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Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development
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Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development

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Dwane Jones

Dwane Jones

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  • Dwane Jones Extension Associate [email_address] 919.249.5959 http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/topic/lid/ NC State University Biological & Agricultural Engineering Campus Box 7625, Weaver Lab Raleigh, NC 27695-7625
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    • 1. http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/topic/lid/ Dwane Jones [email_address] 919.249.5959
    • 2. Introduction: What is “Green Design & Development?” Green Design & Development
    • 3. http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/topic/lid/ Working Definition Green Building and Development is environmental responsiveness. It is integrating water quality, and air quality concepts with building technology. Green Design & Development
    • 4. Source: USGBC
    • 5. Source: USGBC
    • 6. Source: USGBC
    • 7. Source: USGBC
    • 8. Source: USGBC Source: USGBC
    • 9. Source: USGBC Daylighting Solar Panels Green Roof Bike Paths Biodiesel/Other Fuels Bicycles Water Harvesting Multi-Use Recycling Efficient Lighting Natural Air Flow +
    • 10. Source: USGBC
    • 11. Source: USGBC
    • 12. Green Planning Green Design & Development
    • 13. <ul><li>Conventional land development involves removal of all vegetation, compacting the soil and putting in large areas of hard (impervious) surfaces like roads, parking lots and roofs . The compacted soil and impervious surfaces prevent stormwater from soaking into the ground (called infiltration). This results in a tremendous increase in surface runoff. </li></ul><ul><li>By traveling much faster, stormwater runoff overwhelms streams causing flooding, damaging public and private property and destroying habitat for fish and wildlife. </li></ul>http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/topic/lid/
    • 14. <ul><li>Further, conventional practices collect and convey stormwater runoff through storm drains and pipes to a centralized, manmade stormwater facility to manage stormwater flow and remove pollutants. </li></ul><ul><li>This typically requires extensive use of pipes and sometimes large, costly, stormwater best management practices . </li></ul>
    • 15. <ul><li>Natural areas </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller lawns </li></ul><ul><li>Better pedestrian access </li></ul><ul><li>Wildlife Habitat </li></ul><ul><li>Open Space </li></ul><ul><li>Wooded Lots </li></ul>Modern Trend: Homebuyers
    • 16. Forsyth County July 2006- 331,859 April 2000- 306,044 + 25,815 (most recent census) Growth Trends: North Carolina
    • 17. +
    • 18. <ul><li>Design, construct, &amp; maintain each development site to protect , or restore , the natural hydrology (the scientific study of the properties, distribution, and effects of water on the earth&apos;s surface) of the site so that the overall integrity of the watershed is protected. This is done by creating a “hydrologically” functional landscape. </li></ul>http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/topic/lid/
    • 19. &nbsp;
    • 20. <ul><li>-Minimize land clearing </li></ul><ul><li>- Amended Soils </li></ul><ul><li>-Minimize use of impervious surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>-Infiltration </li></ul><ul><li>-Natural hydrology </li></ul>-Removal of most or all vegetation -Soil Compaction -Use of large amounts of impervious surfaces -Costly infrastructure -Altered hydrology
    • 21. LID PRACTICE / DEVICE Peak Flow Control Volume Reduction Water Quality Improvement Water Conservation Bio-retention Cell • • •   Cistern • • ~~&gt; • &lt;~~  • Curbless Parking Lot Islands • • •   Downspout Disconnection • • •   Grassed Swale • • •   Green Roof •   •   Infiltration Trench • • •   Narrow Road Design • • •   Permeable Pavers/Pavement • • •   Rain Barrel • •   • Rain Garden • • •   Sand Filter •   •   Tree Box Filter •   •   Tree Planting • •    
    • 22. LID Subdivision Low Impact Development
    • 23. <ul><li>Mix land uses. </li></ul><ul><li>Compact building design. </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse housing opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>Walkable neighborhoods. </li></ul><ul><li>Distinctive, attractive communities. </li></ul><ul><li>Preserve open space, farmland, natural beauty, and critical environmental areas. </li></ul>
    • 24. 7. Reinvest in and strengthen existing communities and achieve more balanced regional development. 8. Provide a variety of transportation options. 9. Make development fair, predictable, and cost-effective. 10. Encourage stakeholder participation.
    • 25. -Perspectives (Designer, Developer, Governing Authority) -*Local Ordinances &amp; Site Plan Review Process (often antiquated) *The developer may request a variance, but often these can be time-consuming. -Local Opposition from Governing Body
    • 26. <ul><li>-Minimize risks </li></ul><ul><li>-Satisfy client </li></ul><ul><li>-Utilize accepted practices </li></ul><ul><li>-Gain respect from governing authority </li></ul>-Minimize financial risk -Maximize Profit -Minimize Time (permitting etc.) -Maximize value -Minimize surprises -Satisfy clients/customers Designer Developer
    • 27. <ul><li>-Minimize risks </li></ul><ul><li>-Minimize short-range and long-range government expenses </li></ul><ul><li>-Enforce environmental regulations </li></ul><ul><li>-Performance of Practices </li></ul>Local Government -Protection of Landowners
    • 28. Green Construction (Land) Green Design &amp; Development
    • 29. <ul><li>Using narrower, shorter streets and ROW </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller lots and setbacks, narrow frontages </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing the amount of residential lawns </li></ul><ul><li>Spreading stormwater runoff over pervious areas </li></ul><ul><li>Using open channels instead of curbs/gutters </li></ul>Site Design
    • 30. -Identify Buildable &amp; Non-buildable areas* -Annual Rainfall Data* -Topography* -Soils* -Zoning/Public Input* -Floodplain/Floodway* -Land Uses/Adjacent Land Uses*
    • 31. -Access/Egress -Easements -Costs -Lot Orientation -Infrastructure Technologies/Techniques* -Aesthetics
    • 32. -Topography -Potential Hydric Soils -Streams/Water Bodies www.terraserver.com -Help determine placement of streets, lots, buildings etc. -US Army Corps of Engineers &amp; DWQ
    • 33. - Consider sheetflow -Shallow depressions (during rainy seasons)
    • 34. http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/topic/lid/ -US Army Corps of Engineers &amp; DWQ -Note: Each acre of coastal wetland contributes from $800 to $9,000 to the local economy through flood protection and recreation such as bird watching, fishing, and boating (Kirby, 1993)
    • 35. <ul><li>Design Practices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Minimize construction in wetlands by building compact developments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Plan roads and utilities to cross at the narrowest point in the system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Use permeable pavement for access roads, trails, and overflow parking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Preserve contiguous riparian buffers along wetlands and wildlife habitat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Create wetlands that mimic natural hydrological processes Source: Green Growth Guidelines </li></ul></ul>
    • 36. &nbsp;
    • 37. www.bae.ncsu.edu/stormwater Soil Survey -Infiltration
    • 38. -Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) -National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP)
    • 39. www.ncfloodmaps.com
    • 40. -Moderate Temperatures -Wind Buffers -Reduce stormwater volumes -Minimize Erosion Note: Research shows that nearly 60% of suburban residents actively engage in wildlife watching…the majority is willing to pay a premium for homes in these settings (Adams, 1994)
    • 41. <ul><li>Design Practices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Keep the width &amp; length of stream crossings at a minimum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Use existing crossings when possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Use bottomless culverts beneath road crossings for fish passage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Preserve contiguous buffers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Use LID integrated management practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Use natural streambank stabilization practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Avoid or minimize alteration to natural stream flow Source: Green Growth Guidelines </li></ul></ul>
    • 42. <ul><li>Design Practices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Avoid or minimize the placement of infrastructure in the buffer zones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Avoid or minimize multiple crossings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Use native vegetated buffers, when possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: Green Growth Guidelines </li></ul></ul>
    • 43. -Wildlife Resources Commission -Non-profits
    • 44. -National Register of Historic Places
    • 45. &nbsp;
    • 46. <ul><li>Design Practices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Base design on average daily traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Provide safe and efficient access for emergency vehicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Use minimum design requirements (LID) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-On-street parking lanes should serve as traffic lanes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Urban Streets with parking on both sides (rec: 32’) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Neighborhood street with parking on one side (rec: 24’) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Local street width (rec: 18’) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Cost savings, pedestrian safety, and reduction in impervious cover Source: Green Growth Guidelines </li></ul></ul>
    • 47. &nbsp;
    • 48. The amount of impervious surface created by cul-de-sacs can be reduced by creating a pervious island in the center
    • 49. &nbsp;
    • 50. Source: The News Magazine of the Federated Conservationists of Westchester County, http://www.fcwc.org/WEArchive/010203/roofs.htm
    • 51. Photos courtesy of Whitney Kurz
    • 52. Green Building (Home/Structure) Green Design &amp; Development
    • 53. Integrating Green Design with Low Impact Development &amp; Conservation Design Green Design &amp; Development
    • 54. <ul><li>Capturing roof runoff </li></ul><ul><li>Disconnecting pavement and roof drainage </li></ul><ul><li>Infiltration Practices/Planting trees </li></ul><ul><li>Rehabilitating soils </li></ul><ul><li>Reconfiguring driveways, parking lots, and streets </li></ul>Comprehensive Design
    • 55. <ul><li>Use of permeable pavements </li></ul><ul><li>Routing runoff through swales to slow velocity, remove pollutants, &amp; infiltrate </li></ul><ul><li>Restoring “daylighting” historic streams to enhance naturalized open channels </li></ul>Comprehensive Design
    • 56. http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/topic/lid/ <ul><li>Filtering system designed for evapotranspiration &amp; infiltration </li></ul><ul><li>Useful for parking lot runoff </li></ul><ul><li>Economical for small sites </li></ul><ul><li>Useful for removing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Suspended solids, hydrocarbons, certain metals, and nutrients </li></ul></ul>
    • 57. Bioretention Treatment, Retention, Infiltration, Landscaping <ul><li>Excavation filled with engineered soil mix </li></ul><ul><li>Herbaceous perennials, shrubs, trees </li></ul><ul><li>Ponded water infiltrates within 72 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Overflow outlet and optional underdrain </li></ul>Source: CWP Source: Massachusetts LID Toolkit
    • 58. Bioretention Applications <ul><li>Parking lot islands </li></ul><ul><li>Median strips </li></ul><ul><li>Residential lots </li></ul><ul><li>Office parks </li></ul>Source: Larry Gavin Source: LID Center Source: City of Portland, OR Source: Massachusetts LID Toolkit
    • 59. Bioretention Area Small parking lots Source: Massachusetts LID Toolkit
    • 60. Stormwater Planters Runoff Reduction, Treatment, Attenuation <ul><li>“ Bioretention in a Box” </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetative uptake of stormwater pollutants </li></ul><ul><li>Pretreatment for suspended solids </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetically pleasing </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of peak discharge rate </li></ul>Source: City of Portland, OR Source: City of Portland, OR Source: Massachusetts LID Toolkit
    • 61. &nbsp;
    • 62. http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/topic/lid/
    • 63. &nbsp;
    • 64. www.bae.ncsu.edu/stormwater
    • 65. Retrofit Opportunities
    • 66. <ul><li>Water quantity benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect water quality benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Infiltration </li></ul>
    • 67. Permeable Paving Applications <ul><li>Parking stalls </li></ul><ul><li>Overflow parking </li></ul><ul><li>Driveways </li></ul><ul><li>Walkways and plazas </li></ul>
    • 68. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection Downspouts Connected to Driveway = More Runoff, Less Infiltration Source: CWP Source: Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit
    • 69. &nbsp;
    • 70. &nbsp;
    • 71. www.bae.ncsu.edu/stormwater <ul><li>Increased insulation </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased heat island effect </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased stormwater volumes and rates </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased long-term replacement costs </li></ul><ul><li>Increased property value </li></ul><ul><li>Downsizing HVAC </li></ul>
    • 72. &nbsp;
    • 73. &nbsp;
    • 74. www.bae.ncsu.edu/stormwater Conventional Small-scale Controls street width treescape runoff
    • 75. Vegetated Swales Conveyance, Treatment, Infiltration <ul><li>Roadside swales (country drainage) for lower density and small-scale projects; </li></ul><ul><li>For small parking lots; </li></ul><ul><li>Mild side slopes and flat longitudinal slopes; </li></ul><ul><li>Provides area for snow storage &amp; snowmelt treatment </li></ul>Source: Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit
    • 76. Vegetated Filter Strips Pretreatment and Attenuation <ul><li>Mild vegetated slopes </li></ul><ul><li>Adjacent to small parking lots and roadways </li></ul><ul><li>Another opportunity for snow storage </li></ul>Source: City of Portland, OR Source: City of Portland, OR Source: Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit
    • 77. Narrow roads; “Country drainage.” <ul><li>Shared driveways; </li></ul><ul><li>Houses sited with natural terrain; </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetation retained. </li></ul>
    • 78. Short driveways and shallow front yard setbacks allow for rear yard retained vegetation. Downspouts discharge to natural terrain for recharge.
    • 79. www.bae.ncsu.edu/stormwater Green Design
    • 80. www.bae.ncsu.edu/stormwater Green Design -Biofilter/bioretention -Green Roof -Rainwater Collection -Porous Paving: Gravel Pave -Waterless Urinals -Low-flow fixtures -Superinsulation (R21 walls &amp; R30 roof) -High Performance Glazing on Windows - On Demand Water Heating -Daylighting -Duct System made of fabric -Over 75% of construction/demolition waste was salvaged or recycled - Recycled material used in walls, floors, and windows -Local material use
    • 81. www.bae.ncsu.edu/stormwater Bioretention Permeable Pavement Cistern Greenroof LID (Commercial) Disconnected
    • 82. www.bae.ncsu.edu/stormwater Residential + LID Site Create a Hydrologically Functional Lot
    • 83. www.bae.ncsu.edu/stormwater + Conservation Open Drainage Rain Gardens Amended Soils Rain Barrel Residential LID Site Permeable Pavement Create a Hydrologically Functional Lot
    • 84. www.bae.ncsu.edu/stormwater Aerial Photo Courtesy of Y. Lyda LID (Institutional)
    • 85. www.bae.ncsu.edu/stormwater level spreader rain gardens cistern/rain barrel vegetated buffer permeable pavement bioretention Aerial Photo Courtesy of Y. Lyda LID (Institutional)
    • 86. Williamston High School
    • 87. Williamston High School
    • 88. Williamston High School
    • 89. Williamston High School
    • 90. Williamston High School
    • 91. Williamston High School
    • 92. Williamston High School
    • 93. Williamston High School
    • 94. Williamston High School
    • 95. Williamston High School
    • 96. Williamston High School
    • 97. Green Design Exercise <ul><li>Primary Conservation Areas (1) Wetlands </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Waterbodies </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Floodplains </li></ul><ul><li>(4) Steep Slopes </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Conservation Areas </li></ul><ul><li>Mature Woodlands (4) Wildlife Habitats </li></ul><ul><li>Buffers around wetlands &amp; waterbodies </li></ul><ul><li>Prime Farmland (5) Historic/cultural areas </li></ul>
    • 98. Green Design Case Study Griffin Acres
    • 99. The process begins with determining how many lots could be developed under conventional zoning; this is the base yield of the property. From that point, the plan development process follows four basic steps: Source: Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit
    • 100. Identify Conservation Value Areas on the site such as wetlands, significant trees or tracts of forest, habitat, cultural resources or buffer zones. Remove these from the “developable area”. 1. Source: Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit
    • 101. Place houses in the remaining area in a way that would maximize residents enjoyment of these areas by providing access to open space and preserving views. 2. Source: Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit
    • 102. Align roads and trails on the site to provide pedestrian and vehicle access. 3. Source: Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit
    • 103. 4. Draw lot lines around the homes. Source: Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit
    • 104. +
    • 105. 1. Meet with local officials to review current development ordinances (often, officials look favorably upon pre-development meetings). 2. Identify ways to work together to minimize development impacts. 3. Focus on LID (developer should have a general knowledge of practices he/she plans to implement).
    • 106. 4. Plan to make site visits with local officials/staff. 5. Since site design information comes from different sources, data should be synthesized into a single map.
    • 107. <ul><li>Create a Green Design &amp; Development Committee to review plans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Architects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landscape Architects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biologists, Ecologists, and Hydrogeologists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also create incentive-based programs </li></ul></ul>
    • 108. &nbsp;
    • 109. <ul><li>Puget Sound Water Quality Action Team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- http:// www.wa.gov/puget_sound </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Low Impact Development Center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- http:// www.lowimpactdevelopment.org </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stormwater Research Center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- http:// www.stormwatercenter.net </li></ul></ul><ul><li>U.S. Environmental Protection Agency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- http:// www.epa.gov/owow/nps/urban.html </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UW Center for Urban Water Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- http:// depts.washington.edu/cuwrm / </li></ul></ul>http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/topic/lid/
    • 110. http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/topic/lid/ Dwane Jones [email_address] 919.249.5959

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