Learning 2.0: Social software for social learning Thierry Nabeth – Senior research Fellow - INSEAD Learning 2.0 LMS Wiki D...
Objective <ul><li>State of the situation (state, success / failures, needs) </li></ul><ul><li>Present the new approaches (...
Interactive <ul><li>Expose / Debate / & Echange </li></ul>
Neutrality <ul><li>A neutral point of View: (The Wikipedia way. Avoid a discourse of ‘propaganda’) </li></ul><ul><li>The d...
The situation
E-Learning: The paradox The E-Learning Revolution ? On the shelf learning components Automate so as to reduce cost Compute...
E-Learning: + / - <ul><li>A tool that has proved useful in some situations </li></ul><ul><li>We have acquired a real exper...
E-Learning: The return The new révolution? Training workforce in more needed than ever Contraints of cost and flexibility ...
E-Learning 2.0: Hope or mirage? <ul><li>A radically new approach </li></ul><ul><li>New tools have proved their value in ot...
The new approaches
The new concepts <ul><li>Revisiting the concept of learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognition (motivation, memory), importan...
Types of knowledge <ul><li>Conceptual knowledge  (theories & models) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abstract, explicit, well articu...
Types of memory, location in the brain <ul><li>Declarative memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic memory </li></ul></ul><ul...
Modes of learning Thierry Nabeth (1998);  Virtual Learning Spaces: Expériences avec environnements de réalité virtuelle mu...
Importance of the social dimension of learning <ul><li>Provide a communication channel for the acquisition of knowledge (s...
Supporting the social dimension of learning <ul><li>Provide communication mechanisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>forum, peer-to-...
Learning 2.0 != E-Learning <ul><li>Learning 2.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Is concerned by the other learning modes </li></ul><ul><...
Traditional training versus new training <ul><li>Traditional approaches* </li></ul><ul><li>Is mainly based by teaching con...
Traditional learning vesus new learning <ul><li>Traditional approaches  * </li></ul><ul><li>Centred on the organisation. <...
What is the Learning 2.0 <ul><li>Learning 2.0  is the application to education of the principles & technologies which have...
Learning 2.0 <ul><li>Social </li></ul>Strong social dimension Participative Engage the individual Rich Take a variety of f...
Some learning 2.0 tools <ul><li>Online social networks (Facebook) </li></ul><ul><li>Le microblogging (Twitter) </li></ul><...
Illustration 1: social Plateform <ul><li>Virtual Community 2.0:  Social networks (online identity) + collaborative spaces ...
Illustration 1: InnoTube <ul><li>Visualisation of social activity in InnoTube </li></ul>Collaboration around videos. Feedb...
Illustration 1: InnoTube <ul><li>Innotube: InnoTube is a web social platform created in flash (flex)  aimed at supporting ...
Illustration 2: Twitter <ul><li>Microblogging as been used as a means to  evaluate professors  (Stieger & Burger 2009). Tw...
Illustration 3:  Virtual worlds (Second Life) <ul><li>Streaming of vidéos </li></ul>http://vantan.org/insead/2008/10/insea...
Illustration 3:  Virtual worlds (Second Life) (2) <ul><li>Speakers are aware of their audience </li></ul>
Illustration 3:  Les mondes virtuels (Second Life) (3) <ul><li>Association of different media: video, audio, slides </li><...
Illustration 4:  Podcasts <ul><li>Distribute audio & video content using syndication (Lee, Miller, Newnham 2009) allowing ...
Illustration 5:  Wiki & Wikipedia? <ul><li>Usages (suggestions): </li></ul><ul><li>Content   Wiki :  Provide professors th...
Illustration 6: Blogs <ul><li>Examples of use: </li></ul><ul><li>Course   blog  :  A group of professors can use a course ...
Course blog of Web Trend <ul><li>A blog was created to support the MBA Elective “Web Trends & Strategies” May-June 2008 </...
Web Trend 2009: avec Ning <ul><li>In 2009, the programme Web Trends is now delivered to executives (CEDEP), but this time ...
Other tools <ul><li>Serious (collaborative) games </li></ul><ul><li>Conversational agents </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile devices...
Pertinence of the new approaches
Current situation <ul><li>A progressive adoption </li></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 tools (more particularly online social networks...
Limits <ul><li>An number of remaining issues : </li></ul><ul><li>A domain still immature, generating a lot of buzz. (How t...
References
Some references <ul><li>Learning, cognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>De Jong, T. and Hessler, M.G.M. (1996) Types and qualiti...
Some references <ul><li>Learning 2.0 (vision) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seely Brown, John; Adler, Richard P. (2008). Minds on ...
Some references <ul><li>Digital native </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OECD (2008). New Millennium Learners. Initial findings on the...
Merci <ul><li>Thierry Nabeth :  Senior Research Fellow, INSEAD [email_address] http://www.calt.insead.edu/?thierry.nabeth ...
Annexes
Learning 2.0. The future <ul><li>Identify trends </li></ul>Decide when to adopt   Filter the Buzzzz… …  but also use it Ma...
Trends (2008) <ul><li>The social dimension: an important trend. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasingly recognised as a key fac...
Trends (2009) <ul><li>? </li></ul><ul><li>Social platforms </li></ul><ul><li>Online Social networking </li></ul><ul><li>Wi...
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Learning 2.0: Social software for social learning

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This presentation was given at the symposium:
Inter-Organizational Learning and Competence Development: Web 2.0 Experiences and Trends.
10-11 December, 2009 – CEDEP – Fontainebleau, France
http://cedeponline.ning.com/events/interorganizational-learning

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  • Note: Au niveau de la mémoire à long terme, on peut distinguer (neuro-cognition): * La mémoire sémantique La mémoire épisodique La mémoire procédurale (non conscient)
  • Note: Au niveau de la mémoire à long terme, on peut distinguer (neuro-cognition): * La mémoire sémantique La mémoire épisodique La mémoire procédurale (non conscient)
  • Note: Au niveau de la mémoire à long terme, on peut distinguer (neuro-cognition): * La mémoire sémantique La mémoire épisodique La mémoire procédurale (non conscient)
  • Transcript of "Learning 2.0: Social software for social learning"

    1. 1. Learning 2.0: Social software for social learning Thierry Nabeth – Senior research Fellow - INSEAD Learning 2.0 LMS Wiki Digital natives Social networks Talent management Cloud computing Open source Podcasts ePhone eBook Virtual worlds Knowledge management Usages Entreprises
    2. 2. Objective <ul><li>State of the situation (state, success / failures, needs) </li></ul><ul><li>Present the new approaches (Learning 2.0, etc.), leads and trends </li></ul><ul><li>Pertinence & relevance of the new approaches? </li></ul>
    3. 3. Interactive <ul><li>Expose / Debate / & Echange </li></ul>
    4. 4. Neutrality <ul><li>A neutral point of View: (The Wikipedia way. Avoid a discourse of ‘propaganda’) </li></ul><ul><li>The desire understand and to identify new trends: Inform, educate and reflect together </li></ul>
    5. 5. The situation
    6. 6. E-Learning: The paradox The E-Learning Revolution ? On the shelf learning components Automate so as to reduce cost Computers used as a delivering tool People to be trained Results are bellow the expectations The industrialisation of training
    7. 7. E-Learning: + / - <ul><li>A tool that has proved useful in some situations </li></ul><ul><li>We have acquired a real experience </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul><ul><li>The promised revolution did not happen </li></ul><ul><li>Some elusive benefits </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>
    8. 8. E-Learning: The return The new révolution? Training workforce in more needed than ever Contraints of cost and flexibility (crisis) New technologies and new usages Educated users A good mix Hope of a takeoff?
    9. 9. E-Learning 2.0: Hope or mirage? <ul><li>A radically new approach </li></ul><ul><li>New tools have proved their value in other sectors </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing really New. Only buzz! </li></ul><ul><li>What about issues such as participation? </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>
    10. 10. The new approaches
    11. 11. The new concepts <ul><li>Revisiting the concept of learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognition (motivation, memory), importance of the social dimension </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning 2.0. The new tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web 2.0., cloud computing, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning 2.0. The new usages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting the social process, mobility, evaluation, self-services, relationship with KM & HRM, Talent & competence management? </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Types of knowledge <ul><li>Conceptual knowledge (theories & models) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abstract, explicit, well articulated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Procedural knowledge (knowhow) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concrete, implicit, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Situational knowledge (experience) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concrete, explicit, not well articulated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strategic knowledge (meta-cognitive, know how to be) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abstract, implicit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reference. De Jong & Hessler (1996) </li></ul>
    13. 13. Types of memory, location in the brain <ul><li>Declarative memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Episodic memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Procedural memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(skills and procedures) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>Location: Still a subject of research
    14. 14. Modes of learning Thierry Nabeth (1998); Virtual Learning Spaces: Expériences avec environnements de réalité virtuelle multi-utilisateurs accessibles via Internet dans l’enseignement ; 6eme Forum des innovations pédagogiques Learning by Absorbing Learning by Doing Learning by Interacting with others Theory (knowledge elicitation) Experimenting & practicing Simulation Knowledge Exchange Network Communities Lectures, readings Business Cases Multiplayer Simulation Virtual classroom Share experiences
    15. 15. Importance of the social dimension of learning <ul><li>Provide a communication channel for the acquisition of knowledge (sharing of experiences) </li></ul><ul><li>Help the individual to determine the pertinence of knowledge . </li></ul><ul><li>Help us to provide (build) meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Positions the individual as an actor (who participate). </li></ul><ul><li>Contribute to motivate the individual </li></ul><ul><li>Reference social learning: (Seely Brown & Adler 2008). </li></ul>
    16. 16. Supporting the social dimension of learning <ul><li>Provide communication mechanisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>forum, peer-to-peer communication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide the means to facilitate trust building </li></ul><ul><ul><li>feedback mechanisms, reputation mechanisms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide mechanisms helping to define online identity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Online identity (self-declared, observed, defined by others) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stimulate participation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By making the social activity visible and the impact of people action (self-efficacy of Albert Bandura) </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Learning 2.0 != E-Learning <ul><li>Learning 2.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Is concerned by the other learning modes </li></ul><ul><li>Is particular interested in social learning (Seely Brown & Adler 2008) </li></ul>
    18. 18. Traditional training versus new training <ul><li>Traditional approaches* </li></ul><ul><li>Is mainly based by teaching conceptual knowledge using the mode of absorption </li></ul><ul><li>* Include the E-learning 1.0 </li></ul><ul><li>New training approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Try to address the acquisition of other categories of knowledge using the other learning modes. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Traditional learning vesus new learning <ul><li>Traditional approaches * </li></ul><ul><li>Centred on the organisation. </li></ul><ul><li>Disconnected from the other components of the organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Offline or (xor) online. </li></ul><ul><li>* Include the E-learning 1.0 </li></ul><ul><li>New training approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Centred on the individuals (actors of their learning). </li></ul><ul><li>Connected and integrated in the other processes of the organisation (KM, HRM) </li></ul><ul><li>Blended online / offline (best of the two worlds) </li></ul>
    20. 20. What is the Learning 2.0 <ul><li>Learning 2.0 is the application to education of the principles & technologies which have appeared with the Web 2.0 (also referred to as the social web) </li></ul>Beware!: Learning 2.0 is not only about tools, but also about processes and a vision!
    21. 21. Learning 2.0 <ul><li>Social </li></ul>Strong social dimension Participative Engage the individual Rich Take a variety of forms
    22. 22. Some learning 2.0 tools <ul><li>Online social networks (Facebook) </li></ul><ul><li>Le microblogging (Twitter) </li></ul><ul><li>Podcasts, videocasts (rich & social media ) </li></ul><ul><li>Wikis </li></ul><ul><li>Blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual worlds </li></ul><ul><li>Serious games </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Illustration 1: social Plateform <ul><li>Virtual Community 2.0: Social networks (online identity) + collaborative spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Applications: </li></ul><ul><li>Blended learning : Used to complement off line education and make it more effective. It is used both as a coordinating tool, to make available educational content (but not to ‘deliver’ it), as a knowledge exchange tool, but also as a way to familiarise the participants the ones with another and to motivate them. </li></ul><ul><li>Support learning network : Used to support groups of students, alumni or professionals, so as to maintain social cohesion, create a network of contacts and of knowledge sharing. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Ning, InnoTube, (Moodle), … </li></ul>
    24. 24. Illustration 1: InnoTube <ul><li>Visualisation of social activity in InnoTube </li></ul>Collaboration around videos. Feedback mechanisms.
    25. 25. Illustration 1: InnoTube <ul><li>Innotube: InnoTube is a web social platform created in flash (flex) aimed at supporting and at stimulating knowledge exchange in distributed groups and communities. It is for instance used by FIAT so as to stimulate the design of new cars. </li></ul><ul><li>( http:// www.calt.insead.edu/?InnoTube ) </li></ul><ul><li>Key caracteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>A strong focus on connecting people one to another, and with resources (3 types) associated to inovation. </li></ul><ul><li>A strong focus on videos for representing and stimulating sharing and production of innovation related resources </li></ul><ul><li>A strong focus in supporting navigation via the visualisation of social networks . </li></ul>
    26. 26. Illustration 2: Twitter <ul><li>Microblogging as been used as a means to evaluate professors (Stieger & Burger 2009). Twitter was used as a tool for collecting the evaluations provided by the students, contributing to reduce the effort of collecting the answers or the questionnaire. </li></ul><ul><li>Other usage to explore: Provides a means for the professor to interact with the students and get feedbacks by implementing the ‘clicker’ mechanism (Martyn 2007). This allow professors to adjust their course in real time, but also to better engage the students (‘active learning’). </li></ul>
    27. 27. Illustration 3: Virtual worlds (Second Life) <ul><li>Streaming of vidéos </li></ul>http://vantan.org/insead/2008/10/insead-in-second-life-capacity.php
    28. 28. Illustration 3: Virtual worlds (Second Life) (2) <ul><li>Speakers are aware of their audience </li></ul>
    29. 29. Illustration 3: Les mondes virtuels (Second Life) (3) <ul><li>Association of different media: video, audio, slides </li></ul>
    30. 30. Illustration 4: Podcasts <ul><li>Distribute audio & video content using syndication (Lee, Miller, Newnham 2009) allowing improve mobility of the learners and a better control of their time. </li></ul><ul><li>The recording of course, and the possibility to replay obscures points has proved to be effective (Clark, Westcott & Taylor 2007). </li></ul>
    31. 31. Illustration 5: Wiki & Wikipedia? <ul><li>Usages (suggestions): </li></ul><ul><li>Content Wiki : Provide professors the means to easily distribute content to students and to update this content. (Wikipedia represents a source of useful but ‘unreliable’ content) </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination Wiki . Wiki (such as Wikipedia) can provide an experimental space (playground) that can be used to help the development of social skills such as collaboration and coordination. </li></ul>
    32. 32. Illustration 6: Blogs <ul><li>Examples of use: </li></ul><ul><li>Course blog : A group of professors can use a course blog so as to distribute to students educational materials, and to interact with students between the courses. </li></ul><ul><li>Student’s blogs . Each student creates a blog. Professors assign to each student the writing of an essay (the subjects are different). Students post their essays in their blog. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Note: Professors aggregate using RSS streams these blogs, allowing them to monitor the advancing of the work. The publication date guaranty that the essays have been delivered in time. </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Course blog of Web Trend <ul><li>A blog was created to support the MBA Elective “Web Trends & Strategies” May-June 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Url: http://www.calt.insead.edu/webtrends/ </li></ul>
    34. 34. Web Trend 2009: avec Ning <ul><li>In 2009, the programme Web Trends is now delivered to executives (CEDEP), but this time a Ning community has been used to interact with the students. A Learning 2.0 platform has also be put in place. </li></ul><ul><li>http://cedeponline.ning.com/events/interorganizational-learning </li></ul><ul><li>Maybe a sign of decline of the use of blogs? </li></ul>
    35. 35. Other tools <ul><li>Serious (collaborative) games </li></ul><ul><li>Conversational agents </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile devices (smartphone, eBook?, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul>
    36. 36. Pertinence of the new approaches
    37. 37. Current situation <ul><li>A progressive adoption </li></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 tools (more particularly online social networks, micro-blogging, video sharing) are increasingly used. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some tools (ning, groups in online social networks) can easily be put in place to support to support traditional offline programmes (cloud computing) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New innovative practices can be observed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>podcasts, Twitter, for enhancing some usages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mechanisms & principles of Learning 2.0 are progressively integrated in E-Learning products. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social dimension, tagging, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New usages can appears anytime (and also disappear quickly). </li></ul>
    38. 38. Limits <ul><li>An number of remaining issues : </li></ul><ul><li>A domain still immature, generating a lot of buzz. (How to sort out the useful from the futile? When the futile becomes useful - Twitter) </li></ul><ul><li>How to operate these platforms; how to motivate the participants? </li></ul><ul><li>How to evaluate and justify the more informal learning modes? </li></ul><ul><li>How learning should be supervised (what level of guidance; self-discipline) </li></ul><ul><li>What about the capability for organisation to integrate these new approaches in their practices. (cultural transformation) </li></ul>
    39. 39. References
    40. 40. Some references <ul><li>Learning, cognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>De Jong, T. and Hessler, M.G.M. (1996) Types and qualities of knowledge. Educational psychologist, 31 . pp. 105-113. ISSN 00461520 http://doc.utwente.nl/26717/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CERI-OECD (2007). Understanding the Brain: The Birth of a Learning Science&quot;. OECD Publishing, 2007 http:// www.oecd.org/edu/brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ariely, Dan; Wertenbroch, Klaus (2002). Procrastination, Deadlines, and Performance: Self-Control by Precommitment. Psychological Science 13 (3): 219-224 http://web.mit.edu/ariely/www/MIT/Papers/deadlines.pdf </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light Richard J. (2001). Making the most of college: students speak their minds. Harvard University Press </li></ul></ul><ul><li>E-learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paulsen, M.F. (2009). Resting in e-learning peace. Int. J. Networking and Virtual Organisations 6 (5): 460–475. http://home.nki.no/morten/index.php/english-menu/5-english/58-resting-in-e-learning-peace.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Romiszowski, Alexander (2004). How’s the E-learning Baby? Factors Leading to Success or Failure of an Educational Technology Innovation. Educational Technology 44(1):5-27, January-February. http://asianvu.com/digital-library/elearning/elearning_failure_study-romiszowsky.pdf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zemsky Robert and William F. Massy (2004).Thwarted Innovation. Why did the boom in e-learning go bust?. A Study from the University of Pennsylvania, June 2004. http:// www.thelearningalliance.info/WeatherStation.html </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Some references <ul><li>Learning 2.0 (vision) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seely Brown, John; Adler, Richard P. (2008). Minds on Fire: Open Education, the Long Tail, and Learning 2.0. EDUCAUSE Review. 43(1):16–32 (January/February 2008):. http://www.educause.edu/library/erm0811 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning 2.0: Usages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clark S, Westcott M and Taylor L (2007). Using short podcasts to reinforce lectures. The University of Sydney Symposium, 28th September 2007 http://science.uniserve.edu.au/pubs/procs/2007/08.pdf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lee, M. J. W., C. Miller, and L. Newnham (2009). Podcasting syndication services and university students: Why don't they subscribe? The Internet and Higher Education 12 (1), 53-59 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Martyn, Margie (2007). Clickers in the Classroom: An Active Learning Approach. EDUCAUSE Quarterly (EQ) 30 (2) http://www.educause.edu/EDUCAUSE+Quarterly/EDUCAUSEQuarterlyMagazineVolum/ClickersintheClassroomAnActive/157458 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Redecker Christine (2009). Review of Learning 2.0 Practices: Study on the Impact of Web 2.0 Innovations on Education and Training in Europe. JRC Scientific and technical report. EUR 23664 EN – 2009 url: http:// ipts.jrc.ec.europa.eu/publications/pub.cfm?id =2059 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stieger, Stefan & Burger, Christoph (2009). Let's go formative: Continuous student ratings with web 2.0 application twitter. CyberPsychology & Behavior 12 (0) </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Some references <ul><li>Digital native </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OECD (2008). New Millennium Learners. Initial findings on the effects of digital technologies on school-age learners. In OECD/CERI International Conference “Learning in the 21st Century: Research, Innovation and Policy”, 15-16 May 2008 Paris http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/39/51/40554230.pdf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tapscott, Don (2008). Grown Up Digital: How the Net Generation is Changing the World. McGraw-Hill </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cloud computing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Educause (2009). 7 Things You Should Know About Cloud Computing Educause, 3 August 2009. http://www.educause.edu/Resources/7ThingsYouShouldKnowAboutCloud/176856 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul>
    43. 43. Merci <ul><li>Thierry Nabeth : Senior Research Fellow, INSEAD [email_address] http://www.calt.insead.edu/?thierry.nabeth </li></ul><ul><li>INSEAD : http://www.insead.edu/ </li></ul>
    44. 44. Annexes
    45. 45. Learning 2.0. The future <ul><li>Identify trends </li></ul>Decide when to adopt Filter the Buzzzz… … but also use it Managing change
    46. 46. Trends (2008) <ul><li>The social dimension: an important trend. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasingly recognised as a key factor of the motivation of the learners. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social networks: pervasive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Probably increasingly integrated in existing systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rich and social media: they have to be there </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Present everywhere. They are expected to be present be the learners </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Serious (collaborative) games: slow but stable growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They continue to occupy a niche, but they gain in credibility. Increasingly used in behavioural transformation (teaching ‘soft skills’). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The management of competences enters in the picture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Training is becoming more global and better integrated in other company processes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Virtual worlds: still a potential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From conference spaces to real applications (simulations) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conversational agents : a niche market? </li></ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul>
    47. 47. Trends (2009) <ul><li>? </li></ul><ul><li>Social platforms </li></ul><ul><li>Online Social networking </li></ul><ul><li>Wiki </li></ul><ul><li>Blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Podcasts </li></ul><ul><li>Microblogging Twitter </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual worlds </li></ul><ul><li>Conversational agents </li></ul><ul><li>Serious games </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile learning </li></ul><ul><li>Cognition (understanding the brain) </li></ul><ul><li>Integration </li></ul><ul><li>eBook? Smartphone? </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul>
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