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Atomic Structure Pure Edited

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Atomic Structure

Atomic Structure

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Transcript

  • 1. Atomic Structure…
  • 2.
  • 3. The Electron Shell
    The Nucleus
  • 4. Proton
    Nucleons
    Neutron
    The Nucleus
  • 5. Charge
    +
    Proton
    1
  • 6. Charge
    0
    Neutron
    1
  • 7. The Electron Shell
    Electron
  • 8. Charge
    _
    Electron
    1
    1836
  • 9. Sub-atomic Particles
    1
    1840
    0
  • 10. (+1) + 0 + (-1) = 0
    Hence, the total charge of the atom is 0.
    In other words, the atom is electrically neutral
  • 11. Nucleon No.
    Symbol
    Proton No.
  • 12. 35
    17
    17
    Tells us the no. of protons
    Proton No.
    Tells us the no. of electrons
    17
  • 13. Tells us the no. of
    protons +neutrons
    Nucleon No.
    No. of neutrons = Nucleon no. – Proton no.
    = 35 – 17
    = 18
    35
    17
  • 14. Let’s assess…
    Find the number of sub-atomic particles of the elements given.
  • 15.
  • 16.
  • 17. Isotopes
    Chlorine has an atomic mass of 35.5
    -Due to isotopes
    What are isotopes?
  • 18. Isotopes
    Atoms of the same element with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons.
  • 19. Isotopes
    Same chemical properties but slightly different physical properties.
    Why?
  • 20. Isotopes
    Chemical reactions only involve electrons.
    Physical properties depend on the atomic mass.
    As isotopes only differ in atomic mass but not proton no., they will have
    slightly different physical properties.
  • 21. Isotopes
    Radioisotopes
    Uses?
    Some isotopes emit high-energy radiation.
    Radiation can damage living cells but can be useful if used wisely.
  • 22. How are electrons arranged?
  • 23.
  • 24. Electrons are in orbit around the nucleus…
    Sort of like the planets around the Sun
  • 25. Why must we know how electrons are arranged?
    Electron arrangement determines the chemical properties of the atom.
  • 26. To ensure that the electron path is smooth sailing, the electrons are ‘assigned’ levels.
  • 27. The first level only takes in 2 electrons. Subsequent levels can only take up to 8 electrons.
    Hence, once the level is filled up, the electrons will ‘create’ another level up to orbit in.
  • 28. The way the electrons are arranged is called an electronic structure.
  • 29. 3rd Shell
    2nd Shell
    1st Shell
    2.
    8.
    8
  • 30. Write an electronic structure of sodium atom
    Draw its atomic structure
    2.8.1
    11 p
    12 n
  • 31. Valence Electrons
    Valence = Outermost
    Valence shell = Outermost shell
    Valence electrons 
    Electrons on the outermost shell.
  • 32. Valence Electrons
    Chemical property of an element depends on the valence electrons.
    Elements with the same number of valence electrons have similar chemical properties.
  • 33. All atoms yearn for a full outermost shell.
    They will go around
    gaining or
    losing electrons
    to attain a full electron shell (2 or 8 electrons).
    Once they have attained the full shell, they would have a stable electronic structure.
  • 34. Formation of Ions
  • 35. Gaining of electrons:
    Outermost shell  6 electrons
    Need 2 electrons to be full.
    Electrons gained  2 electrons
  • 36. The positive nucleus attracts the negative electrons
  • 37. Overall charge
    Atom:
    Ion:
  • 38. When electrons are gained, the overall charge is changed and atom becomes a negative ion.
    They are known as ANIONS
    2-
    [ ]
    16
    O2-
    8
  • 39. Losing electrons:
    Outermost shell  2 electrons
    Electrons lost  2 electrons
  • 40. Outermost shell disappears, exposing the next full shell.
  • 41. Overall charge
    Atom:
    Ion:
  • 42. When electrons are given away, the overall charge is changed and atom becomes a positive ion.
    They are known as CATIONS
    2+
    [ ]
    24
    Mg2+
    12
  • 43. Try them yourselves!
    Write the electronic structure and draw the structure of the ions that will form from the following atoms.
    Na, Ca, Cl, O, N, F, K