A play written by :William Shakespeare
Identity of HAMLET Drama
Full title: The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of
Author : William Shakespeare
Type of work : Play
Genre : Tragedy
Language : English
Written at the first part of the
seventeenth century (probably
in1601),Hamlet was first
performed in July 1602. It was
first published in printed form in
1603 and appeared in an
enlarged edition in 1604.
Shakespeare was born and brought up in Stratford-upon-
Between 1585 and 1592, he began a successful career in
London as an actor, writer, and part owner of a playing
company called the Lord Chamberlain's Men, later known as
the King's Men.
His early plays were mainly comedies and histories, genres
he raised to the peak of sophistication and artistry by the end
of the 16th century.
He then wrote mainly tragedies until about 1608,
Little known about shakespeare his own life but it`s known that he has a
son called Hamlet died at the age of 10.
This influenced shakespeare many of his plays concerned fathers and
• Some of his work:
A Midsummer Night's Dream
As You Like It
Taming of the Shrew
Romeo and Juliet
The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark is a play, written
by William Shakespeare. It is one of his best-known plays.
The play is often just called Hamlet.
The main story of Hamlet is a Danish prince whose uncle
killed his father ,married his mother, and claimed the
throne. His father ghost came to Hamlet and told him that
his uncle killed his father ,so Hamlet pretended madness
to discover the truth, then killed his uncle in revenge.
The story takes place
in the country of
Denmark (Kingdom of
Denmark) in the late
Kronborg Castel, Elsinore,
I’m Ophelia and I love
Hamlet, the Prince. After
the death of my father,
Polonius, I become
crazy and kill myself in a
I’m Polonius, the Lord
Chamberlain of Claudius’s
court, a pompous, conniving
old man. I’m the father of
Ophelia and Laertes. I die by
the sword of Hamlet.
I’m Laertes, Polonius’s son and
Ophelia’s brother. I’m a young
man who comes back home
from France. Passionate and
quick to action, I’m clearly a foil
for the reflective Hamlet.
I’m Fortinbras, the young
Prince of Norway, whose
father the king was killed by
Hamlet’s father. Now I wish to
attack Denmark to avenge my
father’s honor, making him
another foil for Prince Hamlet.
I’m Horatio, Hamlet’s closed
friend. I’m loyal and helpful .
I’m the only alive at the end.
I’m remained alive to tell
everyone Hamlet’s story.
A. Finocchio – L.
Pompele – F.
hamlet , prince of Denmark, was a brave and noble
young man, his father, old king hamlet, died
suddenly and in a mysterious way. hamlet, who
loved his father, was broken-hearted. his sadness
increased when his mother, soon after her
husband's death, married her husband's brother
Claudius. Claudius, a cunning and evil man, then
became king of Denmark.
He had been told that his father had died from the
bite of a snake while he was sleeping in his garden.
Was this true? Had my uncle killed my father? Had
my mother known about my uncle's evil purpose?
Had she helped him in it? These thoughts tormented
the noble mind of the young prince
Chapter (1): Hamlet and his father's ghost
At this time, hamlet's best friend , horatio, came to him with a
strange story. The soldiers on guard on the castle walls had
seen the ghost of old king hamlet.
The next night, hamlet and horatio were waiting with a guard
on the castle walls.
Suddenly, horatio touched hamlet's arm. ''look, my lord, '' he
whispered. '' here it comes!'' The ghost of his father stood in
front of young hamlet.
1/ What sad events
turns Hamlet into a
very sad young man?
His father, old king hamlet,
died suddenly and in a
2/ What news did
Horatio bring Hamlet?
The soldiers on guard on the
castle walls had seen the ghost
of old king hamlet
Chapter (2): Hamlet pretends madness
'‘Are you my father?" hamlet asked, in great agitation.
''why have you come? What do you want me to do?"
The ghost did not speak. It beckoned hamlet to leave
his two companions and to follow it to the edge of the
castle wall. Horatio, who feared for his friend's safety,
tried to hold hamlet back. But hamlet pushed him
away roughly and followed the ghost.
''they told you,'' the ghost began, ''that a snake killed
me when I was sleeping in my garden. Oh, hamlet! The
snake that killed me was your uncle. Revenge my foul
murder. But do not kill your mother. Leave her to the
torment of her conscience. Remember! Remember!''
the ghost commanded. The next moment it was gone.
Hamlet returned to his two
companions. He made them
promise never to speak of what
they had seen that night. He
told horatio what the ghost had
said. moreover, he told him of a
strange plan that he had
suddenly made . he was going
to behave as if he were really
mad. In this way he could hide
his real feelings from his uncle.
At the same time he could spy
on him more easily.
Hamlet's speech and behavior became stranger than ever . the king and
the queen did not think that hamlet know of their guilt but they saw that
something was driving hamlet mad. What could it be?
An old and wise courtier, polonius by name, declared that he know the
cause of hamlet's madness. Love was the cause. Polonius had seen that
hamlet was in love with his daughter. He advised Ophelia to behave
coldly towards the young prince . Ophelia, who was a most obedient
daughter , obeyed. Her coldness, polonius told the king and queen, was
the cause of hamlet's madness.
Meanwhile, hamlet was tormented by doubt and despair. He
blamed himself for doing nothing to revenge his father . as
he loved his mother , it was hard for him to kill her husband.
Besides. He could not be sure that the ghost's story was
true. Was the ghost a devil disguised as his father ? and had
that devil come to make him do evil? Tormented by such
thoughts, hamlet even thought of killing himself.
1/ What did the ghost
say to hamlet?
King Hamlet says to his son the
story of his death, his murderer is
his brother Claudius, his wife lover.
2/ What was the cause of
according to Polonius?
Love was the cause. Polonius had
seen that hamlet was in love with his
Chapter(3): The play
Hamlet had a chance to find out whether king
Claudius was guilty or not .
A company of actors came to the castle to act a play
before the king.
Hamlet welcomed the actors warmly.
Hamlet remembered a play that they had acted
before it is called The Murder of Gonzago ,showed
how a duke named Gonzago was poisoned in his
garden by his cousin and afterwards had married the
dukes wife .
Hamlet asked the actors if they could act the play, so
he said (Tomorrow night you shall act it before the
king and Queen .
Hamlet made a few changes in the play so that it
resembled more closely the murder of King Hamlet .
Hamlet thought ,(when the king and the Queen see
this play their faces will show whether they are guilty
or not),I shall watch them closely.
Hamlet told Horatio of his plan and asked him to watch with him (If the play
does not affect them ,then the ghost was not my fathers spirit and Claudius
is not guilty).
The following night , the king and Queen together with the whole court
gathered to watch the play .
Hamlet and Horatio sat a little apart from the rest in a spot where they
could watch the king closely without anyone noticing .
The curtain rose on a scene showing the Duke Gonzago and his wife
sitting side by side .
The Duchess was saying ,(If you die ,I shall never marry again .Only a
woman who has killed her first husband marries a second one .
Hamlet saw his mother grow deathly pale at these words.
The next scene showed Gonzago asleep in his orchard .
A man came creeping up to him .He knelt beside him and poured poison
into his ear .
The guilty king cried out in horror .
(Look)Hamlet called to him, ( He is poisoning him so that he can get his
lands .In the next scene ,you will see how he gets his wife as well).
Claudius could bear no more .Lights Lights he shouted . He and the
Queen hurried out of the hall in terror .
Hamlet was now certain that Claudius had murdered his father .
Hamlet knew that he had to take his revenge without any delay.
1/ Why did Hamlet ask
the players to act that
Hamlet thought ,(when the king and
the Queen see this play their faces will
show whether they are guilty or not)
2/ What was Hamlet
now certain of?
Hamlet was now certain that
Claudius had killed his father
Chapter (4) :Hamlet kills Polonius
A messenger came to Hamlet ,saying that the Queen wished to speak to
him as Claudius had persuaded the Queen to send for Hamlet.
Claudius wanted to find out how much his stepson knew .
Claudius was greatly distressed ,he knelt down and tried to pray for
Hamlet , on his way to his mother room ,so him kneeling there .He could
easily have killed him , but he did not .He quietly passed by.
The Queen was waiting for her son , She was not alone because she had
asked Polonius to hide himself behind the curtains .
Polonius would be her witness.
when Hamlet came in the Queen began (Hamlet you have deeply offended
your father ).
Hamlet replied (mother you have deeply offended my father ).
Hamlet was ready to kill his mother , but he remembered his fathers order
Hamlet wasn’t satisfied with that way,
Hamlet asked Gertrude about her
father's death. When Gertrude did not
want to confess, Hamlet became angry
and when he saw someone who was
hiding behind the curtain, he stabbed
and killed him, because he thought that
he was Claudius. Unpredictably he was
Polonius, the king’s advisor. Laertes and
Ophelia, Polonius’ children were very
At that moment , the ghost of king Hamlet again appeared .It said (Have pity
on her .Leave her now .But have no pity on Claudius .Take your revenge
on him .Remember) It then vanished.
1/ Did Hamlet intend
to kill his mother and
No, because the ghost of king Hamlet
appeared .It said (Leave her now .But
have no pity on Claudius
2/ Did Hamlet intend
to kill Polonius?
No, he saw someone who was hiding
behind the curtain, he stabbed and killed
him, because he thought that he was
- King Claudius now planned to get rid of Hamlet .
- He had to be careful because the people were fond of the young price.
- He sent Hamlet to England with two courtiers. The people were told
that Hamlet was sailing on state business.
- But the two courtiers were given a letter for the King of England. And
in this letter Claudius asked the King of England to put Hamlet to death.
- On board the ship, Hamlet found the letter, opened it and read it.
unknown to the countries. He rubbed out his own name in the letter and,
in its place, wrote the names of the two courtiers. He sealed the letter
with his father s seal and put it back in its place.
Chapter (5): Ophelia's funeral
A. Finocchio – L.
Pompele – F.
On the following day, the ship was
attacked by pirates who seized
Hamlet and carried him off with
The courtiers in their ship went on
their way to England, and to their
deaths. Hamlet was landed by the
pirates on the coast of Denmark.
Hamlet wrote to Horatio begging
him to come to him as soon as he
could. Horatio came and learned of
Hamlet`s adventure and the
treachery of the King.
- Hamlet and Horatio were making their way homewards to the castle
when they came to a churchyard. Here they stopped to speak to two
men who were diggers a grave.
- While they were talking to the gravediggers, a funeral procession
entered the churchyard. It was led by the King and the Queen, and
among the mourners was Laertes, the brother of Ophelia. Hamlet and
his companion hid themselves behind a gravestone and listened to the
funeral service. They wondered whose it was.?
Ophelia! It was Ophelia who was dead! Ophelia who had killed herself!
She drowned in the lake, “And,” thought Hamlet, “she killed murder of
her father. Oh!” He was overcome with grief and remorse.
- Then Laertes, wild with sorrow, leapt into his sister`s grave. Hamlet
jumped in after him. Laertes, who blamed Hamlet for two deaths, seized
his enemy by the throat. And there, in grave, the two men fought fiercely
till they were separated by the others. “ Forty thousand brothers could
never love Ophelia as much as I did!” Hamlet shouted wildly. He wept
bitter tears as Horatio led him away.
1/ What did Claudius
do to get rid of Hamlet?
He sent Hamlet to England with two
courtiers asked the King of England
to put Hamlet to death.
2/ How had Ophelia
She fallen into a river and drowned
Chapter (6): The FATAL FENCINGMATCH.
Claudius`s first plan to get rid of Hamlet had failed.-
-Now he thought of a second one, using Laertes as his tool. laertes,
eager to revenge for his father and his sister, was ready to carry out the
- He agreed to fight Hamlet in a fencing match, using a sword with a
fight with a sharp point a thing forbidden in matches .Moreover, he
would put poison so that even a scratch would mean death.
-The King`s evil plan did not end here.
-He prepared a cup of poisoned wine in order to make the death of
Hamlet more certain .
- In the middle of the match, he would drink a cup of wine to the success
of his stepson.
- He would then offer Hamlet a drink from the poisoned cup. Hamlet,
who would certainly be thirsty, would drink and die.
- He did not see the Queen reach out her hand towards the poisoned
cup and drink from it.
- At that moment, Laertes wounded Hamlet slightly with his sharp-
pointed sword. Hamlet, now aware on Laertes` shameful deceit, threw
himself on his enemy.
- He seized Laertes sword and wounded him with it.
"separate them! Stop the fight!" shouted the King . There was a sudden
cry from the Queen. She called out that she had been poisoned and fell
1/ What did Claudius do
to make the death of
Hamlet more certain?
He prepared a cup of poisoned wine
in order to make the death of
Hamlet more certain .
2/ Why did the king
command to stop the
Because, the Queen had been poisoned
and fell down dead.
At first Hamlet won the sword fight, but his mother drank
the poisoned wine without knowing, and died. In the next
round, Hamlet wounded with the poisoned sword, but
then stabbed Laertes with the same sword. Before dying
of poison Laertes told Hamlet about Claudius his plan then
he died. . Forgive me, hamlet he begged with his last breath.
The king's evil plot was now clear to hamlet . he had only a few
moments of life left but they were enough for him to take his revenge . he
rushed at the king, struck him hard with the poisoned sword , and killed
him on the spot . he knew he was going to die. With his last remaining
strength , he called horatio to him and begged him to tell the world the
true story of his father's death and his own revenge . horatio , overcome
with grief , stretched out his hand for the poisoned cup. He had no wish
to live after his friends death. But hamlet stopped him and made him
promise to live on and tell the true story of the tragedy. The last words he
uttered before he died were " the rest is silence". With tears in his eyes ,
horatio gazed sadly at his dead friend . " good night, sweet prince ," he
said, " and flight of angels sing thee to the rest!"
1/ What did laertes
Before dying of poison Laertes told
Hamlet about Claudius his plan then
2/ How did Hamlet
kill the king?
He rushed at the king, struck him hard
with the poisoned sword