Data collection methods for descriptive research


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Data collection methods for descriptive research

  1. 1. Questionnaire Design
  2. 2. Questionnaire design <ul><li>Questionnaire is a technique for collecting data </li></ul><ul><li>Open ended questions provide important and detail feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Close ended questions provide ease in analysis </li></ul><ul><li>There is no guaranteed technique that will give good questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>It is a skill that can be mastered by experience. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Preliminary considerations for designing questionnaire <ul><li>Data needs: Refer Investigative questions </li></ul><ul><li>Respondent’s profile </li></ul><ul><li>Method of administering questionnaire: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mail questionnaire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Personal interview <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spontaneous response can be obtained </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher response rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information at greater depth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility of restructuring the Questionnaire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviewer by his skill can come over resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non Response generally low </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Samples can controlled more effectively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal information can be obtained </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviewer can collect supplementary information about respondent’s personal characteristics and environment which has value in interpreting results </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Personal interview <ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expensive & time consuming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not suitable if respondent wants to be anonymous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respondent may give bias information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some Executive people are not approachable so data collected may be inadequate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes more time when samples are more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervisors has to do complex work of selecting ,training and supervising the field staff. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Mail questionnaire <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency in cost and time if sample is geographically spread </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Useful if respondent wants to be anonymous (sensitive subjects of research) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-response can be high </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Answers can be incomplete </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not suitable for spontaneous response </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Telephone questionnaire <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency in cost and time if sample is geographically spread </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Useful if respondent wants to be anonymous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spontaneous response can be obtained </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual aid can not be used </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Preliminary considerations for designing questionnaire <ul><li>Research design used: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open ended questions are suitable for exploratory research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Close ended for conclusive research </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Steps in questionnaire design <ul><li>Prepare flowchart to decide flow of questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare first draft of the questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>Test questionnaire for finding any mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>Finalize questionnaire </li></ul>
  10. 10. Do’s of questionnaire <ul><li>Interviewer should first reveal his identity and purpose of study </li></ul><ul><li>Assure respondent that responses given by him will be kept confidential </li></ul><ul><li>Convince him about benefit that will be derived from his co-operation </li></ul><ul><li>Place neutral or filter questions at the beginning </li></ul><ul><li>Use conversational language </li></ul><ul><li>State meaning of technical words </li></ul><ul><li>Use categories for sensitive data. E.g. age, income </li></ul>
  11. 11. Do’s of questionnaire <ul><li>Include all relevant answers to a close ended question </li></ul><ul><li>Options given to a question should be mutually exclusive </li></ul><ul><li>Use balanced scale in attitude measurement </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence questions from general information to specific information </li></ul><ul><li>Place demographic questions at the end unless required for screening respondent or for quota sample </li></ul><ul><li>Ask respondent to give spontaneous response to know his top of mind awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Give examples to respondents for understanding scale </li></ul>
  12. 12. Do’s of questionnaire <ul><li>Write instructions to interviewer at the beginning of questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>Use capital letters for instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Do not provide lines for answers to open ended questions </li></ul><ul><li>Use checkboxes [ ] for recording answers </li></ul><ul><li>Send covering letter for mail questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>Thank the respondent at the end of questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>Layout should be such that it avoids flipping pages </li></ul>
  13. 13. Do’s of questionnaire <ul><li>Physical appearance of the questionnaire should be pleasant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leave sufficient white space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use booklet form </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide visual aid to respondent, if necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Each questionnaire should have unique serial number and interviewer’s code no. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Don'ts of questionnaire <ul><li>Avoid ambiguous adjectives like usually, often, rare, occasionally, frequently. Instead better to quantify choices like: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dou you often visit temple? (Incorrect) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How may times do you visit temple in a week? (Correct) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Every day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4 to 6 times in a week </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 to 3 times in a week </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Once a week </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Don'ts of questionnaire <ul><li>Avoid double negatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are you against ban on smoking? (Incorrect) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will you support ban on smoking? (Correct) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avoid double-barreled questions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is fast food tasty and nourished? (Incorrect) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is fast food tasty? (Correct) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is fast food nourished? (Correct) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do not use abbreviations. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Don'ts of questionnaire <ul><li>Avoid questions that will tax respondent’s memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid leading question. For e.g.: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t you feel that religion should be kept away from politics? (Incorrect) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you feel that religion should be kept away from politics? (Correct) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do not assume that respondent has prior knowledge. Confirm it or provide it. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Don'ts of questionnaire <ul><li>Do not substitute respondent. For e.g. do not interview husband if wife is not available. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Pre-testing questionnaire <ul><li>Check the questionnaire for any flaw in the questionnaire. Some of the areas are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Required data is obtained fully </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scales used are valid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaning of questions are properly understood by everybody </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respondent does not get irritated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>About 75 respondents are found sufficient for testing </li></ul><ul><li>Perform analysis on the data obtained during pre-testing and show it to the decision maker </li></ul>
  19. 19. Qualities of interviewer <ul><li>Understands respondents </li></ul><ul><li>Listens well </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains attitude of genuine interest </li></ul><ul><li>Accepts rejection </li></ul><ul><li>Does not let mood affect performance </li></ul><ul><li>Is sincere, committed and of high integrity </li></ul>
  20. 20. Field Survey <ul><li>Inform respondents in advance, if possible </li></ul><ul><li>Have proper checks while survey is on </li></ul><ul><li>Do courtesy call or send thanks giving letters to those who responded to survey </li></ul><ul><li>Send reminders to those who have not sent responses to mail survey </li></ul>