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  1. 1. Communication Presented by Nadia Nazir National University of Modern languages Islamabad
  2. 2. DEFINATION: Communication: The sharing of information between two or more individuals or groups to reach a common understanding.
  3. 3. Content:
  4. 4. The Communication Process:  Ideating Encoding Transmitting Receiving Decoding Acting
  5. 5. Messages Barriers Receiver Develop s Idea Encode s Transm its Barriers Receiv es Feedback decode s Act
  6. 6. The Communication Process: In simple term, the sender encodes an idea into a message and transmit the message to a receiver who decodes the message and acts.
  7. 7. Ideating: Developing an idea, message or information to transmit to some individual or group. Encoding: Encoding symbolizes the idea that the sender wishes to transmit. Symbols( words, nonverbal cues or even pictures and diagrams) are designed to communicate only messages.
  8. 8. Transmitting: Once the message is developed, transmitting is the next step by one of several methods including telephones, television, computers, board policy statements and face to face communication. Receiving: Receiving which requires that the receiver be a good listener if the message is oral. If the message is written, the receiver must be attentive to its stated and implied
  9. 9. Decoding: Decoding is the translation of a received message into a perceived meaning because meaning cannot be transmitted, it cannot be received. Acting: Acting is the final step in the communication process. The receiver can ignore the communication, store it for possible action later or do something else with it. The receiver should give feedback to sender that the message was received and understood.
  10. 10. Direction of Communication: Downward direction Upward direction Horizontal Communication Diagonal Communication The Grapevine
  11. 11. Downward communication: People at higher levels transmit information to people at lower levels. Upward communication: It transmits information from lower to higher levels in the organization. Horizontal communication: It takes place between employees at the same hierarchical level.
  12. 12. Diagonal communication: Diagonal communication is important where members cannot communicate effectively through other channels. Grapevines: It applies to all informal communication including institutional information between employees and people in the community
  13. 13. Communication Networks – The pathways along which information flows in groups and teams and throughout the organization. Type of communication network depends on: – The nature of the group’s tasks – The extent to which group members need to communicate with each other to achieve group goals.
  14. 14. Communication Networks: Wheel network Chain network Y network Circle network Star network
  15. 15. Network Pattern:
  16. 16. Wheel network: The wheel network, a two-level hierarchy is the most structured and centralized of the patters because each member can communicate with only one other person. Chain network: The chain network ranks next highest in centralization. Only two people communicate with one another and they in turn have only person to whom they communicate.
  17. 17. Y network: The Y network is similar to the chain except that two members fall outside the chain. The circle network: The circle network, a three-level hierarchy is very different from the wheel chain and Y networks. The circle gives equal communication opportunity to every member. Each member can communicate with persons left and right.
  18. 18. Star network: The star network is an extension of the circle network. By connecting everyone in the circle network, the result is a star or channel network. It permits each member freely with all persons. The star network has no central position and no communication restriction are placed on any member.
  19. 19. Barriers to Communication: • • • • • • Frames of reference Filtering Structure Information overload Semantics Status Differences
  20. 20. Overcoming Barriers to Communication: Repetition Empathy Understanding Feedback Listening