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compounds and complex sentences and conclusions

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  • 1. Compound NPs  What is the subject of the sentence ? 1. Sam and Mary ate lunch together. “ Sam and Mary ”  What is the object of the sentence ? 2. Sam will eat pizza or pasta. “ pizza or pasta ”  What is the indirect object of the sentence ? 3. Sam sent me, but not my wife, a card. “ me, but not my wife ”
  • 2. Compound VPs
    •  What is the predicate of the sentence ?
    • 4. Sam often reads a book or watches T.V.
    • “ reads a book or watches T.V. ”
    •  What is the predicate of the sentence ?
    • 5. Bill drank water and ate a banana.
    • “ drank water and ate a banana ”
    • Two or more phrases joined by a coordinating conjunction are called: “ Compound Phrases ”.
  • 3. Identify the compound phrases
    • 1. Nanette wished him a good day but then hurried out.
    • 2. She stopped walking and looked into the shop.
    • 3. Susan or Sophie entered the house and went into the kitchen.
    • 4. He hesitated and became silent.
    • 5. She had seen Ken and Jack yesterday.
    • 6. Your steak and his lasagna are getting cold.
    • 7. You and I have to sit down and have a long and serious talk.
  • 4. Sentences
    • Sentences can be :
    • Simple
    • Compound
    • Complex
  • 5. Simple Sentences
    • A simple sentence is a sentence that consists of exactly one clause .
    • Examples :
    • John met Bill at the supermarket.
    • He came to N.Y. and stayed for one week.
    • Sam saw a movie but didn’t eat popcorn.
    • Simple sentences have one subject and one predicate .
    • The predicate of a simple sentence might be a compound VP (examples 2 and 3).
  • 6. Compound Sentences
    • How many clauses are in the sentence?
    • 1. Bill was tired so he went home.
    • There are 2 main clauses
    • More Examples :
    • 2. [John is excited] but [Mary is scared].
    • 3. [Bill is driving us there] and [Mary is bringing cake].
    •  Compound Sentences are sentences that contain at least two clauses , that are connected by a coordinating conjunction .
  • 7. Compound vs. Simple Sentences
    • 1. John drank but he didn’t eat .
    • 2. John drank and ate .
    •  Both sentences contain two verbs . but…
    • Sentence 1 is a compound sentence .
    • Sentence 1 has two clauses .
    • Each clause has a subject and a predicate .
    • Sentence 2 is a simple sentence , with a compound VP
    • Sentence 2 has only one clause.
    • It has one subject and one (compound) predicate .
  • 8. Homework
    • Read and do all the exercises in lessons 43, 44, 46 and 47.
  • 9. Complex Sentences
    • Complex sentences are sentences with two or more clauses , that are connected by either a subordinating conjunction or a relative pronoun .
    • Subordinating conjunctions start subordinate clauses –
    • Sam was thinking [ that he should work harder].
    • I don’t know [ when the movie starts].
    • Relative Pronouns start Relative clauses –
    • 3. I read the book [ that you recommended].
    • 4. She bought a laptop [ which had good features].
  • 10. Simple, Compound or Complex?
    • 1. The Brooklyn Bridge was built in the 19th century.
    • 2. Her novels are getting the acclaim they deserve.
    • 3. Marie has been sitting and looking out the window.
    • 4. Ben is a man who always has a twinkle in his eyes.
    • 5. They performed the song their lead singer wrote.
    • 6. A committee that has been working on that issue will soon publish its recommendations.
    • 7. His belief, which he has held for a long time, is incorrect.
    • 8. I believe the car meets all safety standards.
    • 9. Nick and I will order coffee unless you prefer tea.
  • 11.
    • 1. Brad is an amateur photographer, but he didn’t have his camera with him that day.
    • 2. When Greg arrived at the hotel, he unpacked.
    • 3. Martha opened the front door and then she hurried to her neighbor’s house.
    • 4. The ingredients were on the kitchen counter.
    • 5. The Wilsons know they’ll be moving soon.
    • 6. They will book a trip once they get their passports.
    • 7. His belief, which he has held for a long time, is incorrect.
    • 8. John married his niece and they had three children, who each became physicians.
  • 12. Subordinate Clauses as Arguments
    • Subordinate clauses can be an argument of the verb in the main clause .
    • Subordinate clauses as Object :
    • 1. John believes that Mary is telling the truth .
    • Argument Structure: believe : verb; 1 2
    • NP S
    • Subordinate clauses as Subject :
    • 2. That it snowed in October surprised us.
    • Argument Structure: surprise : verb; 1 2
    • S NP
  • 13. Subordinate Clauses as Objects
    • 1. Sam thinks that the movie started .
    • Step I: Count how many verbs there are in total .
    •  Two – “ thinks ” and “ started ”
    • Step II: How many arguments does each verb select?
    • “ think ” – two . “ started ” – one .
    • Step III : Find the phrasal category of each argument!
    • Who thinks ? Sam – NP !
    • What does he think ? [that the movie started] – S !
    • What started ? the movie – NP !
    think : verb; 1 2 NP S start : verb; 1 NP
  • 14.
    • 2. That Bill ate the cake annoyed us .
    • Step I: Count how many verbs there are in total .
    •  Two – “ ate ” and “ annoyed ”
    • Step II: How many arguments does each verb select?
    • “ eat ” – two “ annoyed ” - two
    • Step III : Find the phrasal category of each argument!
    • What annoyed ? [that Bill ate the cake] – S !
    • Who did it annoy ? us – NP !
    Subordinate Clauses as Subjects annoy : verb; 1 2 S NP eat : verb; 1 2 NP NP
  • 15. Subordinate Clauses as arguments of adjectives
    • 3. That Bill won the race is wonderful .
    • Step I: Count how many verbs there are in total.
    •  Two – “ won ” and “ is ”
    • Step II: How many arguments does each verb select?
    • “ won ” – two “ is ” – zero arguments, but…
    • “ wonderful ” selects one argument –
    •  What is wonderful ? “[That Bill won the race]” – S .
    wonderful : adjective; 1 S Argument Structure:
  • 16. Is the subordinate clause an argument?
    • 1. Sam thinks that Mary is very nice.
    • 2. John laughed while Mary cried.
    • 3. I don’t know when the movie starts.
    • 4. Why Sam got an “A” in Math is unknown.
    • 5. We exercise everyday after we study.
    • 6. That Bill is talented became clear early in his life.
    • 7. How Jane sleeps well at night is a good question.
    • 8. That Susan failed the course surprised everyone.
    • 9. Jane wonders whether she has class this week.
    • 10. That her son was not home yet worried her.
    • 11. I haven’t seen him since he was a baby.
  • 17. Relative Clauses
    • 1. Jane likes the boy who studies math with her.
    • The relative clause in sentence 1 is restrictive –
    • The relative clause restricts the class of boys.
    • 2. Jane likes Sam, who studies math with her.
    • The relative clause in 2 is nonrestrictive –
    • The relative clause does not restrict any class.
    •  Relative clauses that modify proper names are always nonrestrictive .
  • 18. Restrictive vs. Nonrestrictive
    • Jane read the book [ which John recommended].
    • Sam ate the cookie [Bill wanted].
    • Restrictive relative clauses help identify the noun .
    • Restrictive relative clauses can start without a relative pronoun !!!
    • 3. Jane read “Peter Pan” , [ which she really liked].
    • 4. Sam ate Bill’s cookie , [ which was quite tasty].
    •  Nonrestrictive relative clauses don’t help to identify the noun , but rather add extra information about it.
  • 19. Homework
    • Read and do all the exercises in lessons 48 and 49.
    • Note: Ignore the terms “noun clause”, “adverbial clause”, etc.
  • 20. Restrictive or Nonrestrictive?
    • 1. They finally opened the new clinic on Elm street, which uses modern treatments.
    • 2. The library which closed last summer has reopened.
    • 3. Those are the kinds of trees that Sam planted on his property.
    • 4. Jake bought the same kind of car I used to own.
    • 5. Ms. Fine , who teaches English, also teaches piano.
    • 6. Please bring the magazine we talked about.
    • 7. His belief, which he has held forever, is incorrect.
    • 8. The add my agency developed helped boost sales.
  • 21. Why are the sentences starred?
    • *That sounds well to me.
    • *Clean it by himself!
    • *Sam sent Bill.
    • *Do you has a car?
    • * Harry Potter , we saw with Sam, was great.
    • *We may go not there.
    • *It’s sad but truly.
    • *She could had been happy.
    • *Sam does have not a good laptop.
    • *We have too many homework!
  • 22. Prescriptive Vs. Descriptive
    • The word “law” has two meanings :
    • Human law (e.g. don’t steal )
    • Natural law (e.g. gravity )
    • Human laws are prescriptive – they prescribe how people should or ought to live.
    • Human laws are invented by people.
    • Natural laws are descriptive – they describe how the world is .
    • Natural laws are NOT invented by humans.
  • 23. Descriptive Vs. Prescriptive
    • The distinction in linguistics :
    • Prescriptive grammar (e.g. after a preposition say “whom”, not “who” )
    • Descriptive grammar (e.g. Modern English speakers always say “who”, not “whom” )
    • Which type of grammar have we been studying in this course?
    • Are the grammatical rules we’ve learned descriptive rules or prescriptive rules ?
  • 24. The grammar of English
    • Rule : A pronoun does not follow a determiner.
    • Example:
    • *Sam sent the me a letter.
    • But observe:
    • 2. “ That’s the biggest me I have ever seen ”.
  • 25. The grammar of English
    • Rule : A proper noun does not follow a determiner .
    • Example : *The New York
    • But observe :
  • 26. The grammar of English
    • Rule : Every clause has a subject .
    • But observe :
    • Hey, great to see you!
    • Thank you!
    • Good to hear from you!
  • 27. The grammar of English
    • Rule : Every clause has a subject .
    [If requested] you must give this seat to the disabled. [If this seat is requested ] you must give this seat to the disabled.
  • 28. The grammar of English
    • Rule : Every passive sentence needs an auxiliary !
    • But where is the auxiliary in this passive clause –
  • 29. The grammar of English
    • Rule : The object always comes after the verb
    • But observe :
    • John loves apples, but peaches he really hates.
  • 30. The grammar of English
    • Rule : The subject always comes before the verb
    • But observe :
    • George, can you do me a favor? Up in my room, on the nightstand, is a pinkish-reddish envelope ...
    • In Germany you can drive as fast as you like and you may feel like the king of the road – until you look in the rear mirror. Zooming in on you like a guided missile, comes a rival contender …
  • 31. The grammar of English
    • Rule : Only subject pronouns can be subjects .
    • But observe :
    • - Me and Sam are best friends.
  • 32. The grammar of English
    • Rule : Prepositions must be followed by a NP.
    • But observe :
    • What can I do you for?
  • 33. Adding n’t to the verb “be”
    • A prescriptive grammar will probably say :
    •  “ *ain’t” is ungrammatical.
    • But a descriptive grammar could say :
    • Since both forms are found, the grammar should find a way to account for both “ain’t” and “aren’t”.
    • “ it's quite your regular night; ain't it?”
    is he not? = isn’t he? Are we not? = aren’t we? Was he not? = wasn’t he? Were they not = weren’t they? Am I not = ? *amn’t I? aren’t I? ain’t I?