Unit 17 relating sentences- negatives, questions, passive and active

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Unit 17 relating sentences- negatives, questions, passive and active

  1. 1. Relating Sentences - Passive <ul><li>Active: Mary sang a song . </li></ul><ul><li>Passive: A song was sung by Mary. </li></ul><ul><li>Active: John ate the cake . </li></ul><ul><li>Passive: The cake was eaten by John. </li></ul><ul><li>The object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence . </li></ul><ul><li>The subject of the active sentence becomes an optional argument of the passive sentence . </li></ul><ul><li>This is called a “ by phrase ” </li></ul>
  2. 2. How do you passivize a sentence? <ul><li>I. First, only transitive verbs can be passivized! </li></ul><ul><li>II. Take the object and make it the subject . </li></ul><ul><li>III. The subject is followed by the auxiliary “ be ”. </li></ul><ul><li>IV. The verb in its Past Participle Form follows “ be ”. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: John ate a banana . </li></ul><ul><li>I. “ eat ” is a transitive verb! So we may proceed. </li></ul><ul><li>II. Object becomes subject : “ A banana … ” </li></ul><ul><li>III. Add the auxiliary “ be ”: “ A banana was … ” </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Add the verb in its Past Participle Form : </li></ul><ul><li>A banana was eaten . </li></ul>
  3. 3. How do you passivize a sentence? <ul><li>I. Only transitive verbs can be passivized! </li></ul><ul><li>II. Take the object and make it the subject . </li></ul><ul><li>III. The subject is followed by the auxiliary “ be ”. </li></ul><ul><li> Make sure “ be ” is in the correct tense . </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Sam is making coffee . </li></ul><ul><li>I. “ make ” is a transitive verb, so we may proceed. </li></ul><ul><li>II. Object becomes subject : “ Coffee … ” </li></ul><ul><li>III. Add the auxiliary “ be ”: “ Coffee is being … ” </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Add the verb in its Past Participle Form: </li></ul><ul><li>Coffee is being made . </li></ul>
  4. 4. How do you passivize a sentence? <ul><li>I. Only transitive verbs can be passivized! </li></ul><ul><li>II. Take the object and make it the subject . </li></ul><ul><li>III. The subject is followed by the auxiliary “ be ”. </li></ul><ul><li> Make sure “ be ” is in the correct tense . </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Sam will study linguistics . </li></ul><ul><li>I. “ study ” is a transitive verb, so we may proceed. </li></ul><ul><li>II. Object becomes subject : “ Linguistics … ” </li></ul><ul><li>III. Add the auxiliary “ be ”: “ Linguistics will be … ” </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Add the verb in its Past Participle Form: </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistics will be studied . </li></ul>
  5. 5. How do you passivize a sentence? <ul><li>I. Only transitive verbs can be passivized! </li></ul><ul><li>II. Take the object and make it the subject . </li></ul><ul><li>III. The subject is followed by the auxiliary “ be ”. </li></ul><ul><li> Make sure “ be ” is in the correct tense . </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Sue has watched that musical . </li></ul><ul><li>I. “ watch ” is a transitive verb, so we may proceed. </li></ul><ul><li>II. Object becomes subject : “ That musical … ” </li></ul><ul><li>III. Add the auxiliary “ be ”: “ That musical has been … ” </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Add the verb in its Past Participle Form: </li></ul><ul><li>That musical has been watched . </li></ul>
  6. 6. How do you passivize a sentence? <ul><li>I. Only transitive verbs can be passivized! </li></ul><ul><li>II. Take the object and make it the subject . </li></ul><ul><li>III. The subject is followed by the auxiliary “ be ”. </li></ul><ul><li> Make sure “ be ” is in the correct tense . </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Jane was baking a cake . </li></ul><ul><li>I. “ bake ” is a transitive verb, so we may proceed. </li></ul><ul><li>II. Object becomes subject : “ A cake … ” </li></ul><ul><li>III. Add the auxiliary “ be ”: “ A cake was being … ” </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Add the verb in its Past Participle Form: </li></ul><ul><li>A cake was being baked . </li></ul>
  7. 7. How do you passivize a sentence? <ul><li>I. Only transitive verbs can be passivized! </li></ul><ul><li>II. Take the object and make it the subject . </li></ul><ul><li>III. The subject is followed by the auxiliary “ be ”. </li></ul><ul><li> Make sure “ be ” is in the correct tense . </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Jane had bought a new car . </li></ul><ul><li>I. “ buy ” is a transitive verb, so we may proceed. </li></ul><ul><li>II. Object becomes subject : “ A new car … ” </li></ul><ul><li>III. Add the auxiliary “ be ”: “ A new car had been … ” </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Add the verb in its Past Participle Form: </li></ul><ul><li>A new car had been bought . </li></ul>
  8. 8. How do you passivize a sentence? <ul><li>I. Only transitive verbs can be passivized! </li></ul><ul><li>II. Take the object and make it the subject . </li></ul><ul><li>III. The subject is followed by the auxiliary “ be ”. </li></ul><ul><li> Make sure “ be ” is in the correct tense . </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Sue would have seen him . </li></ul><ul><li>I. “ see ” is a transitive verb, so we may proceed. </li></ul><ul><li>II. Object becomes subject : “ He … ” </li></ul><ul><li>III. Add the auxiliary “ be ”: “ He would have been … ” </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Add the verb in its Past Participle Form: </li></ul><ul><li>He would have been seen . </li></ul>
  9. 9. Tense of Passive Sentences <ul><li>The tense of the passive sentence is determined by the auxiliary “ be ” (the verb is always Past Participle !) </li></ul>1. The cake was eaten . 2. The mail is collected daily. 3. Fun will be had . 4. The cake had been eaten . 5. The mail has been collected . 6. Fun will have been had . 7. The cake was being eaten . 8. The mail is being collected . <ul><li>Past Simple </li></ul><ul><li>Present Simple </li></ul><ul><li>Future Simple </li></ul><ul><li>Past Perfect </li></ul><ul><li>Present Perfect </li></ul><ul><li>Future Perfect </li></ul><ul><li>Past Progressive </li></ul><ul><li>Present Progressive </li></ul>
  10. 10. From Active to Passive <ul><li>When converting a sentence from active to passive, be sure to keep the tense the same! </li></ul>1. John is smoking a cigar.  2. Sam hit Bill.  3. Jane was reading a book.  4. Sue will watch a movie.  5. Bill likes Mary.  6. We had fun.  7. She has had a baby.  8. I will believe her.  A cigar is being smoked. Bill was hit. A book was being read. A movie will be watched. Mary is liked. Fun was had. A baby has been had. She will be believed.
  11. 11. Active and Passive - Argument Structure <ul><li>What is the argument structure : </li></ul><ul><li>Sam kissed Jane. </li></ul><ul><li>kiss : verb; 1 2 </li></ul><ul><li> NP NP </li></ul><ul><li>2. Jane was kissed by Sam. </li></ul><ul><li>kiss (passive) : verb; 1 (2) </li></ul><ul><li>NP PP </li></ul><ul><li>3. Jane was kissed. </li></ul><ul><li>kiss (passive) : verb; 1 (2) </li></ul><ul><li> NP PP </li></ul>Remember the “ By- Phrase” is optional! When there’s no By-Phrase the sentence is a Truncated Passive
  12. 12. Active and Passive - Argument Structure <ul><li>What is the argument structure : </li></ul><ul><li>Bill washed his car. </li></ul><ul><li>wash : verb; 1 2 </li></ul><ul><li> NP NP </li></ul><ul><li>2. The car was washed. </li></ul><ul><li>wash (passive) : verb; 1 (2) </li></ul><ul><li>NP PP </li></ul><ul><li>3. The bills were paid. </li></ul><ul><li>pay (passive) : verb; 1 (2) </li></ul><ul><li> NP PP </li></ul>
  13. 13. Convert to Truncated Passives <ul><li>1. The lions chased the gazelles. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Clark walked around the campfire. </li></ul><ul><li>3. You can use those. </li></ul><ul><li>4. They will make a pie. </li></ul><ul><li>5. They had discovered a treasure. </li></ul><ul><li>6. We were watching this DVD yesterday. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Many farmers raise sheep. </li></ul><ul><li>8. GM has manufactured cars for decades. </li></ul><ul><li>9. We had lunch. </li></ul><ul><li>10. They will publish the book. </li></ul>
  14. 14. How to recognize a passive sentence? <ul><li>Passive sentences always contain the auxiliary “ be ”, followed by a verb in the past participle form . </li></ul><ul><li>Example : </li></ul><ul><li>Passive: John was kissed . </li></ul><ul><li>Active: John was kissing Mary. </li></ul><ul><li>II. Passive sentences contain a verb that selects (at least) two arguments , yet one of these arguments is always optional, and could only appear in a by-phrase ! </li></ul><ul><li>Passive: John was kissed (by Mary). </li></ul>
  15. 15. Active or Passive? <ul><li>1. They bought the house by the railroad tracks. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Their daughter had been selected for that honor. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Mary was enjoying the cake by herself. </li></ul><ul><li>4. The monument is being designed by a known sculptor. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Billy was staying at that hotel by the beach. </li></ul><ul><li>6. The milk was once delivered every morning. </li></ul><ul><li>7. The population of N.Y has increased by a million. </li></ul><ul><li>8. The judge has been detained by his clerk. </li></ul><ul><li>9. The door will be locked by the night custodian. </li></ul><ul><li>10. The investigator was walking by the courtroom. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Subjects <ul><li>Note what the book says about Subjects of passives : </li></ul>The book says that in passive sentences the subject does not come before the verb . This is a serious mistake!!!
  17. 17. Subjects <ul><li>Two important properties of Subjects are : </li></ul><ul><li>I. Only s ubject pronouns can be subjects – </li></ul><ul><li>1. I repaired this computer. </li></ul><ul><li>2. This computer was repaired by me . </li></ul><ul><li> “ me ” cannot be the subject of sentence 2. </li></ul><ul><li>II. Only the Subject “agrees” with the verb – </li></ul>1. They like cake. 2. He like s cake. 3. Cake is liked by them. 4. Cake is liked by me. 5. Cakes are liked.
  18. 18. Homework <ul><li>Read and do all the exercises of lesson 52 </li></ul><ul><li> Watch out for quick-tip 52.2 </li></ul>
  19. 19. Relating Sentences - Questions <ul><li> Every declarative sentence corresponds to a “yes/no” interrogative sentence – </li></ul><ul><li>1. She has been living in N.Y. all her life. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Has she been living in N.Y. all her life? </li></ul><ul><li>3. John will study tonight. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Will John study tonight? </li></ul><ul><li>To form a yes/no question we do – </li></ul><ul><li>Subject – Aux. Inversion. </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Auxiliary “ do ” <ul><li>John loves basketball. </li></ul><ul><li>Does John love basketball? </li></ul><ul><li>If there is no auxiliary , we add the auxiliary “ do ” . </li></ul><ul><li>Aux . “ do ” requires the verb that follows it to be in the Base Form ! </li></ul><ul><li>Aux . “ do ” determines the tense of the sentence: </li></ul><ul><li>“ do ” / “ does ” – Present simple </li></ul><ul><li>“ did ” – Past simple </li></ul>
  21. 21. Relating Sentences - Negatives <ul><li>Every positive sentence corresponds to a negative sentence – </li></ul><ul><li>1. John will eat the cake. </li></ul><ul><li>2. John will not eat the cake. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Mary has been singing at the opera. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Mary has not been singing at the opera. </li></ul><ul><li> To make a sentence negative we add the word “ not ” after the first auxiliary . </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Auxiliary “ do ” <ul><li>1. John loves basketball. </li></ul><ul><li>2. John Does not love basketball. </li></ul><ul><li>If there is no auxiliary , we add the auxiliary “ do ” . </li></ul><ul><li>Aux . “ do ” requires the verb that follows it to be in the Base Form ! </li></ul><ul><li>Aux . “ do ” determines the tense of the sentence: </li></ul><ul><li>“ do ” / “ does ” – Present simple </li></ul><ul><li>“ did ” – Past simple </li></ul>
  23. 23. An Important Exception – The verb “ be ” <ul><li> We form a question by doing: Subject – Aux. Inver. </li></ul><ul><li> If there is no Aux., we add the auxiliary “ Do ”. </li></ul><ul><li> We form a neg. by adding “not” after the first Aux. </li></ul><ul><li> If there is no auxiliary, we add the auxiliary “ Do ”. </li></ul><ul><li>But look what happens when the verb is “ be ” : </li></ul><ul><li>1. John is a student. </li></ul><ul><li>Question : Is John a student? </li></ul><ul><li>Negative : John is not a student. </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion : For purposes of question or negative formation the verb “ be ” behaves like an auxiliary . </li></ul>No Aux. added!!
  24. 24. Why are these sentences starred? <ul><li>*Jane has been not living here for years. </li></ul><ul><li>*John eat the cake? </li></ul><ul><li>*Bill not like apples. </li></ul><ul><li>*Did Sam drank his coffee? </li></ul>
  25. 25. Homework <ul><li>Read lesson 51. </li></ul><ul><li>Read and do all the exercises of lesson 53. </li></ul>

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