Bone Fracture Types by Nadia AbdulallahPresentation Transcript
What are fractures??? A fracture is commonly referred to as a broken bone. Fractures are common; the average person has two during a lifetime. They occur when the physical force exerted on the bone is stronger than the bone itself. Your risk of fracture depends, in part, on your age. Broken bones are very common in childhood, though children's fractures are generally less complicated than fractures in adults. Older people, whose bones are more brittle, are more likely to suffer fractures from falls that would not affect younger people.
GREENSTICK (incomplete) A greenstick fracture is a fracture in a young, soft bone in which the bone bends and partially breaks. A person's bones become harder (calcified) and more brittle with age. Greenstick fractures occur almost exclusively during infancy and childhood when one's bones are soft. The name is by analogy with green wood which similarly breaks on the outside when bent.
A COMMON CAUSE A common cause of a greenstick fracture is a fall, as falls can cause a bone to bend further than it is able too. Blunt trauma such as a blow can also cause such a fracture.
TREATMENT Treating a greenstick fracture requires reducing the fracture, typically by pulling the bone apart slightly and then pushing it into place to straighten it out. To ensure that the fracture heals, the doctor will put the affected limb into a cast, immobilizing it so that the bone can grow back. Healing times for greenstick fractures are often very quick, and these fractures are typically not as painful as some other types of fractures, especially once the fracture has been reduced. Anti-inflammatory drugs may be prescribed to bring down swelling at the fracture site.
TRANSVERSE FRACTURE A transverse fracture is a complete fracture that is straight across the bone at right angles to the long axis of the bone.
A COMMON CAUSE Often transverse fracture results from a direct blow (imagine a karate chop directly across the arm), but it can also sometimes occur when people do things repetitively, like running. When the fracture occurs, the bone may or may not line up completely. The action of the injury can cause the bone to separate, so that part of it is misaligned and needs to be reducted or re-placed together.
TREATMENT This means treatment for transverse fracture could involve either an open or closed reduction before the area is given a cast (when that is possible). In the open reduction, doctors must surgically put the bone back together, and they may employ things like metal pins, plates or screws so that the bone will stay in place and heal completely. The closed reduction may still require anesthesia because it can be very painful to correctly replace the bone from an exterior and non-surgical position. Typically casting is required whether or not reduction occurs because a full break across the bone can take a long while to heal.
SIMPLE (CLOSED) FRACTURE A fracture is called simple (closed) when the overlying skin is not broken and the bone is not exposed to the air.
A COMMON CAUSE Generally, an injury causes a single fracture, known as a simple fracture.
TREATMENT Closed or simple fractures – the two ends of the broken bone are lined up and held in place. The limb is thoroughly bandaged then the wet plaster is applied. Sometimes, once the plaster is dry, the cast is split into two and the two halves are then re-bandaged on the outside. This allows for any swelling that may occur.