Unit vi   transactional analysis
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transactional analysis

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Unit vi transactional analysis Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Transactional Analysis
    • How We Spend Our Time
  • 2. Transactional Analysis
    • Transactional Analysis or TA is a way of understanding
    … and changing human behavior … why communication fails and how it can be corrected. … one to one relationships
  • 3. Transactional Analysis
    • TA Ego States or Personality Aspects
    Parent Adult Child
  • 4.
    • These are called EGO STATES
    • They are Felt states of being and not just roles.
    • Parent is our 'Taught' concept of life
    • Adult is our 'Thought' concept of life
    • Child is our 'Felt' concept of life
  • 5. Transactional Analysis
    • Parent … learned to act and feel much as those that raised us.
    Parent Prejudiced Parent … follows rules, accepts slogans, holds opinions without thinking first of facts. Nurturing Parent … Supportive and protective toward others, offers help and guidance.
  • 6. Transactional Analysis
    • Clues to Someone in Their Parent
    … a frown or stern look. … tone of voice. … pointing of the index finger. … arms folded as to say “what are you doing?” … uses phrases like; “you should,” “you ought to,” “that is right!” … words such as; sympathizing, punishing. moralizing, judging, giving orders, criticizing.
  • 7.
    • Physical - angry or impatient body-language and expressions, finger-pointing, patronising gestures,
    • Verbal - always, never, for once and for all, judgmental words, critical words, patronising language, posturing language.
    • N.B. beware of cultural differences in body-language or emphases that appear 'Parental'.
  • 8. Transactional Analysis
    • Child … what we were when we were young.
    Child Free Child … Open to life, spontaneous, filled with the sense of wonder and delight, self centered, aggressive, rebellious, does not consider the consequences of feeling or actions. Adapted Child … Polite, sociable, recognizes the rights of others,adapts behavior to suit them, can resent the rights/demands of others, complies grudgingly, feels unsure about themselves, procrastinates .
  • 9.
    • Natural/ Free Child - Spontaneous (positive) and Immature (negative).
    • Intuitive Child (LITTLE PROFESSOR)- Thoughtful/ imaginative/ creative
    • Adapted Child - Co-operative (positive) and Compliant/Resistant (negative).
  • 10. Transactional Analysis
    • Clues to Someone in Their Child
    … smiling, laughing, having fun. … tone of voice. … crying, having tantrums, getting into trouble. … childlike facial expressions. … uses words/phrases like; “Wow!,” “Gosh!,” “I wish,” “I feel.”
  • 11.
    • Physical - emotionally sad expressions, despair, temper tantrums, whining voice, rolling eyes, shrugging shoulders, teasing, delight, laughter, speaking behind hand, raising hand to speak, squirming and giggling.
    • Verbal - baby talk, I wish, I dunno, I want, I'm gonna, I don't care, oh no, not again, things never go right for me, worst day of my life, bigger, biggest, best, many superlatives, words to impress.
  • 12. Transactional Analysis
    • Adult … looks at the facts and reasons out the answer - the computer ins us.
    Adult … figures things out logically. … Has no emotions – able to detach from feelings. … takes responsibility for thoughts, feeling and actions. … solves problems and makes decisions.
  • 13. Transactional Analysis
    • Clues to Someone in Their Adult
    … straight forward facial expression. … active listener, eyes blink every 3 to 5 seconds showing attention. … speaks of probabilities. … uses phrases like; “In my opinion,” “Based on what I have observed,” “So far the facts seem to indicate.”
  • 14.
    • Physical - attentive, interested, straight-forward, tilted head, non-threatening and non-threatened.
    • Verbal - why, what, how, who, where and when, how much, in what way, comparative expressions, reasoned statements, true, false, probably, possibly, I think, I realise, I see, I believe, in my opinion.
    •  
    • And remember, when you are trying to identify ego states: words are only part of the story.
    • To analyse a transaction you need to see and feel what is being said as well.
    • Only 7% of meaning is in the words spoken.
    • 38% of meaning is paralinguistic (the way that the words are said).
    • 55% is in facial expression. (source: Albert Mehrabian)
  • 15. Contamination
    • When the Adult uses information which has its source in the Child or in the Parent and which may be incorrect.
    • Prejudice.
  • 16.  
  • 17. RELATIONSHIPS
    • Child to Child
    • Parent to parent
    • Child to Adult
    • Adult to Parent
    • Adult to Adult
  • 18. STROKES
    • The recognition that one person gives to another
    • Essential to a person's life
    • Can vary from actual physical touch to praise
    • MOST OF US SUFFER FROM STROKE HUNGER!
  • 19.
    • Positive Strokes- “I love you”, “ you did a good job”- Warm Fuzzies
    • Negative Strokes- “I hate you”- cold Pricklies.
    • When positive strokes are not given, we look for negative strokes rather than be without strokes at all!!
    • We should learn to ask for strokes.
    • It makes life easier.
  • 20. There are five ways people can structure their time to get strokes:
    • RITUAL - A pre-set exchange of recognition strokes.
    • "Hi!“ “How are you?“ "Fine, thanks." “Well, see you around. Bye!"
    • This is a four-stroke ritual.
    • PASTIME - A pre-set conversation around a certain subject. Pastimes are most evident at cocktail parties and family get-together.
    • GAMES - Repetitive, devious series of transactions intended to get strokes. Unfortunately, the strokes obtained in games are mostly negative.A game is a failed method of getting strokes.
    • INTIMACY - A direct and powerful exchange of strokes which people crave but seldom attain. The Child is frightened away from it by hurtful experiences.
    • WORK - An activity which has a product as its result. Good work results in the exchange of strokes as a side effect.
  • 21. TRANSACTIONS
    • Transactions occur when any person relates to any other person.
    • The three types of transactions: COMPLEMENTARY,CROSSED & COVERT.
    • Every transaction is made up of a stimulus and response.
  • 22. TRANSACTIONS
  • 23. Complementary Transaction
    • between Adult and Adult
    • Parent to Child
    • Parent to Parent
    • Communication can continue between ego states as long as trans-actions are parallel.
    • Whenever a disruption of communication occurs, a crossed transaction caused it.
  • 24.
    • Parallel communication arrows, communication continues.
    • Example 1:
    • #1 What time do you have?
    • #2 I’ve got 11:15
    • Example 2:
    • #1 You’re late again!
    • #2 I’m sorry. It won’t happen again.
  • 25. Cross Transaction
    • The transactional response is addressed to an ego state different from the one which started the stimulus
    • They disrupt communication.
    • DISCOUNT - One very important kind of crossed transaction
    • Here one person completely disregards what the other one is saying.
    • Discounts are not always obvious but are always unpleasant
  • 26.
    • Crossed communication arrows, communication breakdown.
    • Example 1:
    • #1 What time do you have?
    • #2 There’s a clock on the wall, why don’t you figure it out yourself?
    • Example 2:
    • #1 You’re late again!
    • #2 Yeah, I know, I had a flat tire.
  • 27. ULTERIOR/Covert Transactions
    • A covert transaction is when people say one thing and mean another.
    • Are the basis of games and are especially interesting because they are crooked.
    • They have a social (overt) and a psychological (covert) level.
  • 28.
    • Interactions, responses, actions which are different from those explicitly stated
    • Example #1: How about coming up to my room and listening to some music?
    • Example #2:
  • 29.   Implications of TA
    • Develop an adaptive selling strategy for ‘parent’, ‘adult’, ‘child’ customers.
    • ‘ Best’ communication exchange for selling? Remember to respond in ‘complementary’ manner.
    • Most effective selling involves adult to adult Strokes, or positive interactions, important Verbal (e.g. hello, compliment) Touch (handshake, pat on back).
    • A gift Listening
  • 30. Being ‘Response Able’
    • Recognize you cannot control another’s behavior, but you can affect their behavior by the way you respond to them.
    • Remember you control your own behavior and thoughts. Keep things in perspective.
    • Don’t sweat small stuff. Give it test of time. Ask if it’s happened before.
    • Distinguish what can be changed from what can’t.
    • Have realistic expectations Life is not fair or perfect Bad (good) things happen, usually don’t last forever.
    • Things don’t always go according to plan.
    • People don’t always act as you’d like (remember ego state explanations, people have ‘bad’ days, etc.)
  • 31. Dealing with Difficult People
    • Keep ‘adult’ ego state in control of yourself.
    • Don’t get defensive, argumentative, emotional.
    • Don’t take it personally.
    • Move cautiously, stay cool, remember complementary transactions and strokes.
    • Do not need to take continued abuse. If handled well (e.g. didn’t embarrass customer, allowed them to take something out on you), can turn out to be positive later.