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Innovation Operational Exellence Upload

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On 22nd Jan 2010, I made the presentation @ Chennai SPICON 2010. Innovation in Operational Excellence

On 22nd Jan 2010, I made the presentation @ Chennai SPICON 2010. Innovation in Operational Excellence

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  • 1. crafting innovation together Innovation in Operational Excellence crafting innovation together Navneet Bhushan (navneet.bhushan@crafitti.com) Crafitti Consulting (www.crafitti.com) Chennai, January 22, 2010 Confidential
  • 2. The first decade of 20th Century… crafting innovation together • In 1890, Average company in US had - FOUR employees (4) • By 1901, US Steel became world’s first 1 Billion $ company • Ford Motor Company, founded in 1903, was producing half a million crafting innovation together cars a by 1913 Confidential © Crafitti Consulting Private Ltd. February 16, 2010 2
  • 3. The first decade of 21st Century… crafting innovation together crafting innovation together Confidential © Crafitti Consulting Private Ltd. February 16, 2010 3
  • 4. More is Different – Scale is the New Frontier - I crafting innovation together Google’s Custom Built Server Farms Current estimates put Google's server farm at around 450,000 machines - and they're still custom built, commodity- class x86 PCs, just like they were in 1999 crafting innovation together We Are Building Bigger and Bigger Systems Confidential © Crafitti Consulting Private Ltd. February 16, 2010 4
  • 5. More is Different – Scale is the New Frontier - II crafting innovation together The Internet Inter-disciplinary Capillary network collaborations crafting innovation together Complex system design diagram High School Friendships Systems are Evolving into Bigger Systems Confidential © Crafitti Consulting Private Ltd. February 16, 2010 5
  • 6. More is Different – Scale is the New Frontier - III crafting innovation together “The ability to reduce everything to simple fundamental laws does not imply the ability to start from those laws and reconstruct the universe” Anderson, P.W., More is Different, Science, Vol. 177, No. 4047, Aug. 4, 1972, pp. 393-396. crafting innovation together Scale Changes Everything! Confidential © Crafitti Consulting Private Ltd. February 16, 2010 6
  • 7. More is Different – Scale is the New Frontier - IV crafting innovation together “The older is not always a reliable model for the newer, the smaller for the larger, or the simpler for the more complex…Making something greater than any existing thing necessarily involves going beyond experience.” Henry Petroski, Pushing the Limits: New Adventures in Engineering crafting innovation together Scale is not a linear extrapolation! Confidential © Crafitti Consulting Private Ltd. February 16, 2010 7
  • 8. Competitive Advantage- Over Ages crafting innovation together How Fast Co-Create How Fast Innovate How much Actionable Connectedness How much Knowledge crafting innovation together and Quickly Extent of can be How much Informed How much of can be In the Connected Age – Agricultural produced Co-Creators will thrive land and Natural Resources Confidential Time
  • 9. Have You Seen Any Regular Geometrical Shapes in Nature? crafting innovation together crafting innovation together Confidential
  • 10. crafting innovation together crafting innovation together Confidential
  • 11. Nature crafting innovation together is Fractal! crafting innovation together Confidential
  • 12. Black Swan – The impact of the highly improbable crafting innovation together • “I cannot accept a pretense of science. I much prefer a sophisticated craft, focused on tricks, to a failed science looking for certainties” Nassim Nicholas Taleb crafting innovation together Confidential
  • 13. Innovation is not about Automation Alone! crafting innovation together crafting innovation together Confidential
  • 14. Artful Making crafting innovation together crafting innovation together Confidential
  • 15. Get it Right First Time! crafting innovation together crafting innovation together Confidential
  • 16. crafting innovation together crafting innovation together Confidential
  • 17. Failures/Mistakes/Errors crafting innovation together Burning your hand is a small price to pay for a good idea. PLEASE LET YOUR EMPLOYEES FAIL! crafting innovation together Confidential
  • 18. 4 Qualities of Artful Making crafting innovation together Accept wide variations • Interactions within known among members of parameters the groups Release Play crafting innovation together Collaboration Ensemble • Conversation. • Work of a group • Released from Vanity, dedicated to inhibition, preconception collaboration • Treat others inputs as • Create a whole material to make with greater than • So that New Ideas sum of its parts emerge Confidential
  • 19. Emergence can not be pre- conceived crafting innovation together crafting innovation together Re-conceiving everything in response to what team sees as newly possible with each passing movement of rehearsal, as a result of each new Confidential thing tried
  • 20. Albert Einstein Says crafting innovation together crafting innovation together Sometimes one pays the most for the things one gets for nothing The whole of science is nothing more than the refinement of everyday THINKING Confidential
  • 21. Artful Making - Again crafting innovation together crafting innovation together Confidential
  • 22. Discovery Vs Making crafting innovation together “Discovery” suggests there is a right choice waiting to be found crafting innovation together Confidential
  • 23. HOW TO THINK crafting innovation together When Einstein was asked what was most helpful to him in developing the theory of relativity, he crafting innovation together replied, “Figuring out how to think Confidential about the problem.”
  • 24. What are the Assumptions? • Care about the Premises crafting innovation together more than the Theory crafting innovation together Oh My God Really! Confidential
  • 25. crafting innovation together crafting innovation together Confidential
  • 26. crafting innovation together • The brain is a complex adaptive system. • The brain is a social brain. • The search for meaning is innate. • The search for meaning occurs through patterning. • Emotions are critical to patterning. • Every brain simultaneously perceives and creates parts and wholes. • Learning involves both focused attention and peripheral attention. crafting innovation together • Learning always involves conscious and unconscious processes. • We have at least two ways of organizing memory. • Learning is developmental. • Complex learning is enhanced by challenge and inhibited by threat. • Every brain is uniquely organized http://www.brainconnection.com/topics/?main=fa/brain-based3 Confidential
  • 27. 3 Conditions for Learning Low Threat and crafting innovation together High Challenge Relaxed Alertness Orchestrated Immersion Active Processing crafting innovation together Experiences processed as In Multiple, the basis of Complex, Meaning Authentic Experiences Confidential
  • 28. 3 Conditions for Learning crafting innovation together • "Optimizing the use of the human brain means using the brain’s infinite capacity to make connections–and understanding what conditions maximize this process." • Three interactive and mutually supportive elements that should be present in order for complex learning to occur: – An optimal state of mind that we call relaxed alertness, consisting of low threat and high challenge. crafting innovation together – The orchestrated immersion of the learner in multiple, complex, authentic experience. – The regular, active processing of experience as the basis for making meaning. http://www.brainconnection.com/topics/?main=fa/brain- Confidential
  • 29. • Chaotic Dumbness (High Threat, Low Challenge)v a t i o n crafting inno together – Comply with this or else… – Constant use of “Killer Phrases” to destroy new ideas • Automated Disjointedness (Delegation, Hands Off) – Follow the process, don’t worry about anything – Processes above people – Right processes Mandated will create results crafting innovation together – “Skill Set” based work assignment • Passive Analysis (Data Collection, Historical Data Analysis) – Give me all the data that has been accumulated – I will analyze and give you Insights – Quantify – if you cant quantify you don’t really know? – We will do a Quarterly Analysis to provide you results Confidential
  • 30. Killer Phrases Are Not Used During Idea Generation* 1. "Yes, but. . . " 21. "The boss fwill g i n n ogoa for n t o g e t h e r c r a t i n never v t i o it." 2. "We tried that before." 22. "It's too far ahead of the times." 3. "That's irrelevant." 23. . . . laughter. . . 4. "We haven't got the manpower." 24. . . . suppressed laughter. . . 5. "Obviously, you misread my request." 25. . . . condescending grin. . . 6. "Don't rock the boat!" 26. . . . dirty looks. . . 7. "The boss (or competition) will eat you alive." 27. "Don't fight city hall!" 8. "Don't waste time thinking." 28. "I'm the one who gets paid to think." 9. "Great idea, but not for us." 29. "What will people say?" 10. "It'll never fly." 30. "Get a committee to look into that." 11. "Don't be ridiculous." 31. "If it ain't broke, don't fix it." crafting innovation together 12. "People don't want change." 32. "You have got to be kidding." 13. "It's not in the budget." 33. "No!" 14. "Put it in writing." 34. "We've always done it this way." 15. "It will be more trouble than it's worth." 35. "It's all right in theory. . . but. . ." 16. "It isn't your responsibility." 36. "Be practical!" 17. "That's not in your job description." 37. "Do you realize the paperwork it will create?" 18. "You can't teach an old dog new tricks." 38. "Because I said so." * Reference: “What A Great 39. "I'll get back to you." Idea” by Charles “Chick” 19. "Let's stick with what works."C Thompson, 1992, 20. "We've done all right so far." 40. . . . silence. . . HarperCollins Publishers Confidential Copyri
  • 31. crafting innovation together From Chaotic Dumbness to Relaxed Alertness From Automated Disjointedness to Orchestrated Immersion crafting innovation together From Passive Analysis to Active Processing Confidential
  • 32. The ORGANIZATIONAL SWEET SPOT – Frequently Heard Comments crafting innovation together • You Must. • Can you think of other options? • That’s not my Job. • Am I on the right track? • You have no choice. • Lets take another look at that deadline. • Have you forgotten the deadline? • Thanks for taking the initiative. • We need to talk. • How often should we meet? • It’s the bottom line that counts. • We’re in it together. • This is for your own good. • What’s your gut feeling on this? • Get off my back. • How can I help? crafting innovation together • I don’t care how you feel. • Is this mutually beneficial? • You had better pay attention to • How does this support our overall company policy. activities? • Don’t you understand? • Please take a real critical look at my • Is it time to go home yet? proposal. • How time flies. Controlled-Access Context Shared-Access Context Confidential © Crafitti Consulting Private Ltd. February 16, 2010 32
  • 33. crafting innovation together LEAN INVENTIVE SYSTEMS THINKING (LIST) CLASSICAL THE LIST REDUCTIONISM crafting innovation together Learning, Discovery, Design, Analysis, Determinism, Evolutionary, Experimental, Dualism, Correspondence Integrative, Holistic, Non- theory of knowledge, linear, Natural Rationality, Artificial Confidential © Crafitti Consulting Private Ltd. February 16, 2010 33
  • 34. LIST – INVENTIVE THINKING crafting innovation together HOW TO INVENT, UNDERSTAND and SOLVE PROBLEMS – How to Innovate TRIZ - Theory of crafting innovation together Inventive Problem Solving Confidential
  • 35. A Brief History of TRIZ TRIZ – Inventive Problem Solving by Altshuller crafting innovation together • 1946 Patent Officer in Russian Navy Teoriya Resheniya Izobreatatelskikh Zadatch • Discovered patterns in patents, World’s best ideas published paper. A situation like mine World in this situation Sent to Gulag (Abstraction) Knowledge Access (Access) • 1954 released, Base analysed 2,500,000 Abstraction Specific patents My specific situation My specific solution • Identified what Evaluate crafting innovation together Me / my company makes a successful patent • 1956-1985 TRIZ formulated • Same Problems and Solutions appear again and again but in different industries • There are a series of recognizable Technological Evolution paths for all industries • Innovative solutions used theories outside their own area/industry • The most powerful solutions uncover and eliminate contradictions Confidential
  • 36. Problem Solving crafting innovation together * Problem solving is like digging for treasure in a field * If a hole already exists, our inclination is to dig it deeper * The deeper the hole, the more difficult it is to see what’s happening in other parts of the field crafting innovation together * If someone else comes along, we encourage them to jump in the hole with us * The overall effect is called PSYCHOLOGICAL INERTIA Confidential
  • 37. Questions that TRIZ asks you… crafting innovation together 1. What is my Ideal Final Result – How can I achieve the functionality without A spending any resources or cost B 2. How the problem/situation/system looks in time and space coordinates C 3. Am I using all the existing resources or potential resources to the fullest 4. What is the main useful function I need crafting innovation together Plain Forest Coal to deliver. What are various ways in which I can deliver the function 5. How others have solved the same Tree Seed Timber problem in the past DNA Fruit Pie Confidential
  • 38. Innovation Crafting crafting innovation together Idea Generation Situation Assessment TRIZ Six Hats Idea Clustering – Solutions crafting innovation together Generation DSM AHP Solution Implementation Solution Evaluation Confidential
  • 39. Convergence in Design…How Toyota does it… crafting innovation together How to converge from an initial set of conceptual ideas to one idea that will become the final Design? Early Convergence Strategy Toyota’s Slow Convergence - Point-Based CE – Set-Based CE Large Design Spaces – Design Critical Integration of Sets Chose Space n Analysis crafting innovation together Design Modificati “ELIMINATE on “DESIGN WEAKEST CHURNING” Confidential ALTERNATIVES”
  • 40. crafting innovation together LEAN INVENTIVE SYSTEMS THINKING Case Studies crafting innovation together Confidential
  • 41. Creating a Common crafting innovation together Operating Picture using Dependency Structure Matrix crafting innovation together (DSM) Confidential
  • 42. Dependency Analysis – Design Structure Matrix (DSM) crafting innovation together • DSM – a methodology to sequence information flows DSM is a square binary matrix whose rows and columns represent the individual activities/tasks and element values represent the relationships between these activities. Relationship Parallel Series Coupled (Loop) A A Graphic A B Representation B crafting innovation together B (CPM) (CPM) (not allowed in CPM) A B A B A B DSM A A A X Representation B B X B X (indicates iteration) Confidential
  • 43. crafting innovation together Top 3 Medical Devices Company crafting innovation together Confidential
  • 44. Cardiac Rhythm Management crafting innovation together crafting innovation together Components Suppliers US Non US Leads 545 68 78% (53) 22% (15) PG ~2500 194 87% (169) 13% (25) Confidential
  • 45. Enterprise Wide Initiative – To Strengthen, Streamline and make Processes more Robust crafting innovation together crafting innovation together Confidential
  • 46. crafting innovation together Dependency Structure Workshop Key Participants • Design Engineer crafting innovation together • Supplier Engineer • Production Engineer Confidential
  • 47. Understanding Process Complexity crafting innovation together crafting innovation together Dependency Structure Matrix Confidential
  • 48. Understand Process Complexity crafting innovation together Rework Iterations Multiple Handoffs Ambiguities Uncertainty -possible chaos crafting innovation together Identifying Complexity Blocks Confidential Copyri
  • 49. Organizational Complexity crafting innovation together crafting innovation together High Interactions between various departments – High Organizational Complexity Confidential Copyri
  • 50. crafting innovation together 10 15 20 25 0 5 Confidential WindChill WinSPC MATT CATSWEB - Applications TWO (Tool ATHENA SMART Product/Desig Supplier Manufacturing Reliability Regulatory Medical Actors Quality Test Suppliers Test Process Dependencies Compliance Documentation Tool Operators Project R&D crafting innovation together Operations Regulatory Supplier Departments Model Shop Process Dependencies on Applications, Actors and Departments
  • 51. crafting innovation together SYSTEM COMPLEXITY ESTIMATOR Applications in Software Architecture, Design & Project Planning 3rd International Conference on Quality Reliability crafting innovation together and Infocom Technologies, Delhi, 2-4 December 2006 Confidential
  • 52. Software Design Guideline – Coupling & Cohesion crafting innovation together • A software system is the decomposition of conceptual construct into conceptually independent modules that cooperate to achieve a desired result. • Coupling refers to the degree of interdependence among the components of a software system. Good software system should obey the principle of Low coupling. Strong coupling makes the system more Complex. crafting innovation together • The cohesion of a module is defined as a quality attribute that seeks to measure the singleness of purpose of a module. Cohesion seeks to maximize the connections within a module. Confidential
  • 53. System Complexity Estimator Ideal System with Minimumt iComplexityt o g e t h e r craf ng innovation A system with completely independent elements (modules) where each module performs a single function is the least complex– this is the Ideal Architecture for a system. If each of the activity performs a single function only and it does not depend on the other modules for its functioning except on itself then the complexity is minimum which is proportional to number of elements in the system. crafting innovation together Cohesion Dependency Measures (Coupling) A Measure of how much cohesive the Module Dependency on the System Index (MDSI) module is on its own – If it has less System Dependency on the Module Index (SDMI) cohesion it leads to more complexity Confidential
  • 54. System Complexity Estimator – Dependency Measures Dependency Measures (Coupling) t i n g craf innovation together Module Dependency on the System Index (MDSI) System Dependency on the Module Index (SDMI) Simple Summation of row elements of a DSM can give a measure of MDSI; Simple summation of column elements of a DSM can give a measure of SDMI A B C D sum MDSI A 1 1 1 3 0.33 Indirect Dependencies are not B 1 1 2 0.22 taken care of in this measure crafting innovation together A depends on B and B depends on C 1 1 2 0.22 D hence A depends on D D 1 1 2 0.22 sum 2 2 3 2 9 MDSI 0.33 SDMI 0.22 0.22 0.33 0.22 0.25 0.21 To take care of indirect dependencies 0.21 Normalized eigen vector SDMI 0.21 0.21 0.33 0.25 corresponding to Principal eigen Confidential value is proposed
  • 55. System Complexity Estimator (SCE) • Enables the Designer/Project Managerc rtot iIdentifyi okeyg eareas in the af ng innovat n to ther system being designed that contribute more to the complexity • Fundamental Shift in the way software systems are designed and software projects are planned. Input • Coupling between modules • A measure of lack of cohesion in each module Output crafting innovation together • Estimates total complexity of the system • Estimates how much each module contributes to the complexity Design Fundamental: Maximize Cohesion Minimize Coupling “Robust Inventive Software Design” presented at the 7th International DSM Conference in Seattle, Wa, Oct 4-6, 2005 Confidential
  • 56. Application of System Complexity Estimator crafting innovation together crafting innovation together  Team became fully aware of inter- • Identify dependencies through group brain storming dependencies and hand-offs • Determine complexities using System Complexity Estimator  Understood meaningful delivery blocks Confidential
  • 57. crafting innovation together Ideality, TRIZ and Software Design crafting innovation together Case Study: Software Product Confidential 57 ©
  • 58. Software System Evolves! crafting innovation together  Functionality of Software System (Requirements)  Requirements constructed into structure  Deployment and Usage creates new requirements (new functionality)  Software system changes structure through – Addition of new structural elements (e.g. new functionality) crafting innovation together – Changes (e.g. bug-fixing) in the existing system  Evolutionary nature of software systems keeps on increasing system complexity Confidential
  • 59. Software System Evolution – Complexity Increases crafting innovation together The Final Softwa Comple re xity System crafting innovation together New – Functionality Highly Major Design – Redesign Compl Change and New ex Initial Software patch Design Time Confidential
  • 60. TRIZ - IDEALITY crafting innovation together • IDEALITY = Sum of All Useful Functions/ Sum of All Harmful Functions Focus on Function/Functionality Proposition: Design is about structure – The ideal system structure should be included in the definition crafting innovation together of Ideality. Achieved by Ideal Structure Ideal Structure = Least Complex Structure Confidential
  • 61. TRIZ – IDEALITY for Software Systems crafting innovation together Achieved by the Least Complex Software Structure How to define the Least Complex Software System? crafting innovation together A note: Complexity is not the function delivered by a system but it is the attribute of the system Confidential
  • 62. Software Complexity Measures (Existing Measures…) crafting innovation together  Modularization Criteria – Coupling & Cohesion  McCabe Complexity and Size of the Software  Software Entropy (Bhushan N and Kaushik K, 2002)  SEI’s Maintainability Index (www.sei.cmu.edu)  Limited Work on Structural Complexity of the system crafting innovation together Confidential
  • 63. System Complexity Estimator (SCE) crafting innovation together • Software Complexity Measures and approach for managing complexity • System Complexity – Concepts of Coupling and Cohesion • Social Network Analysis – A Framework for Software Design • System Complexity Estimator (SCE) – Quantitative measure of complexity crafting innovation together Ref: Bhushan N,, SYSTEM COMPLEXITY ESTIMATOR - Applications in Software Architecture, Design & Project Planning, 3rd International Conference on Quality Reliability and Infocom Technologies, India, 2-4 December 2006 Confidential
  • 64. Software Design Guideline – Coupling & Cohesion crafting innovation together • A software system is the decomposition of conceptual construct into M M conceptually independent modules that cooperate to achieve a desired result. 1 2 M 3 • Coupling: the degree of interdependence among the components of a software system. M Good software system should obey the 4 crafting innovation together principle of Low coupling. • Cohesion of a module is defined as a quality attribute that seeks to measure the singleness M4 of purpose of a module. Cohesion seeks to m41 m42 maximize the connections within a module. Cohesi m43 m44 on m45 Confidential
  • 65. Problem: crafting innovation together • How to measure Coupling and Cohesion of Software Systems as a single metric? • A metric from Social Network Analysis… crafting innovation together Solution: A Software System is like a Social Network Confidential
  • 66. Social Networks Analysisr a f t i n g i n n o v a t i o n t o g e t h e r c • A primary use of graph theory in social network analysis is to identify the “important” actors. Centrality and prestige concepts seek to quantify graph theoretic ideas about an individual actor’s prominence within a network by summarizing structural relations among the g nodes. • An actor’s prominence reflects its greater visibility to the other network actors (an audience). A prominent location takes account of sociometric choices made and choices received, as well as indirect ties. The two prominence classes discussed in this literature are – Centrality: Actor has high involvement in many relations, regardless of crafting innovation together send/receive directionality (volume of activity) – Prestige: Actor is recipient of many directed ties, but initiates few relations (popularity > extensivity) Bonacich, P.B., Power and Centrality: A Family of Measures, American Journal of Sociology 92, 1170-1182, 1987 Confidential
  • 67. Eigenvector-like Measures of Centrality for Asymmetric Relations crafting innovation together • The eigenvector captures a certain aspect of centrality or status that is not captured by other measures. The eigenvector is an appropriate measure when one believes that actors' status is determined by those with whom they are in contact. This conception of importance or centrality makes crafting innovation together sense in a variety of circumstances. Social status rubs off on one's associates. Receiving information from knowledgeable sources adds more to one's own knowledge. A Software System is like a Social Network Confidential
  • 68. Existing Design (Capturing Couplinga fandi nCohesion tinputs) cr ting novation toge her crafting innovation together Confidential
  • 69. Existing Design – System Complexity Map crafting innovation together Existing Design IDEAL SYSTEM – Scramble COMPLEXITY = Create New Rule 16.00 Name Shuffle Preview Masking 12.00 Address Shuffle Number of Functions Profile Management 8.00 Generic Shuffle Delivered = 54 with Installer 4.00 Blank Out Cohesion closer to 0.00 1.0 COHESION LOW Scheduler Replacement crafting innovation together Masking SSN Generator Preload Script Luhn Generator Pattern Generator Sequence Number Generator Random Number Generator Confidential
  • 70. TEAM BRAINSTORMED TO COME UP WITH THREE ALTERNATIVE DESIGNS crafting innovation together – with a Trigger to increase module Cohesion Design Option1 Design Option 2 Scramble Custom Rule Manager 20.00 Name Shuffle Scramble 18.00 Execute Preload Script 20.00 Name Shuffle DB Masker Address Shuffle 16.00 Authenticate Db Credentials 18.00 Address Shuffle 14.00 16.00 Profile Manager Generic Shuffle Log file generation 14.00 Generic Shuffle 12.00 12.00 10.00 Preview Ethnicity Shuffle 10.00 8.00 Update Transaction Table Ethnicity Shuffle 8.00 6.00 6.00 4.00 4.00 Scheduler Selective Name Shuffle Load Staging Table Selective Name Shuffle 2.00 2.00 0.00 0.00 uthenticator (Authenticate,Pre-Load & crafting innovation together Look Up Names Shuffle Common_Functions Look Up Names Shuffle compile) Pattern Generator Look Up Address Shuffle Pattern Generator Look Up Address Shuffle Random Number Generator Data Encryption/Decryption Random Number Generator Data Encryption/Decryption Sequence Number Generator Blank Out Sequence Number Generator Blank Out Luhn Generator Replacement Luhn Generator Replacement SSN Generator SSN Generator Note: The Psychological Inertia of the existing design continued – structurally similar to existing design Confidential
  • 71. TEAM BRAINSTORMED TO COME UP WITH THREE ALTERNATIVE DESIGNS crafting innovation together (Contd…) Design Option 3 Scramble 12.00 Name ShuffleShuffle Address Generic Shuffle Modify Rule 10.00 Ethnicity Shuffle Create New Rule Selective Name Shuffle Monitor Mask Status 8.00 Look Up Names Shuffle Load Profile 6.00 Look Up Address Shuffle Start Masking 4.00 Data Encryption/Decryption Preview Masking Blank Out 2.00 Save Profile Replacement 0.00 crafting innovation together Generate Mask Information SSN Generator Search Mask Fields / Master Tables / Limit Luhn Generator Tables Get All Mask Field List Sequence Number Generator New Profile Random Number Generator Restart Masking Pattern Generator Preview Profile Common_Functions Re-Schedule Masking Load Staging Table Stop Scheduled Masking Update Transaction Table Schedule Masking Get Restart / Scheduled Job Status Log file generation Authenticate Db Credentials Execute Preload Script Note: A shift in the thinking achieved through a focus on maximizing cohesion Confidential
  • 72. System Complexity Analysis of Alternatives with the existing Design Existing Design crafting innovation together Scramble Create New Rule 16.00 Name Shuffle Preview Masking 12.00 Address Shuffle Profile Management 8.00 Generic Shuffle 4.00 Installer Blank Out 0.00 Scheduler Replacement # of Size (# of Avg Functions/ Masking Preload Script SSN Generator Luhn Generator Pattern Generator Sequence Number Generator Design functions Modules) Module Complexity Random Number Generator Existing Design Option1 Scramble Custom Rule Manager 20.00 Name Shuffle Design 54 18 3 88.7 18.00 DB Masker Address Shuffle 16.00 Profile Manager 14.00 Generic Shuffle 12.00 10.00 Preview Ethnicity Shuffle 8.00 6.00 Design Scheduler DB Authenticator (Authenticate,Pre-Load & compile) 4.00 2.00 0.00 Selective Name Shuffle Look Up Names Shuffle Option 1 66 22 3 102.3 Pattern Generator Random Number Generator Look Up Address Shuffle Data Encryption/Decryption crafting innovation together Sequence Number Generator Blank Out Design Luhn Generator SSN Generator Design Option 2 Replacement Option 2 51 39 1.3 174 Authenticate Db Credentials Log file generation Scramble Execute Preload Script 20.00 18.00 16.00 14.00 Name Shuffle Address Shuffle Generic Shuffle 12.00 Design 10.00 Update Transaction Table Ethnicity Shuffle 8.00 6.00 4.00 Load Staging Table Selective Name Shuffle 2.00 0.00 Option 3 51 42 1.2 154.6 Common_Functions Look Up Names Shuffle Pattern Generator Look Up Address Shuffle Random Number Generator Data Encryption/Decryption Sequence Number Generator Blank Out Luhn Generator Replacement SSN Generator Design Option 3 Scramble 12.00 Name ShuffleShuffle Address Generic Shuffle Modify Rule 10.00 Ethnicity Shuffle Create New Rule Selective Name Shuffle Monitor Mask Status 8.00 Look Up Names Shuffle Load Profile 6.00 Look Up Address Shuffle Start Masking 4.00 Data Encryption/Decryption Preview Masking Blank Out 2.00 Save Profile Replacement 0.00 Generate Mask Information SSN Generator Note: Cohesion Reduced but Complexity Increased Search Mask Fields / Master Tables / Limit Tables Get All Mask Field List New Profile Restart Masking Luhn Generator Sequence Number Generator Random Number Generator Pattern Generator Preview Profile Common_Functions due to increased coupling Re-Schedule Masking Load Staging Table Stop Scheduled Masking Update Transaction Table Get Restart / Schedule Masking Scheduled Job Status Log file generation Authenticate Db Credentials Confidential Execute Preload Script
  • 73. Team Once Again Brainstormed … to Balance Cohesion and Coupling crafting innovation together • The team brainstormed further to look at ways and means of reducing the coupling. The team hit upon the idea of a Router – A New Module, which was suggested earlier during the discussions but somehow was not pursued crafting innovation together Final Evolved Design Blank Out Modify Rule 8.00 Replacement Create New Rule Scramble Monitor Mask Status Generic Shuffle Load Profile 6.00 SSN Generator Start Masking Luhn Generator Preview Masking 4.00 Sequence Number Generator Save Profile Random Number Generator 2.00 Generate Mask Information Pattern Generator Search Mask Fields / Master Tables / Limit 0.00 Single Field Router Tables Get All Mask Field List Ethnicity Shuffle New Profile Data Encryption/Decryption Restart Masking Name Shuffle Preview Profile Address Shuffle Re-Schedule Masking Selective Name Shuffle Stop Scheduled Masking Look Up Names Shuffle Schedule Masking Look Up Address Shuffle Get Restart / Scheduled Job Status Authenticate Db Credentials Execute Preload Script Confidential
  • 74. Final Evolved Design – Closer to Ideality crafting innovation together Final Evolved Design Blank Out Modify Rule 8.00 Replacement Create New Rule Scramble Monitor Mask Status Generic Shuffle Load Profile 6.00 SSN Generator Start Masking Luhn Generator Preview Masking 4.00 Sequence Number Generator Save Profile Random Number Generator 2.00 Generate Mask Information Pattern Generator Mask Fields / Master Tables / Limit 0.00 Single Field Router Tables Get All Mask Field List Ethnicity Shuffle New Profile Data Encryption/Decryption Restart Masking Name Shuffle crafting innovation together Preview Profile Address Shuffle Re-Schedule Masking Selective Name Shuffle Stop Scheduled Masking Look Up Names Shuffle Schedule Masking Look Up Address Shuffle # of Size (# of Avg Functions/ Get Restart / Scheduled Job Status Authenticate Db Credentials Execute Preload Script Design functions Modules) Module Complexity Existing Design 54 18 3 88.7 Design Option 1 66 22 3 102.3 Design Option 2 51 39 1.3 174 Design Option 3 51 42 1.2 154.6 Final Evolved Design 45 36 1.3 81.2 Confidential
  • 75. Evolution to an Ideal Designt i n g i n n o v a t i o n t o g e t h e r craf Move Towards Ideal Software Design 250 Design Option 2 200 System Complexity Design Option 3 150 Existing Design 100 Design Option 1 crafting innovation together Final Evolved Design 50 0 Design Options IDEALITY = SIMPLICITY ON THE OTHER SIDE OF COMPLEXITY Confidential
  • 76. FRUITS OF IDEALITY THINKING IN SOFTWARE DESIGN crafting innovation together Algorithm Lines of code Before After Blank Out 562 109 Replacement 575 122 More than 50% Generic Shuffle 1435 211 reduction in Code SSN Generator 1812 542 size with a robust crafting innovation together Scrambling 2453 974 more maintainable LUHN 1127 168 software product! Log 0 150 Single field Router 0 1590 Total 7964 3866 Difference in Code 4098 Confidential
  • 77. Change Management – System Change Impact Model (SCIM) • Existing System’s Complexity estimatedt iandneachnmodule rank craf ng in ovatio together ordered with respect to its contribution to the complexity • Impact of New Changes on the existing system estimated using the rectangular impact matrix crafting innovation together System Complexity Estimator Using SCE-SCIM Framework -impact of each change SCIM requirement can be managed much more comprehensively, Computes relative impact of each change with less probability of crisis situations request and relative impact on each module Confidential
  • 78. Large Scale Software Testing Project SCIM Calculation to prioritize the test areas: crafting innovation together In the IT/SIT phase 450 PD estimated effort was reduced to 260 PD - Reduction of 42% SCIM for resource allocation, schedule distribution and optimizing the Lead and Lag crafting innovation together time the project has achieved a reduction of 20% in the efforts and schedules for Test case preparation and Test execution Activities. Confidential
  • 79. LEAN THINKING - Principles that Stick crafting innovation together 7 Principles that Stick Plan your Project and Project your Plan Collaboration is the key and it has two parts Cooperation and Elaboration Deliver Customer Identify and Exploit Concurrency where ever Value in least time with you can least effort Wait Times are Waste Times crafting innovation together Crisis Avoidance is an order of magnitude more profitable than Crisis Management Best time to detect and respond to an error/defect/bug/mistake is while it is being created Decisions made in the value stream and Handoffs in value stream are main stream decelerators Confidential
  • 80. History and Future What you know is crafting innovation together limited by what you can know today; What you don’t know today is what crafting innovation together you will be forced to know tomorrow; There are always limits to Confidential your Knowledge
  • 81. History and Future crafting innovation together What you should do is to create as many alternative futures as possible and also keep with you as many possible histories as possible. Work around crafting innovation together You don’t know which history is connected to which future the limits – but one path is unfolding right now – you need to find to your out…. Confidential Knowledge
  • 82. FINAL POINTS crafting innovation together • Complexity is Increasing, Scale is the New Frontier • Industry has to learn from other industries • New ways of looking at reality is needed • Artful Making, Lean Thinking, TRIZ and Social Computing needs to be integrated as a framework • We need to design organization as a Learning Enterprise crafting innovation together • Lean Inventive Systems Thinking LIST – we propose to be the new framework for (Operational) INNOVATION! Confidential ©
  • 83. crafting innovation together Crafitti Consulting Crafting innovation together . . . www.crafitti.com crafting innovation together Navneet Bhushan (navneet.bhushan@crafitti.com) Confidential 83

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