighth Edition 13
  14. 14. THE DATABASE APPROACH Traditional approach to data management: separate data files are created and stored for each Edition Principles of Information Systems, Eighth application program Database approach to data management: a pool of related data is shared by multiple application programs  Offerssignificant advantages over the traditional file- based approach 14
  15. 15. THE DATABASE APPROACH (CONTINUED) Figure 5.3: The Database Approach to Data ManagementPrinciples of Information Systems, Eighth Edition 15
  16. 16. THE DATABASE APPROACH (CONTINUED) Table 5.1: Advantages of the Database ApproachPrinciples of Information Systems, Eighth Edition 16
  17. 17. THE DATABASE APPROACH (CONTINUED) Table 5.1: Advantages of the Database Approach (continued)Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition 17
  18. 18. THE DATABASE APPROACH (CONTINUED) Table 5.2: Disadvantages of the Database ApproachPrinciples of Information Systems, Eighth Edition 18

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