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6 roman art

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  • 1. Age of the Conquerors: Roman Art
  • 2. The Etruscans • lived in Italy long before the Roman Empire rose to greatness • Most civilized and powerful of all the peoples in Italy; conquered much of Italy north of the Tiber River • Rome became the largest and richest city in Italy by the end of the 6th century BC • Romans drove the Etruscans from the city in 509 BC and established a republic
  • 3. The Rising Power of Rome • Rome was always surrounded by enemies; distant foes would follow after defeat of nearby enemies • Rome managed to defend itself against these threats and extended its power until all of Italy was under control • Early victory at Carthage= first overseas province--Sicily
  • 4. • Before it was finished, Rome ruled over every civilized land in Europe and Africa • Eventually, it controlled territory from Britain in the west to Mesopotamia in the East • So extensive was its rule that the Romans referred to the Mediterranean as “mare nostrum –our sea”
  • 5. Map of Ancient Rome
  • 6. Roman Architecture • It is difficult to talk about ‘Roman Art’ because much of it was copied from the Greeks • Except for architecture, the made few original contributions to their own art • Romans were excellent planners and Engineers
  • 7. Temple of Fortuna Virilis
  • 8. The Temples • Roman temples made use of features developed earlier by others, especially the Greeks, but to satisfy their own needs and tastes • While Greeks used columns as structural supports, the Romans added them to their buildings as decoration without structural purpose
  • 9. • The Roman temple is placed on a podium or platform which raises it above eye level; this feature was borrowed from the Etruscans
  • 10. Features of Roman Architecture • To span openings, Roman builders made use of the arch • The Roman arch is an improvement of the post- and-lintel system of the Greeks • Post and lintel limited builders in terms of the space it could bridge • Unlike a lintel, an arch is made of a number of bricks or cut stones, these are held in place by a wooden form until the top stone, called a keystone is fit into place
  • 11. • However, an arch needs the support of another arch or a wall • If the support is not provide, the outward force of the arch will cause it to collapse • For this reason, Romans created a series of smaller arches to replace the single large arch
  • 12. Use of concrete • Although it had been used in the Near East for some time, the Romans were the first to make extensive use of the material • Wherever the Roman legions went they introduced the arch and the use of concrete in architecture
  • 13. Roman Aqueduct
  • 14. The Aqueducts • Demonstrate combination of architectural and engineering skills • Constructed by placing series of arches next to each other • Designed to carry water from mountain streams into cities using gravitational flow • Eleven were built in and around Rome. Ranged from 16km to 96.6km in length
  • 15. Public Buildings • Baths, circuses, forums, and amphitheaters constructed for the enjoyment of the people • Maintained the popularity of the emperor • Ancient guidebook to Rome, published in the 4th century A.D. claims there were 424 temples, 304 shrines, 80 statues of gods made from precious metals, 64 of ivory, and 3,700 bronze statues scattered throughout the city
  • 16. Central hall of the Baths of Caracalla
  • 17. The Baths • Among the most popular Roman buildings • Much more than just municipal swimming pools; they were vast enclosed structures that contained libraries, lecture rooms, gymnasiums, shops, restaurants and pleasant walkways • These made the baths a social and cultural center as well as place for hygiene
  • 18. • Contained series of rooms that were progressively cooler • The ‘calidarium’ with its hot water pool was entered first; from there one walked to the ‘tepidarium’ where a warm bath awaited. The last room was the ‘frigidarium’ and there a cool bath was provided
  • 19. Buildings for Sports • Chariot races were the Roman’s favorite sport • As many as 150,000 spectators gather at the Circus Maximus to cheer on their favorite teams • As popular, were armed contests held in large arenas and amphitheaters such as the Colosseum
  • 20. The Colosseum
  • 21. The Colosseum • Built on the second half of the first century AD • Owes its name to a colossal statue of Roman Emperor Nero which once stood nearby • The huge structure covers 2.4 ha (6 acres). It forms an oval measuring 187.4 m (615 feet) by 155.4 m (510 feet) • The structure is so large that during the Middle Ages people built a small city within it
  • 22. The Pantheon
  • 23. The Pantheon: A Marvel of Design • Designed as a temple dedicated to all the Roman gods; later converted into a Christian church • Looks like a low, gently curving dome resting on a cylinder from the outside; • lost much of its original impact because level of the streets much higher now
  • 24. Interior of the Pantheon
  • 25. • Passing through the entrance, you step into the great domed space of the interior • Made of brick and concrete, the dome is a true hemisphere
  • 26. • Inside of Pantheon is divided into 3 zones: - Lower zone: seven niches which may have contained statues or altars dedicated to the Roman gods of the heavens: Sol (sun); Luna (moon), and gods of the five known planets - above this: zone containing 12 signs of the Zodiac - finally, rising above all, is the dome representing the heavens. Surface is covered with coffers, or indented panels which lessen the weight of the dome
  • 27. Plan of a Roman Basilica
  • 28. The Basilicas • Rectangular buildings designed as public meeting halls; often part of the forum or public square • To serve later as models for generations of Christian church builders • On the inside, slender columns divided the space into a long wide center aisle called a nave and two or more narrower side aisles.
  • 29. • Roof over the center aisle usually higher than the side aisles • Allowed builders to install windows to let the sunlight in • Roman basilica ha a side entrance and one or more apses, or semicircular areas, at the end of the nave
  • 30. The Arch of Constantine
  • 31. Triumphal Arches • Marked successful military campaigns • After victory, the general and his troops would pass through a heavily decorated arch to the cheers of thousands.
  • 32. Roman Sculpture and Painting • Realism was preferred in sculpture and painting; especially true in the case of sculpted portraits • Desire for lifelike portraits traced to earliest periods of Roman history: wax masks- of the deceased, carried in funeral processions eventually stone and marble was used to make it more durable
  • 33. Portrait of a Roman
  • 34. Portrait Sculpture • Mostly made by Greek sculptors working in Rome • Greek tradition adapted to Roman demands • Meant to serve private needs • Commissioned portrait heads/busts rather than entire figures • Like looking at a real person
  • 35. Mosaic floor from a Roman villa
  • 36. Wall painting from villa at Boscoreale
  • 37. Mural Painting • Wealthy Roman families lived in luxurious homes with courts, gardens with elaborate fountains, rooms furnished with marble walls and mosaics on the floors • Entire walls were painted with murals that tried to reproduce accurately the world around them; scenes create the impression of looking out a window or gazing over a city
  • 38. Maiden Gathering Flowers. 1st century AD.