Atomic Structure Pure Edited

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Atomic Structure

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  • Include picture of solar system
  • Include picture of solar system
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  • Atomic Structure Pure Edited

    1. 1. Atomic Structure…<br />
    2. 2.
    3. 3. The Electron Shell<br />The Nucleus<br />
    4. 4. Proton<br />Nucleons<br />Neutron<br />The Nucleus<br />
    5. 5. Charge<br />+<br />Proton<br />1<br />
    6. 6. Charge<br />0<br />Neutron<br />1<br />
    7. 7. The Electron Shell<br />Electron<br />
    8. 8. Charge<br />_<br />Electron<br />1<br />1836<br />
    9. 9. Sub-atomic Particles<br /> 1<br />1840<br />0<br />
    10. 10. (+1) + 0 + (-1) = 0<br />Hence, the total charge of the atom is 0.<br />In other words, the atom is electrically neutral<br />
    11. 11. Nucleon No.<br />Symbol<br />Proton No.<br />
    12. 12. 35<br />17<br />17<br />Tells us the no. of protons<br />Proton No.<br />Tells us the no. of electrons<br />17<br />
    13. 13. Tells us the no. of <br />protons +neutrons<br />Nucleon No.<br />No. of neutrons = Nucleon no. – Proton no.<br />= 35 – 17<br />= 18<br />35<br />17<br />
    14. 14. Let’s assess…<br />Find the number of sub-atomic particles of the elements given.<br />
    15. 15.
    16. 16.
    17. 17. Isotopes<br />Chlorine has an atomic mass of 35.5<br />-Due to isotopes<br />What are isotopes?<br />
    18. 18. Isotopes<br />Atoms of the same element with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons. <br />
    19. 19. Isotopes<br />Same chemical properties but slightly different physical properties.<br />Why?<br />
    20. 20. Isotopes<br />Chemical reactions only involve electrons.<br />Physical properties depend on the atomic mass.<br />As isotopes only differ in atomic mass but not proton no., they will have <br />slightly different physical properties. <br />
    21. 21. Isotopes<br />Radioisotopes<br />Uses?<br />Some isotopes emit high-energy radiation.<br />Radiation can damage living cells but can be useful if used wisely. <br />
    22. 22. How are electrons arranged?<br />
    23. 23.
    24. 24. Electrons are in orbit around the nucleus…<br />Sort of like the planets around the Sun<br />
    25. 25. Why must we know how electrons are arranged?<br />Electron arrangement determines the chemical properties of the atom. <br />
    26. 26. To ensure that the electron path is smooth sailing, the electrons are ‘assigned’ levels. <br />
    27. 27. The first level only takes in 2 electrons. Subsequent levels can only take up to 8 electrons.<br />Hence, once the level is filled up, the electrons will ‘create’ another level up to orbit in.<br />
    28. 28. The way the electrons are arranged is called an electronic structure. <br />
    29. 29. 3rd Shell<br />2nd Shell<br />1st Shell<br />2. <br />8. <br />8 <br />
    30. 30. Write an electronic structure of sodium atom<br />Draw its atomic structure<br />2.8.1<br />11 p<br />12 n<br />
    31. 31. Valence Electrons<br />Valence = Outermost<br />Valence shell = Outermost shell<br />Valence electrons <br />Electrons on the outermost shell.<br />
    32. 32. Valence Electrons<br />Chemical property of an element depends on the valence electrons. <br />Elements with the same number of valence electrons have similar chemical properties.<br />
    33. 33. All atoms yearn for a full outermost shell. <br />They will go around <br />gaining or <br />losing electrons <br />to attain a full electron shell (2 or 8 electrons). <br />Once they have attained the full shell, they would have a stable electronic structure. <br />
    34. 34. Formation of Ions<br />
    35. 35. Gaining of electrons:<br />Outermost shell  6 electrons<br />Need 2 electrons to be full.<br />Electrons gained  2 electrons<br />
    36. 36. The positive nucleus attracts the negative electrons<br />
    37. 37. Overall charge<br />Atom:<br />Ion:<br />
    38. 38. When electrons are gained, the overall charge is changed and atom becomes a negative ion.<br />They are known as ANIONS<br />2-<br />[ ] <br />16<br />O2-<br />8<br />
    39. 39. Losing electrons:<br />Outermost shell  2 electrons<br />Electrons lost  2 electrons<br />
    40. 40. Outermost shell disappears, exposing the next full shell.<br />
    41. 41. Overall charge<br />Atom:<br />Ion:<br />
    42. 42. When electrons are given away, the overall charge is changed and atom becomes a positive ion.<br />They are known as CATIONS<br />2+<br />[ ] <br />24<br />Mg2+<br />12<br />
    43. 43. Try them yourselves!<br />Write the electronic structure and draw the structure of the ions that will form from the following atoms.<br />Na, Ca, Cl, O, N, F, K<br />

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