Unit vi transactional analysis


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Unit vi transactional analysis

  1. 1. Transactional Analysis <ul><li>How We Spend Our Time </li></ul>
  2. 2. Transactional Analysis <ul><li>Transactional Analysis or TA is a way of understanding </li></ul>… and changing human behavior … why communication fails and how it can be corrected. … one to one relationships
  3. 3. Transactional Analysis <ul><li>TA Ego States or Personality Aspects </li></ul>Parent Adult Child
  4. 4. <ul><li>These are called EGO STATES </li></ul><ul><li>They are Felt states of being and not just roles. </li></ul><ul><li>Parent is our 'Taught' concept of life </li></ul><ul><li>Adult is our 'Thought' concept of life </li></ul><ul><li>Child is our 'Felt' concept of life </li></ul>
  5. 5. Transactional Analysis <ul><li>Parent … learned to act and feel much as those that raised us. </li></ul>Parent Prejudiced Parent … follows rules, accepts slogans, holds opinions without thinking first of facts. Nurturing Parent … Supportive and protective toward others, offers help and guidance.
  6. 6. Transactional Analysis <ul><li>Clues to Someone in Their Parent </li></ul>… a frown or stern look. … tone of voice. … pointing of the index finger. … arms folded as to say “what are you doing?” … uses phrases like; “you should,” “you ought to,” “that is right!” … words such as; sympathizing, punishing. moralizing, judging, giving orders, criticizing.
  7. 7. <ul><li>Physical - angry or impatient body-language and expressions, finger-pointing, patronising gestures, </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal - always, never, for once and for all, judgmental words, critical words, patronising language, posturing language. </li></ul><ul><li>N.B. beware of cultural differences in body-language or emphases that appear 'Parental'. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Transactional Analysis <ul><li>Child … what we were when we were young. </li></ul>Child Free Child … Open to life, spontaneous, filled with the sense of wonder and delight, self centered, aggressive, rebellious, does not consider the consequences of feeling or actions. Adapted Child … Polite, sociable, recognizes the rights of others,adapts behavior to suit them, can resent the rights/demands of others, complies grudgingly, feels unsure about themselves, procrastinates .
  9. 9. <ul><li>Natural/ Free Child - Spontaneous (positive) and Immature (negative). </li></ul><ul><li>Intuitive Child (LITTLE PROFESSOR)- Thoughtful/ imaginative/ creative </li></ul><ul><li>Adapted Child - Co-operative (positive) and Compliant/Resistant (negative). </li></ul>
  10. 10. Transactional Analysis <ul><li>Clues to Someone in Their Child </li></ul>… smiling, laughing, having fun. … tone of voice. … crying, having tantrums, getting into trouble. … childlike facial expressions. … uses words/phrases like; “Wow!,” “Gosh!,” “I wish,” “I feel.”
  11. 11. <ul><li>Physical - emotionally sad expressions, despair, temper tantrums, whining voice, rolling eyes, shrugging shoulders, teasing, delight, laughter, speaking behind hand, raising hand to speak, squirming and giggling. </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal - baby talk, I wish, I dunno, I want, I'm gonna, I don't care, oh no, not again, things never go right for me, worst day of my life, bigger, biggest, best, many superlatives, words to impress. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Transactional Analysis <ul><li>Adult … looks at the facts and reasons out the answer - the computer ins us. </li></ul>Adult … figures things out logically. … Has no emotions – able to detach from feelings. … takes responsibility for thoughts, feeling and actions. … solves problems and makes decisions.
  13. 13. Transactional Analysis <ul><li>Clues to Someone in Their Adult </li></ul>… straight forward facial expression. … active listener, eyes blink every 3 to 5 seconds showing attention. … speaks of probabilities. … uses phrases like; “In my opinion,” “Based on what I have observed,” “So far the facts seem to indicate.”
  14. 14. <ul><li>Physical - attentive, interested, straight-forward, tilted head, non-threatening and non-threatened. </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal - why, what, how, who, where and when, how much, in what way, comparative expressions, reasoned statements, true, false, probably, possibly, I think, I realise, I see, I believe, in my opinion. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>And remember, when you are trying to identify ego states: words are only part of the story. </li></ul><ul><li>To analyse a transaction you need to see and feel what is being said as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Only 7% of meaning is in the words spoken. </li></ul><ul><li>38% of meaning is paralinguistic (the way that the words are said). </li></ul><ul><li>55% is in facial expression. (source: Albert Mehrabian) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Contamination <ul><li>When the Adult uses information which has its source in the Child or in the Parent and which may be incorrect. </li></ul><ul><li>Prejudice. </li></ul>
  16. 17. RELATIONSHIPS <ul><li>Child to Child </li></ul><ul><li>Parent to parent </li></ul><ul><li>Child to Adult </li></ul><ul><li>Adult to Parent </li></ul><ul><li>Adult to Adult </li></ul>
  17. 18. STROKES <ul><li>The recognition that one person gives to another </li></ul><ul><li>Essential to a person's life </li></ul><ul><li>Can vary from actual physical touch to praise </li></ul><ul><li>MOST OF US SUFFER FROM STROKE HUNGER! </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Positive Strokes- “I love you”, “ you did a good job”- Warm Fuzzies </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Strokes- “I hate you”- cold Pricklies. </li></ul><ul><li>When positive strokes are not given, we look for negative strokes rather than be without strokes at all!! </li></ul><ul><li>We should learn to ask for strokes. </li></ul><ul><li>It makes life easier. </li></ul>
  19. 20. There are five ways people can structure their time to get strokes: <ul><li>RITUAL - A pre-set exchange of recognition strokes. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Hi!“ “How are you?“ &quot;Fine, thanks.&quot; “Well, see you around. Bye!&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>This is a four-stroke ritual. </li></ul><ul><li>PASTIME - A pre-set conversation around a certain subject. Pastimes are most evident at cocktail parties and family get-together. </li></ul><ul><li>GAMES - Repetitive, devious series of transactions intended to get strokes. Unfortunately, the strokes obtained in games are mostly negative.A game is a failed method of getting strokes. </li></ul><ul><li>INTIMACY - A direct and powerful exchange of strokes which people crave but seldom attain. The Child is frightened away from it by hurtful experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>WORK - An activity which has a product as its result. Good work results in the exchange of strokes as a side effect. </li></ul>
  20. 21. TRANSACTIONS <ul><li>Transactions occur when any person relates to any other person. </li></ul><ul><li>The three types of transactions: COMPLEMENTARY,CROSSED & COVERT. </li></ul><ul><li>Every transaction is made up of a stimulus and response. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Complementary Transaction <ul><li>between Adult and Adult </li></ul><ul><li>Parent to Child </li></ul><ul><li>Parent to Parent </li></ul><ul><li>Communication can continue between ego states as long as trans-actions are parallel. </li></ul><ul><li>Whenever a disruption of communication occurs, a crossed transaction caused it. </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>Parallel communication arrows, communication continues. </li></ul><ul><li>Example 1: </li></ul><ul><li>#1 What time do you have? </li></ul><ul><li>#2 I’ve got 11:15 </li></ul><ul><li>Example 2: </li></ul><ul><li>#1 You’re late again! </li></ul><ul><li>#2 I’m sorry. It won’t happen again. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Cross Transaction <ul><li>The transactional response is addressed to an ego state different from the one which started the stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>They disrupt communication. </li></ul><ul><li>DISCOUNT - One very important kind of crossed transaction </li></ul><ul><li>Here one person completely disregards what the other one is saying. </li></ul><ul><li>Discounts are not always obvious but are always unpleasant </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>Crossed communication arrows, communication breakdown. </li></ul><ul><li>Example 1: </li></ul><ul><li>#1 What time do you have? </li></ul><ul><li>#2 There’s a clock on the wall, why don’t you figure it out yourself? </li></ul><ul><li>Example 2: </li></ul><ul><li>#1 You’re late again! </li></ul><ul><li>#2 Yeah, I know, I had a flat tire. </li></ul>
  26. 27. ULTERIOR/Covert Transactions <ul><li>A covert transaction is when people say one thing and mean another. </li></ul><ul><li>Are the basis of games and are especially interesting because they are crooked. </li></ul><ul><li>They have a social (overt) and a psychological (covert) level. </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>Interactions, responses, actions which are different from those explicitly stated </li></ul><ul><li>Example #1: How about coming up to my room and listening to some music? </li></ul><ul><li>Example #2: </li></ul>
  28. 29.   Implications of TA <ul><li>Develop an adaptive selling strategy for ‘parent’, ‘adult’, ‘child’ customers. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Best’ communication exchange for selling? Remember to respond in ‘complementary’ manner. </li></ul><ul><li>Most effective selling involves adult to adult Strokes, or positive interactions, important Verbal (e.g. hello, compliment) Touch (handshake, pat on back). </li></ul><ul><li>A gift Listening </li></ul>
  29. 30. Being ‘Response Able’ <ul><li>Recognize you cannot control another’s behavior, but you can affect their behavior by the way you respond to them. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember you control your own behavior and thoughts. Keep things in perspective. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t sweat small stuff. Give it test of time. Ask if it’s happened before. </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish what can be changed from what can’t. </li></ul><ul><li>Have realistic expectations Life is not fair or perfect Bad (good) things happen, usually don’t last forever. </li></ul><ul><li>Things don’t always go according to plan. </li></ul><ul><li>People don’t always act as you’d like (remember ego state explanations, people have ‘bad’ days, etc.) </li></ul>
  30. 31. Dealing with Difficult People <ul><li>Keep ‘adult’ ego state in control of yourself. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t get defensive, argumentative, emotional. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t take it personally. </li></ul><ul><li>Move cautiously, stay cool, remember complementary transactions and strokes. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not need to take continued abuse. If handled well (e.g. didn’t embarrass customer, allowed them to take something out on you), can turn out to be positive later. </li></ul>