Unit 12 auxiliary phrases, forms of the verb and tense

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Unit 12 auxiliary phrases, forms of the verb and tense

  1. 1. Verbs- Reminder <ul><li>Recall the tests for verbs : </li></ul><ul><li>1.To ________ </li></ul><ul><li>2. Will ________ </li></ul><ul><li>3. Should ________ </li></ul><ul><li>Some sentences of English have just a single verb : </li></ul><ul><li>John kissed Mary. </li></ul><ul><li>Bill slept all day. </li></ul><ul><li>Jane reads every night. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Auxiliaries <ul><li>How many verbs are in the following sentences: </li></ul><ul><li>Jane will read tonight. </li></ul><ul><li>Bill should sleep. </li></ul><ul><li>John might kiss Mary. </li></ul><ul><li>“ might ”, “ must ” or “ will ” are NOT verbs – </li></ul><ul><li>* To might </li></ul><ul><li>* Will must </li></ul><ul><li>* Should will </li></ul><ul><li>These words are Auxiliaries ! </li></ul>
  3. 3. Auxiliaries Auxiliaries are known as “ helping verbs ” – they “ help ” a main verb that MUST follow them. Here are some more auxiliaries: Must Can Be Have  “ must ” and “ can ” are always auxiliaries .  “ be ” and “ have ” are sometimes auxiliaries and sometimes main verbs .
  4. 4. Auxiliaries <ul><li>When are “be” and “have” auxiliaries? </li></ul><ul><li>“be” and “have” are auxiliaries if they are followed by a main verb . </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>1. John is sleeping . </li></ul><ul><li>2. Mary has worked there for years. </li></ul><ul><li>If they are NOT followed by a main verb , then they are themselves the main verb . </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>1. John is hungry. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Mary has a nice laptop. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Identify the auxiliary and the main verb <ul><li>1. You should sign up for email coupons. </li></ul><ul><li>2. This is the final straw. </li></ul><ul><li>3. That amusement park was advertising its attractions. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Soon, she will be old enough to vote. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Tim has invested his money wisely. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Sarah loves music, but she is a terrible singer. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Kate would join us, if she had the time. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Sam is taking the train to Boston. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Identify the auxiliary and the main verb <ul><li>8. I am running in the marathon next week. </li></ul><ul><li>9. Some of our studies were effective. </li></ul><ul><li>10. They have full control over the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>11. She has lived here for years. </li></ul><ul><li>12. They might be talking about the economy. </li></ul><ul><li>13. He has been here since noon. </li></ul><ul><li>14. John has worked there for months. </li></ul><ul><li>15. Bill was singing at a show. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Kinds of Auxiliaries <ul><li>There are three kinds of auxiliaries in English : </li></ul><ul><li>Modals </li></ul><ul><li>Perfect have </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive be </li></ul>
  8. 8. Modals <ul><li>There are 9 modals in English : </li></ul><ul><li>Can Could </li></ul><ul><li>Will Would </li></ul><ul><li>Shall Should </li></ul><ul><li>May Might </li></ul><ul><li>Must </li></ul>
  9. 9. Modals <ul><li>Modals MUST be followed either by a verb in its base form , or by another auxiliary . </li></ul><ul><li> Modals followed by verbs in their base form : </li></ul><ul><li>John can do the job. </li></ul><ul><li>Mary must be hungry. </li></ul><ul><li>Sam might run the marathon. </li></ul><ul><li>They should finish their work. </li></ul><ul><li> Modals followed by auxiliaries in their base form : </li></ul><ul><li>5. Bill will be reading tonight. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Sue could have done it better. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Underline the modal and put a squiggly line under the main verb <ul><li>1. Her question should be helpful. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Those planes can fly in cold climates. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Marshall might seem rude at times. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Adam and Phoebe will tell you the truth. </li></ul><ul><li>5. She could gather the flowers tomorrow. </li></ul><ul><li>6. They may clear the table now. </li></ul><ul><li>7. I would be happy to assist you. </li></ul><ul><li>8. She could do it, but she won’t do it. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Underline the modal and put a squiggly line under the main verb <ul><li>6. Their opportunities may expand soon. </li></ul><ul><li>7. I shall see you next week. </li></ul><ul><li>8. His employee must open the shop at 8. </li></ul><ul><li>9. The police would watch the crowd. </li></ul><ul><li>10. He can’t picture the mountain’s beauty. </li></ul><ul><li>11. They couldn’t understand a word. </li></ul><ul><li>12. You really should try this. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Perfect Have <ul><li>The word “have” is an auxiliary … only if it is followed by a verb . </li></ul><ul><li>Example : </li></ul><ul><li>John has met his boss today. </li></ul><ul><li>Bill has eaten an apple. </li></ul><ul><li>The forms of auxiliary “have” are : </li></ul><ul><li>Have </li></ul><ul><li>Has </li></ul><ul><li>Had </li></ul>
  13. 13. Perfect Have <ul><li>In the sentences below “ have ” is an auxiliary : </li></ul><ul><li>John has lived in NY for a year now. </li></ul><ul><li>They have written numerous books. </li></ul><ul><li>She has seen this movie already. </li></ul><ul><li> Note that “ have ” is followed by a verb !!! </li></ul><ul><li>In the sentences below “ have ” is a verb : </li></ul><ul><li>4. John has a laptop. </li></ul><ul><li>5. They have class now. </li></ul><ul><li>6. She has a stomach ach. </li></ul><ul><li> Note that “ have ” is NOT followed by a verb!!! </li></ul>
  14. 14. Perfect Have <ul><li>When “ have ” is a verb its meaning has to do with possession . </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: John has a lasagna in the fridge. </li></ul><ul><li>They had enough time to do it. </li></ul><ul><li>We have a great idea. </li></ul><ul><li>When “ have ” is an auxiliary it indicates Perfect Tense . </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: John has read this book. </li></ul><ul><li>They had never visited that place. </li></ul><ul><li>We have eaten already. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Perfect Have <ul><li>The auxiliary “ have ” is always followed by a main verb in the Past Participle Form . </li></ul><ul><li>Usually , but not always, the Past Participle form ends in – ed or – en . </li></ul><ul><li>“ have ”+ -en/-ed are a Perfect Package ! </li></ul>Had laugh ed Have cri ed Has cook ed Had liv ed Have studi ed Had se en Have be en Has driv en Had giv en Have eat en Had drunk Have come Has slept Had run Has shot
  16. 16. Identify the auxiliary – if there is one, and the main verb <ul><li>1. He has left for New York. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Mr. Manton had driven them home. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Your invention has had great success. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Kelly had friends over for dinner. </li></ul><ul><li>5. The chef had recommended that entrée. </li></ul><ul><li>6. The guys always have a good time together. </li></ul><ul><li>7. They have lowered the thermostat’s setting. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Jane has a crush on Sam. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Identify the auxiliary – if there is one, and the main verb <ul><li>9. Traffic in that neighborhood has increased. </li></ul><ul><li>10. Mike and his wife had launched a new company. </li></ul><ul><li>11. Bill has a good life. </li></ul><ul><li>12. We have seen them frequently. </li></ul><ul><li>13. Those cities have had an increase in tourism. </li></ul><ul><li>14. Brett had met her at the front door. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Progressive “be” <ul><li>The word “be” is an auxiliary … Only if it is followed by a main verb . </li></ul><ul><li>Example : John is sleeping . </li></ul><ul><li>She was watching a movie. </li></ul><ul><li>The forms of auxiliary “be” are: </li></ul><ul><li>Am Were </li></ul><ul><li>Is Be </li></ul><ul><li>Are Been </li></ul><ul><li>Was </li></ul>
  19. 19. Progressive Be <ul><li>In the sentences below “ be ” is an auxiliary : </li></ul><ul><li>John was living in N.Y. last year. </li></ul><ul><li>They were writing their essay together. </li></ul><ul><li>I am reading a book now. </li></ul><ul><li> Note that “ be ” is followed by a verb !!! </li></ul><ul><li>In the sentences below “ be ” is a verb : </li></ul><ul><li>4. John is hungry. </li></ul><ul><li>5. They are here. </li></ul><ul><li>6. I am at the office. </li></ul><ul><li> Note that “ be ” is NOT followed by a verb!!! </li></ul>
  20. 20. Progressive Be <ul><li>When “ be ” is a verb it’s always a linking verb ! </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: I am a student. </li></ul><ul><li>Bill was at the office. </li></ul><ul><li>They were hungry. </li></ul><ul><li>When “ be ” is an auxiliary it indicates Progressive Tense . </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: John is making a lasagna now. </li></ul><ul><li>Bill was eating when she came in. </li></ul><ul><li> Progressive tense indicates that the action is a process. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Progressive Be <ul><li>Auxiliary “ be ” MUST be followed by a verb in the Progressive Form . </li></ul><ul><li>The Progressive Form of the verb always ends in – ing. </li></ul><ul><li>“ be ” + - ing are a Progressive Package ! </li></ul>was laugh ing Am cry ing Were kiss ing Is liv ing Been study ing
  22. 22. The Progressive Form <ul><li>Not all words that end in – ing are verbs ! </li></ul><ul><li> Such words are verbs ONLY if they are preceded by auxiliary “ be ” . </li></ul><ul><li> Otherwise they are usually Nouns ! </li></ul><ul><li>Examples : </li></ul><ul><li>1. The meeting ended. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Riding roller coasters is fun. </li></ul><ul><li>3. John quit smoking . </li></ul><ul><li> These nouns are called Gerunds . </li></ul>
  23. 23. Identify the auxiliary – if there is one, and the main verb <ul><li>1. That company is testing their new tires. </li></ul><ul><li>2. He was confusing the two of them. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Sam is over there. </li></ul><ul><li>4. They are pleading guilty to the charge. </li></ul><ul><li>5. The passengers are disembarking now. </li></ul><ul><li>6. These kids are good in math. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Many reporters were describing the event. </li></ul><ul><li>8. There are many people on this train. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Identify the auxiliaries – if there are any, and the main verb <ul><li>6. Some politicians are voting for that bill. </li></ul><ul><li>7. John has been here all day. </li></ul><ul><li>8. I am listening to you carefully. </li></ul><ul><li>9. The baby must have had some food before. </li></ul><ul><li>10. Edith is paying a visit to the Wilsons. </li></ul><ul><li>11. You were enjoying that concert. </li></ul><ul><li>12. I am selecting a supervisor for that project. </li></ul><ul><li>13. Michael should be awake at this time. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Verbs or Gerunds ? <ul><li>1. I was thinking about that issue. </li></ul><ul><li>2. They were allowing her to go in and see him. </li></ul><ul><li>3. David wants to try snorkeling . </li></ul><ul><li>4. Harry began throwing the ball to the coach. </li></ul><ul><li>5. He was lying on the couch, half-asleep. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Reading about that issue might be helpful. </li></ul><ul><li>7. The family is trying to save money for a vacation. </li></ul><ul><li>8. They were succeeding beyond expectations. </li></ul><ul><li>9. Jogging does not appeal to her. </li></ul><ul><li>10. I was driving along the road when I saw him. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Combining Auxiliaries <ul><li>A sentence could have 0, 1, 2 or 3 auxiliaries. </li></ul>Sam ate . Sam should eat / has eaten . Sam should have eaten . Sam should be eating . Sam has been eating . Sam should have been eating . Zero Auxiliaries  One Auxiliary  Two Auxiliaries  Two Auxiliaries  Two Auxiliaries  Three Auxiliaries  When there ’ s more than one auxiliary, they will always come in the following relative order : Modal + have + be (+ main verb )
  27. 27. How many auxiliaries? <ul><li>1. I waited for the next train. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Mr. Harrington would speak about it often. </li></ul><ul><li>3. The instructor is using a good method. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Taylor has been working there for years. </li></ul><ul><li>5. The weather has affected businesses throughout. </li></ul><ul><li>6. He could have been discussing the project with me. </li></ul><ul><li>7. The Senator should have been campaigning there. </li></ul><ul><li>8. The art collector bid on a rare painting. </li></ul><ul><li>9. There may have been a good reason for his actions. </li></ul><ul><li>10. You have gotten a lot of experience there. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Forming Question <ul><li>What is the question that corresponds to each sentence below: </li></ul><ul><li>1. John will fly to NY. </li></ul><ul><li>Q: Will John fly to NY? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Sam has seen this movie. </li></ul><ul><li>Q: Has Sam seen this movie? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Sam is singing. </li></ul><ul><li>Q: Is Sam singing? </li></ul><ul><li>So, what is the rule in English for forming questions? </li></ul>
  29. 29. Subject – Aux. Inversion <ul><li>To form a question in English we reverse the position of the subject and the auxiliary ! </li></ul><ul><li>It doesn’t matter how long the subject is : </li></ul><ul><li>4. The nice and smart boy will come for lunch. </li></ul><ul><li>Q: Will the nice and smart boy come for lunch? </li></ul><ul><li>And what if there is more than one auxiliary ? </li></ul><ul><li>5. John will be studying this week. </li></ul><ul><li>Q: Will John be studying this week? </li></ul><ul><li> We do Subject – Aux. inversion with the first Aux. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Subject – Aux. Inversion <ul><li>And what if a sentence has zero auxiliaries ? </li></ul><ul><li>6. John met Mary. </li></ul><ul><li>Q: Did John meet Mary? </li></ul><ul><li>7. Sam runs everyday? </li></ul><ul><li>Q: Does Sam run everyday? </li></ul><ul><li>Then we add an auxiliary – “ do ” </li></ul><ul><li>This is called “ Do – Support ”! </li></ul>
  31. 31. Tense <ul><li>Past </li></ul><ul><li>Present </li></ul><ul><li>Future </li></ul>Simple Perfect Progressive Tense is not Time.
  32. 32. Tense Vs. Time <ul><li>1. He is eating. </li></ul><ul><li>Tense : Present </li></ul><ul><li>Time : Present </li></ul><ul><li>2. She’s going to a party tonight. </li></ul><ul><li>Tense : Present </li></ul><ul><li>Time : Tonight. So… Future !!! </li></ul><ul><li>3. I leave for France next week. </li></ul><ul><li>4. We are going to graduate next summer. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Tense <ul><li>In syntax, Tense refers to Forms of the Verb . </li></ul><ul><li>Below are all the Forms of the Verb “ call ” : </li></ul><ul><li>(Base Form  no tense : call ) </li></ul><ul><li>Past Form  Past tense : call ed </li></ul><ul><li>Present Form  Present Tense : call s / call </li></ul><ul><li>Future Form  Future Tense : will call </li></ul><ul><li>Past Participle Form  Perfect Tense : call ed </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive Form  Progressive Tense : call ing </li></ul>
  34. 34. The Past Tense <ul><li>Past Form of the Verb : </li></ul><ul><li>-ed </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>laugh ed , smil ed , notic ed , creat ed , believ ed </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular Verbs (these are still Past Tense ): </li></ul><ul><li>ran, bought, gave, saw, knew, drank, ate </li></ul>
  35. 35. The Past Tense <ul><li>“ be ”: </li></ul><ul><li>was, were </li></ul><ul><li>“ have ”: </li></ul><ul><li>Had </li></ul>The words “ was ”, “ were ” and “ had ” always indicate Past Tense , whether they are auxiliaries or main verbs .
  36. 36. The Present Tense <ul><li>Present Form of the Verb : </li></ul><ul><li>He, she, it  -s </li></ul><ul><li>I, you, we, they  Base Form </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>He laugh s , I laugh </li></ul><ul><li>she eat s , you eat </li></ul><ul><li>It sound s , they sound </li></ul>
  37. 37. The Present Tense <ul><li>“ be ”: </li></ul><ul><li>am, is, are </li></ul><ul><li>“ have ”: </li></ul><ul><li>have, has </li></ul>The words “ am ”, “ is ”, “ are ”, “ have ” and “ has ” always indicate Present Tense , whether they are auxiliaries or main verbs .
  38. 38. The Future Tense <ul><li>Future Form of the Verb : </li></ul><ul><li>The Auxiliary “ will ” + Verb in Base Form </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>He will laugh </li></ul><ul><li>she will sleep </li></ul><ul><li>They will study </li></ul>
  39. 39. Perfect Tense <ul><li>Recall that a Perfect Package is : </li></ul><ul><li>Aux. ‘ Have’ + Past Participle ( -en/-ed) </li></ul><ul><li>A Sentence that contains a Perfect Package is: </li></ul><ul><li>Perfect Tense </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>have eat en , had giv en , has driv en , has se en , have be en , had laugh ed , has met , have drunk </li></ul>
  40. 40. Progressive Tense <ul><li>Recall that a Progressive Package is : </li></ul><ul><li>Aux. ‘ be’ + Progressive Form ( -ing ) </li></ul><ul><li>A Sentence that contains a Progressive Package is: </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive Tense </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>is sing ing , am go ing , was sleep ing , were laugh ing </li></ul>
  41. 41. Simple Tense <ul><li>If a sentence is not Perfect Tense or Progressive Tense , then it is… </li></ul><ul><li>Simple Tense </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>He smiled; John runs daily; They arrived </li></ul>
  42. 42. Identifying Tense <ul><li>Step I: Check if there is an auxiliary “ have ” or “ be ” . </li></ul><ul><li>If you see the auxiliary “have”, the sentence is… </li></ul><ul><li>Perfect Tense </li></ul><ul><li>If you see the auxiliary “be”, the sentence is… </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive Tense </li></ul><ul><li>Step II: If a sentence doesn’t have the auxiliaries “ have ” or “ be ”, it is… </li></ul><ul><li>Simple Tense </li></ul>
  43. 43. Combining Tenses In addition to being Perfect , Progressive or Simple , the tense must also be Past , Present or Future . Step III: check if the Verb or the Aux. “ have ”/” be ” are Past Form , Present Form or Future Form . If the verb / Aux. is Past Form , the sentence is Past Tense If the verb / Aux. is Present Form the sentence is Present Tense If the verb / Aux. is Future Form the sentence is Future Tense
  44. 44. Combining Tenses <ul><li>1. John was dreaming. </li></ul><ul><li> Since the auxiliary “was” is Past , the sentence is Past Progressive . </li></ul><ul><li>2. They have seen this movie. </li></ul><ul><li> Since the auxiliary “have” is Present , the sentence is Present Perfect . </li></ul><ul><li>3. Bill will be joining us. </li></ul><ul><li>Future Progressive ! </li></ul><ul><li>4. Sam will study tonight. </li></ul><ul><li> Future Simple ! </li></ul><ul><li>5. She is smart. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Tense – Summary <ul><li>Auxiliary “ have ”  Perfect Tense </li></ul><ul><li>Auxiliary “ be ”  Progressive Tense </li></ul><ul><li>No Auxiliaries “have”/”be”  Simple Tense </li></ul><ul><li>Past Form of verb/aux.  Past Tense </li></ul><ul><li>Present Form of verb/aux.  Present Tense </li></ul><ul><li>Auxiliary “ will ”  Future Tense </li></ul>
  46. 46. Combining Tenses <ul><li>Past </li></ul><ul><li>Present </li></ul><ul><li>Future </li></ul>Simple Perfect Progressive <ul><li>What tense is each sentence below : </li></ul><ul><li>John ate a banana. </li></ul><ul><li>Bill Has eaten already. </li></ul><ul><li>Jane will be eating later. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Combining Tenses <ul><li>Past </li></ul><ul><li>Present </li></ul><ul><li>Future </li></ul>Simple Perfect Progressive <ul><li>What tense is each sentence below : </li></ul><ul><li>John was studying all day. </li></ul><ul><li>They have been drinking plenty. </li></ul><ul><li>Jane will eat later. </li></ul>Past Present Future Simple Perfect Progressive
  48. 48. Identify the Tense <ul><li>1. She will be going to Spain next month. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The theater had a simple, unadorned exterior. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Jeremy and Ellen were living in a small cabin. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Nick had seen her earlier that day. </li></ul><ul><li>5. You have been avoiding her all week. </li></ul><ul><li>6. The construction workers will connect the parts. </li></ul><ul><li>7. She will have repaired it by then. </li></ul><ul><li>8. I have asked myself the same thing. </li></ul><ul><li>9. They will have been walking for hours. </li></ul><ul><li>10. She places a protective arm around the child. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Combining Tenses <ul><li>Make up sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Present perfect progressive </li></ul><ul><li>Future progressive </li></ul><ul><li>Past perfect </li></ul><ul><li>Present perfect </li></ul><ul><li>Past progressive </li></ul>Past Present Future Simple Perfect Progressive
  50. 50. Challenge Question <ul><li>How many Tenses are there in total in English? </li></ul>
  51. 51. Homework <ul><li>Read and do all the exercises of lesson 37 </li></ul>

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