Kline red bell peppers

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  • 1. Red Bell Pepper Cultivar Evaluations for the Fall Market Wesley L. Kline¹ and C. Andrew Wyenandt² ¹County Agricultural Agent, Rutgers Cooperative Extension of Cumberland County, 291 Morton Avenue, Millville, NJ 08332 ²Specialist in Vegetable Pathology, Rutgers Agricultural Research & Extension Center, 121 Northville Rd., Bridgeton, NJ 08302 ABSTRACT Fruit Cracking • Night time relative humidity near saturation Red bell peppers have a premium in the market • Fruit takes up more fluid than the skin is able toplace, but are difficult to grow under New Jersey conditions. accommodateThe objective was to evaluate cultivars for acceptable fruit • Poor fruit cover exacerbates disorderquality and yield. Eighteen cultivars were transplanted onJuly 1 into raised plastic covered beds with one drip lineplaced between double rows. Rows were 12 inches apartwith 18 inches between plants and 5 ft. between beds in arandomized complete block design with 4 replications.Fruits were hand harvested and graded into size by weight.Cultivars with significantly higher yields included Hunter(1181 boxes/A), Socrates (1096 boxes/A), King Arthur(1049 boxes/A), Patriot (1041 boxes/A), Paladin (1028boxes/A), Red Knight (995 boxes/A), XPP 6001 (978boxes/A), Aristotle (976 boxes/A), Alliance (950 boxes/A),Classic (915 boxes/A), and 1819 (858 boxes/A). Pepper Stip Some Cultivars exhibited a physiological disordercalled ‘stip’ (black spot or color spot). Stip appears when • Round dark spots 1/16 – 1/4 inch and slightly sunkentemperatures just above freezing occur for several nights at • Black spot – exposure of fruit to temperatures just aboveharvest. The cultivars which exhibited spip were Paladin, freezing for several nights around harvestClassic, Red Bull, Revolution, Camelot (worst), Aristotle, • Green pitting – associated with higher than normal calciumPatriot and Vanguard. The other problem observed in the content of the fruit in the pitted area. Possible interactionfall study was fruit cracking. This results from nighttime among calcium, nitrogen and potassiumrelative humidity near saturation, thus the fruit cannotexpand rapidly and the fruit cracks. The cultivars observedwith cracks were Paladin, Socrates, Aristotle and Hunter.These disorders would make the fruit unsalable for themarket. Cultivars which were recommended to growers fortheir testing included Red Knight, King Arthur, Alliance, XPP6001 and 1819. Fruit Quality Table Variety Fruit Recess Number Fruit Firmness Gloss L/D Wall thickness Color Shoulder Lobes Smooth ratio (mm) 1819 4 8 4 5 7 6 1.05 6.54 Materials and Methods Recommended Cultivars Alliance 7 9 4 6 6 7 1.09 6.65 Aristotle 3 7 3 5 7 5 1.18 6.65 • Plants were staked and tied placing a string on each Camelot 4 4 4 6 7 6 1.26 6.18 side of the plant for the first tie and box system for the Classic 9 1 4 8 8 6 1.08 7.42 second tie Crusader 4 3 4 6 6 6 1.05 6.13 • Fertilizer was applied preplant (30 lbs/A nitrogen) as Festos 8 5 2 4 5 8 2.04 5.20 the beds were being constructed and additional Hunter 5 3 4 7 7 6 1.06 6.87 fertilizer was applied through the drip weekly (5-0-10) King Arthur 5 2 3 6 6 6 1.14 5.66 for a total of 158 lbs/A nitrogen Alliance King Arthur Paladin 3 5 4 5 6 8 1.07 6.17 Harris Moran Seminis • Weekly fungicide applications were carried out to Patriot 5 4 4 6 6 6 1.14 6.47 reduce the chance for Anthracnose development as Red Bull 5 3 4 5 6 4 1.11 6.35 fruit was forming. Insects were managed with insecticide injected through the drip line. Red Knight 4 6 4 6 7 7 1.01 6.22 Revolution 5 6 3 4 6 6 1.16 6.15 • Peppers were harvested weekly for a total of eight times: September 2 through October 28 Sir Galahad 5 6 4 5 7 6 1.11 7.04 Socrates 4 8 4 5 6 6 1.03 5.88 • Fruit were graded by weight: Vanguard 3 8 4 7 7 6 1.03 6.81 -Extra Large – 0.5 lbs Red Knight XPP 6001 4 3 4 6 6 6 1.09 6.13 Seminis -Large – 0.33-0.49 lbs. -Medium – 0.25-0.32 lbs. -Commercial – Misshapen Fruit Quality Scale -Culls - <0.25 lbs, insect damage and diseased • Yield data reported in 28 lbs/Box Fruit Color: 1=orange 5=red 9=dark red Recess Shoulder : 1=slight 5=medium 9=deep • At the 5th harvest, five extra large and large fruit were Fruit Smooth: 1=very rough 5=medium 9=smooth randomly selected from each replication for fruit Firmness: 1=soft 5=medium 9=very firm 1819 XPP 6001 quality assessments. Seminis Sakata Fruit Gloss: 1=dull 5=medium 9=shiny