–Chapter 1 What is Social Psychology?behavioral A subfield of psychology that examines the role of genetic factors in behavior.geneticscross-cultural Research designed to compare and contrast people of different cultures.research A system of enduring meanings, beliefs, values, assumptions, institutions, and practicesculture shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.evolutionary A subfield of psychology that uses the principles of evolution to understand human socialpsychology behavior.interactionist An emphasis on how both an individual’s personality and environmental characteristicsperspective influence behavior.multicultural Research designed to examine racial and ethnic groups within cultures.researchsocial The study of how people perceive, remember, and interpret information about themselvescognition and others.social The study of the relationship between neural and social processes.neurosciencesocial The scientific study of how individuals think, feel, and behave in a social context.psychology
–Chapter 2 Doing Social Psychology Researchapplied Research whose goals are to enlarge the understanding of naturally occurring events and toresearch find solutions to practical problems.basic Research whose goal is to increase the understanding of human behavior, often by testingresearch hypotheses based on a theory.bogus A procedure in which research participants are (falsely) led to believe that their responsespipeline will be verified by an infallible lie-detector.technique Accomplice of an experimenter who, in dealing with the real participants in an experiment,confederate acts as if he or she is also a participant. The extent to which the measures used in a study measure the variables they were designedconstruct to measure and the manipulations in an experiment manipulate the variables they werevalidity designed to manipulate.correlation A statistical measure of the strength and direction of the association between two variables.coefficientcorrelational Research designed to measure the association between variables that are not manipulated byresearch the researcher.debriefing A disclosure, made to participants after research procedures are completed, in which the researcher explains the purpose of the research, attempts to resolve any negative feelings, and emphasizes the scientific contribution made by the participants’ involvement.deception In the context of research, a method that provides false information to participants.dependent In an experiment, a factor that experimenters measure to see if it is affected by thevariable independent variable. A form of research that can demonstrate causal relationships because (1) the experimenterExperiment has control over the events that occur and (2) participants are randomly assigned to conditions. The degree to which experimental procedures are involving to participants and lead them toexperimental behave naturally and spontaneously.realism
–experimenter The effects produced when an experimenter’s expectations about the results of anexpectancy experiment affect his or her behavior toward a participant and thereby influence theeffects participant’s responses.external The degree to which there can be reasonable confidence that the results of a study would bevalidity obtained for other people and in other situations.hypothesis A testable prediction about the conditions under which an event will occur.independent In an experiment, a factor that experimenters manipulate to see if it affects the dependentvariable variable.informed An individual’s deliberate, voluntary decision to participate in research, based on theconsent researcher’s description of what will be required during such participation.internal The degree to which there can be reasonable certainty that the independent variables in anvalidity experiment caused the effects obtained on the dependent variables.interrater The degree to which different observers agree on their observations.reliabilitymeta-analysis A set of statistical procedures used to review a body of evidence by combining the results of individual studies to measure the overall reliability and strength of particular effects.mundane The degree to which the experimental situation resembles places and events in the realrealism world.operational The specific procedures for manipulating or measuring a conceptual variable.definitionrandom A method of assigning participants to the various conditions of an experiment so that eachassignment participant in the experiment has an equal chance of being in any of the conditions.random A method of selecting participants for a study so that everyone in a population has an equalsampling chance of being in the study.subject A variable that characterizes pre-existing differences among the participants in a study.variabletheory An organized set of principles used to explain observed phenomena.
–Chapter 3 The Social Selfaffective The process of predicting how one would feel in response to future.forecastingbask inreflected glory To increase self-esteem by associating with others who are successful.(BIRG) An Eastern system of thought that accepts the coexistence of contradictory characteristicsdialecticism within a single person.downwardsocial The defensive tendency to compare ourselves with others who are worse off than we are.comparisonfacial feedback The hypothesis that changes in facial expression can lead to corresponding changes inhypothesis emotion.implicit egotism A nonconscious form of self-enhancement.overjustification The tendency for intrinsic motivation to diminish for activities that have becomeeffect associated with reward or other extrinsic factors.private self- A personality characteristic of individuals who are introspective, often attending to theirconsciousness own inner states.public self- A personality characteristic of individuals who focus on themselves as social objects, asconsciousness seen by others.self-awareness The theory that self-focused attention leads people to notice self-discrepancies, therebytheory motivating either an escape from self-awareness or a change in behavior.self-concept The sum total of an individual’s beliefs about his or her own personal attributes. An affective component of the self, consisting of a person’s positive and negative self-
–self-esteem evaluations.self- Behaviors designed to sabotage one’s own performance in order to provide a subsequenthandicapping excuse for failure. The tendency to change behavior in response to the self-presentation concerns of theself-monitoring situation.self-perception The theory that when internal cues are difficult to interpret, people gain self-insight bytheory observing their own behavior.self- Strategies people use to shape what others think of them.presentation A belief people hold about themselves that guides the processing of self-relevantself-schema information.social The theory that people evaluate their own abilities and opinions by comparing themselvescomparison to others.theoryTerror The theory that humans cope with the fear of their own death by constructing worldviewsManagement that help to preserve their self-esteem.Theorytwo-factor The theory that the experience of emotion is based on two factors: physiological arousaltheory of and a cognitive interpretation of that arousal.emotion
–Chapter 4 Perceiving Personsattribution A group of theories that describe how people explain the causes of behavior.theoryavailability The tendency to estimate the likelihood that an event will occur by how easily instances ofheuristic it come to mind.base-rate The finding that people are relatively insensitive to consensus information presented in thefallacy form of numerical base rates.belief in a just The belief that individuals get what they deserve in life, an orientation that leads people toworld disparage victims.belief The tendency to maintain beliefs even after they have been discredited.perseverancecentral traits Traits that exert a powerful influence on overall impressions.confirmation The tendency to seek, interpret, and create information that verifies existing beliefs.biascounterfactual The tendency to imagine alternative events or outcomes that might have occurred but didthinking not.covariation A principle of attribution theory that holds that people attribute behavior to factors that areprinciple present when a behavior occurs and are absent when it does not.false- The tendency for people to overestimate the extent to which others share their opinions,consensus attributes, and behaviors.effectfundamental The tendency to focus on the role of personal causes and underestimate the impact ofattribution situations on other people’s behavior.errorimplicit A network of assumptions people make about the relationships among traits and behaviors.personality
–theoryimpression The process of integrating information about a person to form a coherent impression.formationinformation The theory that impressions are based on (1) perceiver dispositions; and (2) a weightedintegration average of a target person’s traits.theorymind The process by which people attribute humanlike mental states to various animate andperception inanimate objects, including other people.need for The desire to reduce cognitive uncertainty, which heightens the importance of firstclosure impressions.nonverbal Behavior that reveals a person’s feelings without words, through facial expressions, bodybehavior language, and vocal cues.personal Attribution to internal characteristics of an actor, such as ability, personality, mood, orattribution effort. The tendency for information presented early in a sequence to have more impact onprimacy effect impressions than information presented later. The tendency for recently used or perceived words or ideas to come to mind easily andpriming influence the interpretation of new information.self-fulfilling The process by which one’s expectations about a person eventually lead that person toprophecy behave in ways that confirm those expectations.situational Attribution to factors external to an actor, such as the task, other people, or luck.attributionsocial A general term for the processes by which people come to understand one another.perception
–Chapter 5 Stereotypes, Prejudice & Discrimination A form of sexism characterized by attitudes about women that reflect both negative,ambivalent resentful beliefs and feelings and affectionate and chivalrous but potentially patronizingsexism beliefs and feelings.contact The theory that direct contact between hostile groups will reduce prejudice under certainhypothesis conditions.Discrimination Behavior directed against persons because of their membership in a particular group. Two or more persons perceived as related because of their interactions, membership in thegroup same social category, or common fate.illusory An overestimate of the association between variables that are only slightly or not at allcorrelation correlated.implicit Racism that operates unconsciously and unintentionally.racismingroup The tendency to discriminate in favor of ingroups over outgroups.favoritismingroups Groups with which an individual feels a sense of membership, belonging, and identity.jigsaw A cooperative learning method used to reduce racial prejudice through interaction in groupclassroom efforts.modern A form of prejudice that surfaces in subtle ways when it is safe, socially acceptable, andracism easy to rationalize.outgroup The tendency to assume that there is greater similarity among members of outgroups thanhomogeneity among members of ingroups.effect Groups with which an individual does not feel a sense of membership, belonging, orOutgroups identity.
–prejudice Negative feelings toward persons based on their membership in certain groups. Prejudice and discrimination based on a person’s racial background, or institutional andracism cultural practices that promote the domination of one racial group over another.realistic The theory that hostility between groups is caused by direct competition for limitedconflict theory resources.relative Feelings of discontent aroused by the belief that one fares poorly compared with others.deprivation Prejudice and discrimination based on a person’s gender, or institutional and culturalsexism practices that promote the domination of one one gender over another.social The classification of persons into groups on the basis of common attributes.categorizationsocial A desire to see one’s ingroup as dominant over other groups and a willingness to adoptdominance cultural values that facilitate oppression over other groups.orientationsocial identity The theory that people favor ingroups over outgroups in order to enhance their self-esteem.theorysocial role The theory that small gender differences are magnified in perception by the contrastingtheory social roles occupied by men and women.stereotype A belief or association that links a whole group of people with certain traits or characteristics.stereotype A model proposing that the relative status and competition between groups influence groupcontent model stereotypes along the dimensions of competence and warmth.stereotype The experience of concern about being evaluated based on negative stereotypes aboutthreat one’s group.subliminal A method of presenting stimuli so faintly or rapidly that people do not have any consciouspresentation awareness of having been exposed to them.
–superordinate A shared goal that can be achieved only through cooperation among individuals or groups.goalChapter 6 Attitudesattitude A positive, negative, or mixed reaction to a person, object, or idea. A multiple-item questionnaire designed to measure a person’s attitude toward someattitude scale object. A phony lie-detector device that is sometimes used to get respondents to give truthfulbogus pipeline answers to sensitive questions.central route to The process by which a person thinks carefully about a communication and is influencedpersuasion by the strength of its arguments.cognitive The theory that holding inconsistent cognitions arouses psychological tension that peopledissonance become motivated to reduce.theory The process of thinking about and scrutinizing the arguments contained in a persuasiveelaboration communication.facial An electronic instrument that records facial muscle activity associated with emotions andelectromyograph attitudes.(EMG)Implicit A covert measure of unconscious attitudes derived from the speed at which peopleAssociation Test respond to pairings of concepts—such as black or white with good or bad.(IAT)implicit attitude An attitude, such as prejudice, that one is not aware of having.inoculation The idea that exposure to weak versions of a persuasive argument increases laterhypothesis resistance to that argument.insufficient A condition in which people refrain from engaging in a desirable activity, even whendeterrence only mild punishment is threatened.
–insufficient A condition in which people freely perform an attitude-discrepant behavior withoutjustification receiving a large reward.need for A personality variable that distinguishes people on the basis of how much they enjoycognition (NC) effortful cognitive activities.peripheral route The process by which a person does not think carefully about a communication and isto persuasion influenced instead by superficial cues.persuasion The process by which attitudes are changed.psychological The theory that people react against threats to their freedom by asserting themselves andreactance perceiving the threatened freedom as more attractive.sleeper effect A delayed increase in the persuasive impact of a noncredible source.theory of The theory that attitudes toward a specific behavior combine with subjective norms andplanned perceived control to influence a person’s actions.behavior