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Organic Ag Research & Extensin at Washington State University
Organic Ag Research & Extensin at Washington State University
Organic Ag Research & Extensin at Washington State University
Organic Ag Research & Extensin at Washington State University
Organic Ag Research & Extensin at Washington State University
Organic Ag Research & Extensin at Washington State University
Organic Ag Research & Extensin at Washington State University
Organic Ag Research & Extensin at Washington State University
Organic Ag Research & Extensin at Washington State University
Organic Ag Research & Extensin at Washington State University
Organic Ag Research & Extensin at Washington State University
Organic Ag Research & Extensin at Washington State University
Organic Ag Research & Extensin at Washington State University
Organic Ag Research & Extensin at Washington State University
Organic Ag Research & Extensin at Washington State University
Organic Ag Research & Extensin at Washington State University
Organic Ag Research & Extensin at Washington State University
Organic Ag Research & Extensin at Washington State University
Organic Ag Research & Extensin at Washington State University
Organic Ag Research & Extensin at Washington State University
Organic Ag Research & Extensin at Washington State University
Organic Ag Research & Extensin at Washington State University
Organic Ag Research & Extensin at Washington State University
Organic Ag Research & Extensin at Washington State University
Organic Ag Research & Extensin at Washington State University
Organic Ag Research & Extensin at Washington State University
Organic Ag Research & Extensin at Washington State University
Organic Ag Research & Extensin at Washington State University
Organic Ag Research & Extensin at Washington State University
Organic Ag Research & Extensin at Washington State University
Organic Ag Research & Extensin at Washington State University
Organic Ag Research & Extensin at Washington State University
Organic Ag Research & Extensin at Washington State University
Organic Ag Research & Extensin at Washington State University
Organic Ag Research & Extensin at Washington State University
Organic Ag Research & Extensin at Washington State University
Organic Ag Research & Extensin at Washington State University
Organic Ag Research & Extensin at Washington State University
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Organic Ag Research & Extensin at Washington State University

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Presentation presented at the 2009 NACAA AM/PIC. E-Organic Super Sessions …

Presentation presented at the 2009 NACAA AM/PIC. E-Organic Super Sessions
Presenters: Carol Miles, WSU Mt. Vernon REC; David Granastein, WSU Wenatchee REC; Diana
Roberts, WSU Spokane Extension<

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  • David and others began a trial comapring tillage implements and wood chip mulch, as this looked promising for weed control. The goal was to investigate their effects on tree growth (performance) and soil quality. The experiment was in an 8-yr old Gala orchard, and had …
  • Wood chips in this experiment provided excellent weed control. As well as increasing fruit size and tree growth over the cultivated treatment and standard control! So the question then became how would they work in a new orchard planting where weed control is critical.
  • IF WE RATHER, WE CAN PLANT PREDATOR GARDENS IN STRIPS AROUND AND BETWEEN ORCHARD BLOCKS. WE HAVE FOUND PREDATOR GARDENS ALONE HAVE ELIMINATED ALL CHEMICAL SPRAYS FOR LEAF ROLLERS
  • Later we planted roses and strawberries next to orchards where no parasitism was seen previously by C. florus, infested these gardens with the strawberry leafroller and let C. florus naturally colonize these hosts. The effects on parasitism of leafrollers in the adjacent orchards. Is evident.
  • THIS IS WHERE THE ‘RUBBER MEETS THE ROAD’, IN FRUIT PACKOUTS COMING OUT OF STORAGE. PACKOUT RESULTS FROM THE END OF LAST MARCH SHOWING ORGANIC PACKOUTS FOR GALA (OGA) AND RED DELICIOUS (ORE) COMING OUT OF CA AND DCA WITH 10% MORE PACKABLE FRUIT THAN CORRESPONDING CONVENTIONAL PACKOUTS. THE ORGANIC FRUIT QUALITY ASPECTS , MORE THAN OFF SET THE CONVENTIONAL POST HARVEST SCALD AND FUNGUS CHEMICAL TREATMENT CONTRIBUTIONS.
  • Organic grain acreage lags behind other states. Grain Millers in OR has had to bring in soft organic wheat from the Midwest. Some organic grain growers are successful but we have no recipes for them, few publications dedicated to organic production
  • Much of eastern WA pretty hilly and hillside combines used. This field extreme - been in DS for 20+ years Obviously topography like this is not suitable for intense tillage. Must be selective in sites for organic grain production.
  • Farmers don’t want to share info when markets limited. Problem for Extension as cannot be a private consultant. This farmer exception, very happy to show his farm (2009). MT farmer different – if I can’t fill a grain car, my neighbour can help. Foster cooperation is part of our challenge
  • Corner has perennial insectary of native plants to host beneficial insects – provide shelter, nectar etc. Beetle bank of grasses provide shelter for beetles that feed on insects and weed seeds in the crop. Checking suitability of different plant species and distance beneficials move out into the circle.
  • Can be a process for Ext faculty to be included as partners on national grant proposals, but researchers are learning that they need to include us in order to win grants. Extension component is increasingly one of the requirements. Surface tilllage with rotary hoes is not new technology. Everyone’s grandfather used one of these! Note not steep ground here. Implications for hard to control weeds in direct seeding systems – leave residue on the surface. Sweep for perennial weeds.
  • Best workshop reviews when we use the farmer-as-teacher model. – farmers want to learn from their peers, not the university expert.
  • Learning about farm family dynamics – working together as partners. Important for the farmer to do the work – not take over. Bring plenty of water, and pack dinner too!
  • Transcript

    • 1. Organic Ag Research & Extension at Washington State University Carol Miles WSU Mt. Vernon REC David Granatstein WSU Wenatchee REC Diana Roberts WSU Spokane Extension
    • 2. Organic Vegetable and Seed Research Carol Miles Vegetable Extension Specialist WSU Mount Vernon NWREC Organic winter-grown lettuce research
    • 3. <ul><li>Pest management – disease, insects, weeds </li></ul><ul><li>Seed – organically produced or untreated; quantity, quality, cost </li></ul><ul><li>Variety recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer – cover crops, rotation, compost and manure, bagged products </li></ul><ul><li>General inputs – soil mix, plastics </li></ul>Challenges for Organic Vegetable Production
    • 4. Insect Pest Control Processing peas in southwest Washington Severe root damage Establish on-farm trial, include organic control option
    • 5. Rhizoctonia Pythium Fusarium MS students: Jaime Cummings (2008) Avi Alcala (2011) Faculty: Lindsey DuToit Carol Miles Organic Seed Treatments Biological Seed and Drench Treatments for Organic Control of ‘Damping Off’
    • 6. 10,000 25,000 50,000 75,000 Rhizoctonia Results: [email_address] Greenhouse trials – determine rates of inoculation Field trials – determine product efficacy Organic Seed Treatments 0 ppg 10,000 50,000 100,000 500,000
    • 7. Icebox Watermelon Variety Recommendations Variety trials for region-specific production information (on-station, on-farm) Screen breeding lines to identify suitable new germplasm Edamame Baby Butternut Honey Nut http://vegetables.wsu.edu
    • 8. Ott, K.A., R.T. Koenig, and C.A. Miles. 2009. Methods comparison for measuring tissue nitrate in leafy green vegetables. HortTechnology, 19(2):439-444. Ott, K.A., R.T. Koenig, and C.A. Miles. 2008. Influence of plant part on nitrate concentration in leafy greens. International Journal of Vegetable Science Vol 14(4):351-361. Winter-grown Lettuce Extending the season MS students: Kristy Ott (2008) Haly Ingle (2010) Faculty: Rich Koenig Carol Miles
    • 9. High Tunnels and Biodegradable Mulches Extending the season, pest management SCRI Funding: 2008: $100,000 2009: $2 million
    • 10. <ul><li>BD plastic mulches must be biobased: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polylactic acid (PLA) - plant-based polyester produced from starch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) - polyesters produced by bacterial fermentation of sugar or lipids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most existing BD plastic mulch formulations include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Petroleum-derived polymers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetically modified plant-derived polymers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthetic resins or additives (for creating the polymers) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Therefore products are currently unacceptable in certified organic crop production </li></ul>Issues for Organic Agriculture
    • 11. <ul><ul><ul><li>New research will generate data to: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better understand mulch biodegradation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor residues and/or toxic by-products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assess impacts on soil ecology and plant health </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measure life cycle analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calculate economic feasibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Familiarize agricultural professionals (academic, industry, producers) with BD issues and definitions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promote new information and product development </li></ul></ul></ul>High Tunnels and Biodegradable Mulches
    • 12. Building the Capacity of Communities to Grow Healthy Food <ul><li>Promote gardening to improve community and individual health </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage participation as both producers and consumers in the local food chain </li></ul><ul><li>Two programs in Washington State: </li></ul><ul><li> Grow Your Own Groceries </li></ul><ul><li> Eat Your Yard </li></ul>Growing Your Own Groceries
    • 13. Extension Outreach and Publications
    • 14. Organic Tree Fruit Research and Extension Insectary planting David Granatstein Sustainable Agr. Specialist WSU Tree Fruit REC, Wenatchee Sprayable mulch
    • 15. <ul><li>Match production increase to demand increase </li></ul><ul><li>Replant disease – BSM, cover crops, tolerant rootstock </li></ul><ul><li>Crop load management </li></ul><ul><li>High cost activities – weed control, fertility </li></ul><ul><li>Soil quality, GHG, water supply </li></ul><ul><li>Fireblight </li></ul><ul><li>Fruit quality – storage; nutritional differences </li></ul>Challenges for Organic Tree Fruit Production ‘ Sandwich’ system with thyme
    • 16. <ul><li>Organic systems often substitute tillage for herbicides </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on soil C, trees ? </li></ul>Weed Control
    • 17. Wonder Weeder 440 ft/min Weed Badger 20 ft/min
    • 18. Wood chip mulch
    • 19. Tillage Trial results 0.008 0.001 0.076 0.805 0.014 0.150 p= 39.2 b 2.3 c 10,162 22.0 29.3 9,556 7.0 b 35.2 Cultivator Z 3x 47.6 ab 3.0 b 9,748 33.5 31.5 12,003 6.6 b 40.9 Control mow 56.7 a 3.7 a 11,032 39.0 32.3 14,354 15.5 a 44.9 Wood chip m 3 /5 trees cm 2 $/ac % lb/tree $/ac % lb/tree Canopy volume TCSA increase Gross Fruit Value* Fruit Size 80-88 Fruit Yield Gross Fruit Value* Fruit Size 80-88 Fruit yield 2006 2005 TRT
    • 20. Weed Fabric in Sweet Cherry <ul><li>OSU, Hood River, OR – 2001-2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Fabric groundcover vs. bare ground in tree row </li></ul><ul><li>2001-2004 – fabric $2125/acre increased costs </li></ul><ul><li>2004 – fabric trt gross returns $3240/ac more than bare ground (1 st yr of production) </li></ul><ul><li>2005 - $1633/ac more with fabric </li></ul><ul><li>Fabric – trees produced more fruit at an earlier age, maintained higher yields </li></ul>(Tomasini et al., 2007) Photo: H. Ostenson
    • 21. Spray No spray Ladino clover: - direct seeded in the drive alley Growing Our Own Nitrogen
    • 22. Home for alternate prey for leafroller parasitoids (over winter) Insect Management Wild Rose
    • 23. Rose gardens planted in 2000; parasitism increases thru the summer and has increased from 2001-2005 Courtesy: T. Unruh Redesign with Rose Gardens Apples – Washington State Rosa woodsii
    • 24. Cherry fruit fly ( Rhagoletis indifferens {Curran}) <ul><li>5-7 weekly applications, starting 3 day after first trap catch of CFF </li></ul><ul><li>2.7 qt/ac solution/ha (1:4 bait dilution) </li></ul><ul><li>6 mph, every other row, D2 nozzle </li></ul>Standard: $50-75/ac GF-120: $17/ac
    • 25. Courtesy: H. Ostenson RED 715K 542K 75.8 18.0 RED O 119K 101K 84.9 20.0 GALA 604K 499K 82.6 18.6 GALA O 256K 236K 92.1 21.3 Storage Quality ORGANIC: ● 10% more fresh market packs than conventional ● Packed to same grades ● CA storage 6-7 months ● No storage fungicide ● Need to store larger crop for more months ● Internal quality – alternate bearing, nutrient ratios
    • 26. Extension Outreach <ul><li>WSHA annual meeting, other grower meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Trend data to companies, USDA, IFOAM world organic report </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd North American Organic Tree Fruit Research Symposium </li></ul><ul><li>Web site, field tours, publications </li></ul>
    • 27. Organic Grains In Washington State Diana Roberts, PhD Area Extension Agronomist WSU Extension Spokane, WA
    • 28. <ul><li>Soil fertility </li></ul><ul><li>Weed management </li></ul><ul><li>Crop rotations for diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited by lack of summer rainfall </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soil fertility and weed management </li></ul>Challenges for Organic Grain Production in WA We have no sure recipe for success! Lentils
    • 29. Sustainability of organic grain <ul><li>Direct seeding (no-till) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conserves soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilizes synthetic fertilizers & pesticides </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organic farming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminates synthetic fertilizer & chemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May include soil building practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May include intense tillage </li></ul></ul>Picture by John Aeschliman
    • 30. Types of organic farmers <ul><li>Stereotypical lifestyler (back to the land) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often value-added marketing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stereotypical conventional farmer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic adds value, diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transition from CRP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest may fluctuate </li></ul></ul>
    • 31. Organic research in WA <ul><li>1970’s – Energy usage comparison </li></ul><ul><li>1980 – USDA report on organic farming </li></ul><ul><li>Present - >30 WSU and USDA faculty involved in organic research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Portion of work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biocontrol, pea cultivar selection, composting, livestock integration, organic no-till </li></ul></ul>T. Julis wasp stinging cereal leaf beetle larva. Photo by Terry Miller
    • 32. Insectary Beetle bank Irrigated circle of peas
    • 33. Organic grain research <ul><li>Steve Jones et al. – evaluation and selection of wheat cultivars in certified organic ground </li></ul><ul><li>Rob Gallagher et al. – dryland organic transition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crop rotations – alfalfa important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weed management – surface tillage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pat Fuerst et al. – USDA organic funds $1.2 million - foster sustainable dryland organic grain farming systems in the dryland PNW – reduced tillage! </li></ul>Rotary harrow Rotary hoe
    • 34. WSU Extension <ul><li>Grower interest fluctuates </li></ul><ul><li>Successful workshops 2004 (87) and 2005 (45) </li></ul><ul><li>Organic grain listserv </li></ul><ul><ul><li>>80 subscribers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workshop & program announcements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Link buyers and sellers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Q&A </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Irrigated farm tour 2009 </li></ul>
    • 35. On-farm testing <ul><li>Extension integral part of USDA grant </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration with ID and OR – 2 sites each </li></ul><ul><li>Farmer won $50,000 NRCS CIG (Conservation Innovation Grant) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing surface tillage research on farm scale </li></ul></ul>
    • 36. On-farm testing <ul><li>Grower driven </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmer choice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team design </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Replicated over field & (4) years </li></ul><ul><li>Farmer does field work </li></ul><ul><li>Farmer speaks at workshops, tours </li></ul><ul><li>Farmer compensated $$ </li></ul><ul><li>Comparing commercial fertilizer products </li></ul>Nature Safe 13-0-0 Perfect Blend 4-4-4
    • 37. Project outcomes <ul><li>Research data on dryland cropping systems </li></ul><ul><li>Economic budgets </li></ul><ul><li>Learning from tours & workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Extension publications </li></ul><ul><li>And much more… </li></ul>
    • 38.  

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