compounds and complex sentences and conclusions

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compounds and complex sentences and conclusions

  1. 1. Compound NPs  What is the subject of the sentence ? 1. Sam and Mary ate lunch together. “ Sam and Mary ”  What is the object of the sentence ? 2. Sam will eat pizza or pasta. “ pizza or pasta ”  What is the indirect object of the sentence ? 3. Sam sent me, but not my wife, a card. “ me, but not my wife ”
  2. 2. Compound VPs <ul><li> What is the predicate of the sentence ? </li></ul><ul><li>4. Sam often reads a book or watches T.V. </li></ul><ul><li>“ reads a book or watches T.V. ” </li></ul><ul><li> What is the predicate of the sentence ? </li></ul><ul><li>5. Bill drank water and ate a banana. </li></ul><ul><li>“ drank water and ate a banana ” </li></ul><ul><li>Two or more phrases joined by a coordinating conjunction are called: “ Compound Phrases ”. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Identify the compound phrases <ul><li>1. Nanette wished him a good day but then hurried out. </li></ul><ul><li>2. She stopped walking and looked into the shop. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Susan or Sophie entered the house and went into the kitchen. </li></ul><ul><li>4. He hesitated and became silent. </li></ul><ul><li>5. She had seen Ken and Jack yesterday. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Your steak and his lasagna are getting cold. </li></ul><ul><li>7. You and I have to sit down and have a long and serious talk. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Sentences <ul><li>Sentences can be : </li></ul><ul><li>Simple </li></ul><ul><li>Compound </li></ul><ul><li>Complex </li></ul>
  5. 5. Simple Sentences <ul><li>A simple sentence is a sentence that consists of exactly one clause . </li></ul><ul><li>Examples : </li></ul><ul><li>John met Bill at the supermarket. </li></ul><ul><li>He came to N.Y. and stayed for one week. </li></ul><ul><li>Sam saw a movie but didn’t eat popcorn. </li></ul><ul><li>Simple sentences have one subject and one predicate . </li></ul><ul><li>The predicate of a simple sentence might be a compound VP (examples 2 and 3). </li></ul>
  6. 6. Compound Sentences <ul><li>How many clauses are in the sentence? </li></ul><ul><li>1. Bill was tired so he went home. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 2 main clauses </li></ul><ul><li>More Examples : </li></ul><ul><li>2. [John is excited] but [Mary is scared]. </li></ul><ul><li>3. [Bill is driving us there] and [Mary is bringing cake]. </li></ul><ul><li> Compound Sentences are sentences that contain at least two clauses , that are connected by a coordinating conjunction . </li></ul>
  7. 7. Compound vs. Simple Sentences <ul><li>1. John drank but he didn’t eat . </li></ul><ul><li>2. John drank and ate . </li></ul><ul><li> Both sentences contain two verbs . but… </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence 1 is a compound sentence . </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence 1 has two clauses . </li></ul><ul><li>Each clause has a subject and a predicate . </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence 2 is a simple sentence , with a compound VP </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence 2 has only one clause. </li></ul><ul><li>It has one subject and one (compound) predicate . </li></ul>
  8. 8. Homework <ul><li>Read and do all the exercises in lessons 43, 44, 46 and 47. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Complex Sentences <ul><li>Complex sentences are sentences with two or more clauses , that are connected by either a subordinating conjunction or a relative pronoun . </li></ul><ul><li>Subordinating conjunctions start subordinate clauses – </li></ul><ul><li>Sam was thinking [ that he should work harder]. </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t know [ when the movie starts]. </li></ul><ul><li>Relative Pronouns start Relative clauses – </li></ul><ul><li>3. I read the book [ that you recommended]. </li></ul><ul><li>4. She bought a laptop [ which had good features]. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Simple, Compound or Complex? <ul><li>1. The Brooklyn Bridge was built in the 19th century. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Her novels are getting the acclaim they deserve. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Marie has been sitting and looking out the window. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Ben is a man who always has a twinkle in his eyes. </li></ul><ul><li>5. They performed the song their lead singer wrote. </li></ul><ul><li>6. A committee that has been working on that issue will soon publish its recommendations. </li></ul><ul><li>7. His belief, which he has held for a long time, is incorrect. </li></ul><ul><li>8. I believe the car meets all safety standards. </li></ul><ul><li>9. Nick and I will order coffee unless you prefer tea. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>1. Brad is an amateur photographer, but he didn’t have his camera with him that day. </li></ul><ul><li>2. When Greg arrived at the hotel, he unpacked. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Martha opened the front door and then she hurried to her neighbor’s house. </li></ul><ul><li>4. The ingredients were on the kitchen counter. </li></ul><ul><li>5. The Wilsons know they’ll be moving soon. </li></ul><ul><li>6. They will book a trip once they get their passports. </li></ul><ul><li>7. His belief, which he has held for a long time, is incorrect. </li></ul><ul><li>8. John married his niece and they had three children, who each became physicians. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Subordinate Clauses as Arguments <ul><li>Subordinate clauses can be an argument of the verb in the main clause . </li></ul><ul><li>Subordinate clauses as Object : </li></ul><ul><li>1. John believes that Mary is telling the truth . </li></ul><ul><li>Argument Structure: believe : verb; 1 2 </li></ul><ul><li> NP S </li></ul><ul><li>Subordinate clauses as Subject : </li></ul><ul><li>2. That it snowed in October surprised us. </li></ul><ul><li>Argument Structure: surprise : verb; 1 2 </li></ul><ul><li> S NP </li></ul>
  13. 13. Subordinate Clauses as Objects <ul><li>1. Sam thinks that the movie started . </li></ul><ul><li>Step I: Count how many verbs there are in total . </li></ul><ul><li> Two – “ thinks ” and “ started ” </li></ul><ul><li>Step II: How many arguments does each verb select? </li></ul><ul><li>“ think ” – two . “ started ” – one . </li></ul><ul><li>Step III : Find the phrasal category of each argument! </li></ul><ul><li>Who thinks ? Sam – NP ! </li></ul><ul><li>What does he think ? [that the movie started] – S ! </li></ul><ul><li>What started ? the movie – NP ! </li></ul>think : verb; 1 2 NP S start : verb; 1 NP
  14. 14. <ul><li>2. That Bill ate the cake annoyed us . </li></ul><ul><li>Step I: Count how many verbs there are in total . </li></ul><ul><li> Two – “ ate ” and “ annoyed ” </li></ul><ul><li>Step II: How many arguments does each verb select? </li></ul><ul><li>“ eat ” – two “ annoyed ” - two </li></ul><ul><li>Step III : Find the phrasal category of each argument! </li></ul><ul><li>What annoyed ? [that Bill ate the cake] – S ! </li></ul><ul><li>Who did it annoy ? us – NP ! </li></ul>Subordinate Clauses as Subjects annoy : verb; 1 2 S NP eat : verb; 1 2 NP NP
  15. 15. Subordinate Clauses as arguments of adjectives <ul><li>3. That Bill won the race is wonderful . </li></ul><ul><li>Step I: Count how many verbs there are in total. </li></ul><ul><li> Two – “ won ” and “ is ” </li></ul><ul><li>Step II: How many arguments does each verb select? </li></ul><ul><li>“ won ” – two “ is ” – zero arguments, but… </li></ul><ul><li>“ wonderful ” selects one argument – </li></ul><ul><li> What is wonderful ? “[That Bill won the race]” – S . </li></ul>wonderful : adjective; 1 S Argument Structure:
  16. 16. Is the subordinate clause an argument? <ul><li>1. Sam thinks that Mary is very nice. </li></ul><ul><li>2. John laughed while Mary cried. </li></ul><ul><li>3. I don’t know when the movie starts. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Why Sam got an “A” in Math is unknown. </li></ul><ul><li>5. We exercise everyday after we study. </li></ul><ul><li>6. That Bill is talented became clear early in his life. </li></ul><ul><li>7. How Jane sleeps well at night is a good question. </li></ul><ul><li>8. That Susan failed the course surprised everyone. </li></ul><ul><li>9. Jane wonders whether she has class this week. </li></ul><ul><li>10. That her son was not home yet worried her. </li></ul><ul><li>11. I haven’t seen him since he was a baby. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Relative Clauses <ul><li>1. Jane likes the boy who studies math with her. </li></ul><ul><li>The relative clause in sentence 1 is restrictive – </li></ul><ul><li>The relative clause restricts the class of boys. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Jane likes Sam, who studies math with her. </li></ul><ul><li>The relative clause in 2 is nonrestrictive – </li></ul><ul><li>The relative clause does not restrict any class. </li></ul><ul><li> Relative clauses that modify proper names are always nonrestrictive . </li></ul>
  18. 18. Restrictive vs. Nonrestrictive <ul><li>Jane read the book [ which John recommended]. </li></ul><ul><li>Sam ate the cookie [Bill wanted]. </li></ul><ul><li>Restrictive relative clauses help identify the noun . </li></ul><ul><li>Restrictive relative clauses can start without a relative pronoun !!! </li></ul><ul><li>3. Jane read “Peter Pan” , [ which she really liked]. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Sam ate Bill’s cookie , [ which was quite tasty]. </li></ul><ul><li> Nonrestrictive relative clauses don’t help to identify the noun , but rather add extra information about it. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Homework <ul><li>Read and do all the exercises in lessons 48 and 49. </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Ignore the terms “noun clause”, “adverbial clause”, etc. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Restrictive or Nonrestrictive? <ul><li>1. They finally opened the new clinic on Elm street, which uses modern treatments. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The library which closed last summer has reopened. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Those are the kinds of trees that Sam planted on his property. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Jake bought the same kind of car I used to own. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Ms. Fine , who teaches English, also teaches piano. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Please bring the magazine we talked about. </li></ul><ul><li>7. His belief, which he has held forever, is incorrect. </li></ul><ul><li>8. The add my agency developed helped boost sales. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Why are the sentences starred? <ul><li>*That sounds well to me. </li></ul><ul><li>*Clean it by himself! </li></ul><ul><li>*Sam sent Bill. </li></ul><ul><li>*Do you has a car? </li></ul><ul><li>* Harry Potter , we saw with Sam, was great. </li></ul><ul><li>*We may go not there. </li></ul><ul><li>*It’s sad but truly. </li></ul><ul><li>*She could had been happy. </li></ul><ul><li>*Sam does have not a good laptop. </li></ul><ul><li>*We have too many homework! </li></ul>
  22. 22. Prescriptive Vs. Descriptive <ul><li>The word “law” has two meanings : </li></ul><ul><li>Human law (e.g. don’t steal ) </li></ul><ul><li>Natural law (e.g. gravity ) </li></ul><ul><li>Human laws are prescriptive – they prescribe how people should or ought to live. </li></ul><ul><li>Human laws are invented by people. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural laws are descriptive – they describe how the world is . </li></ul><ul><li>Natural laws are NOT invented by humans. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Descriptive Vs. Prescriptive <ul><li>The distinction in linguistics : </li></ul><ul><li>Prescriptive grammar (e.g. after a preposition say “whom”, not “who” ) </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive grammar (e.g. Modern English speakers always say “who”, not “whom” ) </li></ul><ul><li>Which type of grammar have we been studying in this course? </li></ul><ul><li>Are the grammatical rules we’ve learned descriptive rules or prescriptive rules ? </li></ul>
  24. 24. The grammar of English <ul><li>Rule : A pronoun does not follow a determiner. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>*Sam sent the me a letter. </li></ul><ul><li>But observe: </li></ul><ul><li>2. “ That’s the biggest me I have ever seen ”. </li></ul>
  25. 25. The grammar of English <ul><li>Rule : A proper noun does not follow a determiner . </li></ul><ul><li>Example : *The New York </li></ul><ul><li>But observe : </li></ul>
  26. 26. The grammar of English <ul><li>Rule : Every clause has a subject . </li></ul><ul><li>But observe : </li></ul><ul><li>Hey, great to see you! </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you! </li></ul><ul><li>Good to hear from you! </li></ul>
  27. 27. The grammar of English <ul><li>Rule : Every clause has a subject . </li></ul>[If requested] you must give this seat to the disabled. [If this seat is requested ] you must give this seat to the disabled.
  28. 28. The grammar of English <ul><li>Rule : Every passive sentence needs an auxiliary ! </li></ul><ul><li>But where is the auxiliary in this passive clause – </li></ul>
  29. 29. The grammar of English <ul><li>Rule : The object always comes after the verb </li></ul><ul><li>But observe : </li></ul><ul><li>John loves apples, but peaches he really hates. </li></ul>
  30. 30. The grammar of English <ul><li>Rule : The subject always comes before the verb </li></ul><ul><li>But observe : </li></ul><ul><li>George, can you do me a favor? Up in my room, on the nightstand, is a pinkish-reddish envelope ... </li></ul><ul><li>In Germany you can drive as fast as you like and you may feel like the king of the road – until you look in the rear mirror. Zooming in on you like a guided missile, comes a rival contender … </li></ul>
  31. 31. The grammar of English <ul><li>Rule : Only subject pronouns can be subjects . </li></ul><ul><li>But observe : </li></ul><ul><li>- Me and Sam are best friends. </li></ul>
  32. 32. The grammar of English <ul><li>Rule : Prepositions must be followed by a NP. </li></ul><ul><li>But observe : </li></ul><ul><li>What can I do you for? </li></ul>
  33. 33. Adding n’t to the verb “be” <ul><li>A prescriptive grammar will probably say : </li></ul><ul><li> “ *ain’t” is ungrammatical. </li></ul><ul><li>But a descriptive grammar could say : </li></ul><ul><li>Since both forms are found, the grammar should find a way to account for both “ain’t” and “aren’t”. </li></ul><ul><li>“ it's quite your regular night; ain't it?” </li></ul>is he not? = isn’t he? Are we not? = aren’t we? Was he not? = wasn’t he? Were they not = weren’t they? Am I not = ? *amn’t I? aren’t I? ain’t I?

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