3 Historical Emile Galle is considered one of the significant forces in the French Art Nouveau movement. The son of a prominent manufacturer of ceramics and glass based in Nancy, France, he trained in philosophy, botany and mineralogy as a young man and then returned to work for his father in the family business. During his travels representing the family business he visited museums such as the South Kensigton (later Victoria and Albert) museum and was inspired by the Oriental and Middle Eastern decorative arts collections. After his father’s retirement, he took over the business and established his own small glass workshop in which he could experiment in the styles that inspired him.
6 Cultural Galle was inspired by his studies in botany and the natural world around him but he was a part of the generation in Europe that grew up during the explosion of technology and mass production that was the legacy of the Industrial Revolution. Like many artists and designers of the time he keenly felt the widening chasm between the individual, handmade craftworks he had admired in the museums and the identikit, utilitarian products of the factories. There was a growing movement among these artists to get back in touch with nature and the old ways, this led to movements such as the Naturalists, artists and writers who interpreted nature in a more personal, less literal way – seeking to portray their “impressions” of nature and thereby giving rise to the idea of “Impressionism” in art. Along with this, the interest of artists such as Galle in the patterns and colours of the natural world also meant the creation of Art Nouveau, which along with the Arts and Craft movement in England and America, moved away from the over ornamentation of the high Victorian period to simpler decoration from nature that worked in harmony with the materials being used. It was Galle’s sensitivity to nature and to humanity that shaped the way the glassworks operated under his control as well. Galle was an avowed humanist, he was motivated by his perceptions about how the industrial age and the politics associated with it were failing the individual within the system, so under his directorship his glassworks became a model for how mass production might be married with craftsmanship.
9 Works Galle’s factories eventually manufactured glassware, ceramics and furniture. The processes for all three streams of manufacture all encompassed elements of machine and hand crafting. In the area of glass there were many different processes. At the top of the line were Galles own work, his experiments in combining different glasses with colour and inclusions, leading to work that was variously received as either pure genius or as “looking like a dirty old sponge”. Then there were his designs to be produced in the factory and many of these were made by blow moulding glass in a production line and then having trained craftsmen applying decoration by hand, wether it be extra layers of colour and additions or engraving patterns through the layer as in his famous “Cameo” ware. Even the factory itself was designed to give a pleasant, conducive working atmosphere, having good light and pleasant surroundings.
Colin Heaney 11
Colin Heaney has worked with glass for 25 years. Colin was born in Vancouver, Canada in 1948 and shortly after his family moved to California. Like many young Californians he enjoyed surfing and at 18 years old a surfing trip took him to Australia. In Byron Bay he found a lifestyle and community that suited him, the perfect place to start his artistic journey.
12 Byron Bay
Colin expressed his creativity in many materials and methods. Leather, wood, metal, wax, resins, found objects and cold glass all made their way into his sculptures and furniture. In the 1970’s Colin’s sculptural fantasy landscape candles were hugely popular, unfortunately we have been unable to source any pictures. (could link to non glass design section)
In the early 1980’s he came across glass blowing, a craft that so entranced him, partly through it’s immediacy that by 1982 he had a glass studio up and running.
His experiments and improvisation in object design and colour effects in have kept his mercurial nature to glass blowing for a quarter of a century. (could link to research section)
15 Heaney, Colin. Vitrolith Ocean Vessel, 2005. Glass, 39 x 37cm. Reproduced from Colin Heaney Glass, http://colinheaneyglass.com/sculptures_enlarge/1038.html (accessed September 28, 2009)
16 Heaney, Colin. V Shape Blue Persia, 200?. Glass, 23.5cm. Reproduced from Colin Heaney Glass, http://colinheaneyglass.com/goblets_enlarge/goblets1003.html (accessed September 28, 2009) Heaney, Colin. Vase Classic Blue Blossom, 200?. Glass, 22.5 x 12cm. Reproduced from Colin Heaney Glass, http://colinheaneyglass.com/vases_enlarge/vases1014.html (accessed September 28, 2009)
17 About a year and a half ago he personally has stopped blowing glass, while his studio still produces a range of blown sculptures, goblets, lamps and vases. Colin’s newest design venture is a range of silk scarves and swimming costumes printed with patterns digitally created from his blown glass . (could link to non glass design section) Heaney, Colin. Red Lave Vitrolith Mortar, 1999. Glass, Diameter 50cm. Reproduced from Colin Heaney Glass, http://colinheaneyglass.com/sculptures_enlarge/1026.html (accessed September 28, 2009)
Connections between Emile Gallé and Colin Heaney 18 Production ware Gall é, Emile (c1875). ‘faience vase’ Inspiration and themes. Innovative techniques and research More than glass Heaney, Colin (1993) ‘Salome series Candelabra’ Apart from easily seen similarities like Colour, form and decoration these two artists have deeper connections…. Heaney, Colin (2008) ‘Auralucent Oceana Vessel with base’ Gall é, Emile (1894). ‘On such a night as this
19 More than glass: Gallé and Heaney’s flair for design has not been restricted to glass alone. Before Gallé started to concentrate on glass he designed with pottery, not surprising because of his father’s faience and glass factory. In 1885 he opened a small woodworkers shop where he began experimenting in marquetry designs in furniture. This could have sparked off his ideas for glass marquetry. (link to research maybe?)
21 Like wise before his fascination with glass began Colin made his sculptures out of many materials. Leather, wood, metal, wax, resins, found objects and cold glass all made their way into his sculptures and furniture. Insert your own image of 1970’s fantasy candle landscapes here! After 25 years of glass blowing Heaney has moved on to using his glass art as a basis for print designs on silk kaftans and swimming costumes.
22 Clock wise . 1. Swimwear by Colin Heaney. 2. Silk Kaftan by Colin Heaney featured in the SMH Dec 2008. 3.Silk Kaftan by Colin Heaney featured at the BMW swimwear awards 2008. 4. Heaney, Colin. (1993) ‘Salome series candelabra’. Hot glass and gilded wrought iron. 110cm. Back to Connections 1 2 4 3 Insert your own image of 1970’s fantasy candle landscapes here!
23 Inspiration and themes; Emile Galle and Collin Heaney share an appreciation for natural beauty Gallé studied botany and his ‘scientific’ attention to detail appears in images on glass real enough to grow off the vase or fly away. Bats, pine cones, flowers of every sort and insects feature in Emile Galle’s designs Gallé, Emile. (c.1900) ‘Wildflowers’ Gallé, Emile. ‘Selection of vases’ Gallé, Emile. Gallé, Emile. (c1893 - 1899) ‘vases’
25 Heaney’s works are more abstract but the titles give a direct clue to his inspiration. Heaney is also an environmentalist, protecting the land that he loves from development. Fellow Byron Bay artist Debby Kruger said that ‘Byron Bay is intrinsically in everything Heaney does. His reverence for nature permeates his life and work..’ Back to Connections Heaney, Colin. ‘Bell enchanted forest blue’ Heaney, Colin. ‘Lacey line flute’ Heaney, Colin. 92004) ‘ Earth sky vase’ Heaney, Colin. ‘ Ruby Hanging garden’ Heaney, Colin. ‘ Rainfores t’
26 Artistic sustainability through production: Gallé and Heaney both found a good balance, of production work that financially supported the experimentation, research and unique artistic works. By the time Gallé was at the height of his practice, there were 3 levels of goods being made. ‘ Standard Gallé’ pieces made industrially, ‘Serial production’ where craftsman worked to his designs and then the most sought after V ‘unique’ works that involved many techniques and his own work. Gallé would have presented these unique works for display at events like the 1889 Paris international exhibition 3. Gallé, Emile. Table lamp. C.1900. Cased cameo glass shade, blown glass stem and wrought-iron base.
27 Colin Heaney started blowing by himself with surfie mates as assistants, now his studio has a team of 10 glassblowers. 9 Noris Ioannou states that ‘He has successfully developed a range of decorative and functional glass types which have been especially sought after by tourists.’ By doing this Heaney can finance his more sculptural artistic pieces and enjoy the experimental improvising that he so loves about blowing glass. Heaney’s ‘series’ strand are labelled as vases, goblets and gifts. 4 6 8 7 5
28 Heaney’s one off’s are labelled as ‘Sculptures’ and are dated. Back to Connections 11 9 10 12
29 Innovative techniques, research and experimentation: Gallé and Heaney both experimented with new designs. Each had a craving for more colours and effects, this desire prompted their own research and experimentation to achieve new products. Gallé patented several new processes for glass work. He extended the range of colours in the iridising process, experimented with glass marquetry, pate de verre, cameo techniques, enamelling and others. By mixing metallic oxides suspended in oil he created a whole new look with enamel finished for glass. Often his work would combine techniques. 2 “ In 1889, at the Paris International Exhibition, he presented his own new types of glass, including carved cameo and pate de verre work, new shapes of vases and extraordinary new colors.” 1.Gallé, Emile. Day lily vase. (c.1900) Glass marquetry, enamelling and engraving. 2.Gallé, Emile. Vase. (c.1900). Cameo cut glass, 13.5cm x 8.6cm x 4.65cm. Cleveland Museum of Art. 1 2
30 Colin Heaney states that he loves colour, and you can see that he needs a challenging material one that will keep his busy mind occupied. In 1994 Heaney worked with scientists from University of Technology Sydney to achieve new colours in glass. Noris Ioannou comments that Heaney’s research ‘has led him to the development of the iridising process, considerably expanding its colour range.’ In 1997 Heaney began experimenting with overlaying and fusing together glass colours with contrasting qualities, along with very fine layers of copper and bronze powder in between. The process and its chemical reactions results in a nubbly textural stony like surface that Heaney refers to as ‘Vitrolith’ Left to Right Heaney, Colin. Vitrolith vessel. (2000). Blown glass, 47 x 27 x 9cm. Heaney, Colin. Vitrolith Bowl Sky (2000). Blown glass, d.39cm Heaney, Colin. Classic blue blossom. Blown glass, 22.5 x 12 cm.
Tony Hanning 31 “ GIP” Hand blown and carved vessel “ JON” Hand blown and carved vessel “ IAN” Hand blown and carved vessel “ FUN” Hand blown and carved vessel
Who is Tony Hanning? 32
33 Bibliography; Born in 1950, Tony Hanning studied as a painter, finishing his Diploma of Visual Arts in 1971. He began art glass in 1979 where his cameo creations started to surface. In 1998 he finished his Masters of fine arts at Monash university in Victoria. Monash University, Caulfield campus Melbourne
34 Tony Hanning was one of the first Australian Glass artists to focus on the technique of cameo. He joined Nick Mount and opened the first production glass studio in Australia 1981, Budgeree glass. “ MIR” Hand blown and carved vessel Tony Hanning Budgeree Glass Studios and Team; Photograph by Ashley Homes
35 Hanning’s works focus on memory and space, originally based on plant imagery, Hannings recent work has evolved into landscapes with a story. “ DUO” Hand blown and carved vessel Tony Hanning untitled cameo vase earlier work tony hanning
Connections between Emile Gallé and Tony Hanning 36 technique Exploring the vessel Correspondence with pop culture Natural Inspiration team artwork
Cameo Engraving 37 Cameo Glass Vase By Emile Galle c.1900 “ SID" Hot Blown & Carved Glass By Tony Haning
38 This cameo effect embraces multiple colours that are revealed through layers of overlaid hand blown glass being carved and sandblasted to reveal the underlying layers of glass. “ NAM” Hand blown and carved vessel Tony Hanning “ NAN ” Hand blown and carved vessel Tony Hanning Galle Cameo Vase Emile Galle green cameo vase with an ochre overlay of a lakeside scene. Berries Emile Galle, Cameo vase, purple over clear and green, produced c1900
The Vessel as a Canvas 39 Both Galle and Hanning used the form of a vessel as a canvas, illustrating their concepts across the canvas by carving imagery through multiple layers of glass to reveal the colours underneath “ LUX” Hand blown and carved vessel Tony Hanning Galle Cameo Vase An Emile Galle green cameo vase with an ochre overlay of a lakeside scene. Lovely ! Galle Cameo Vase Emile Galle green cameo vase with an ochre overlay of a lakeside scene.
40 Emile Galle french vase h: 46 cm / h: 18.1 in “ BOY” Hand blown and carved vessel Tony Hanning
43 Tony Hanning Mix , 2007 triple overlay cameo glass, 15 x 9 NOW Hand blown and carved vessel Tony Hanning
Nature 41 “ COW” Hand blown and carved vessel Tony Hanning Emile GALLE, lampe Les Coprins Musée de l'Ecole de Nancy 1902
42 Émile Gallé French (1846-1904) Dragonfly coupe, c. 1904 carved and applied glass UNTITLED Hand blown and carved vessel Tony Hanning
44 Tony Hanning "AHA" Hot Blown & Carved Roy Lichtenstein “drowning Girl” 1963 Pop Culture
48 Carl Jozsa Art Nouveau postcard Ostende 1901 Cabinet designed by Emile Galle c. 1900 Art Nouveau doorway, Paris
47 Émile Gallé cameo lamp blown and engraved glass Alphonse Mucha poster for Bieres de la meuse c. 1890’s
45 1969 Magazine Advertisement "The Can Bag" Campbell's Soup USA MR AND MRS ANON Hand blown and carved vessel Tony Hanning
working as a team
Nick mount Scent bottle 2006 nick mount in the studio david hay in harmony 2002 ranamok finalist Title Newcastle cameo vase Date 2000 Place Traralgon, Victoria Medium sandblasted and engraved glass