National University of Modern
The sharing of information between
two or more individuals or groups
to reach a common understanding.
4. The Communication Process:
6. The Communication Process:
In simple term,
the sender encodes an idea into a
message and transmit the message to a
receiver who decodes the message and
Developing an idea, message or information
transmit to some individual or group.
Encoding symbolizes the idea that the
cues or even pictures and diagrams) are
designed to communicate only messages.
developed, transmitting is the next step by
one of several methods including
telephones, television, computers, board
policy statements and face to face
Receiving which requires that the receiver
be a good listener if the message is oral. If
the message is written, the receiver must
be attentive to its stated and implied
Decoding is the translation of a received
message into a perceived meaning
because meaning cannot be transmitted, it
cannot be received.
Acting is the final step in the
communication process. The receiver can
ignore the communication, store it for
possible action later or do something else
with it. The receiver should give feedback
to sender that the message was received
10. Direction of Communication:
11. Downward communication:
People at higher levels transmit information
to people at lower levels.
It transmits information from lower to higher
levels in the organization.
It takes place between employees at the
same hierarchical level.
12. Diagonal communication:
Diagonal communication is important
where members cannot communicate
effectively through other channels.
It applies to all informal communication
including institutional information between
employees and people in the community
13. Communication Networks
– The pathways along which information flows
in groups and teams and throughout the
Type of communication network depends
– The nature of the group’s tasks
– The extent to which group members need to
communicate with each other to achieve
16. Wheel network:
The wheel network, a two-level hierarchy
is the most structured and centralized of
the patters because each member can
communicate with only one other person.
The chain network ranks next highest in
centralization. Only two people
communicate with one another and they in
turn have only person to whom they
17. Y network:
The Y network is similar to the chain except
that two members fall outside the chain.
The circle network:
The circle network, a three-level hierarchy
is very different from the wheel chain and
Y networks. The circle gives equal
communication opportunity to every
member. Each member can communicate
with persons left and right.
18. Star network:
The star network is an extension of the
circle network. By connecting everyone in
the circle network, the result is a star or
channel network. It permits each member
freely with all persons. The star network
has no central position and no
communication restriction are placed on
19. Barriers to Communication:
Frames of reference
20. Overcoming Barriers to