Social identity theory: “ A conceptualization recognizing that the way we perceive others and ourselves is biased on both our unique characteristics and our membership in various groups”.
Social Identity Theory is a social psychological analysis of the role of self conception in group membership, group processes, and intergroup relations.
Social identity theory defines group cognitively – in terms of people’s self conception as group members. A group exists psychologically if three or more people construe and evaluate themselves in terms of shared attributes that distinguish them collectively from other people.
Social identity theory addresses phenomena such as prejudice, discrimination, ethnocentrism, stereotyping, intergroup conflict, conformity, normative behavior, group polarization, crowd behavior, organizational behavior, leadership, deviance and group cohesiveness.
What is Pygmalion Effect The Pygmalion effect , or Rosenthal effect , refers to the phenomenon in which the greater the expectation placed upon people, often children or students and employees, the better they perform. The effect is named after Pygmalion, a Cypriot sculptor in a narrative by Ovid in Greek mythology, who fell in love with a female statue he had carved out of ivory. The Pygmalion effect is a form of self-fulfilling prophecy, and, in this respect, people with poor expectations internalize their negative label, and those with positive labels succeed accordingly. Within sociology, the effect is often cited with regards to education and social class.
Expectations must pass the test of reality. Expectations should be realistic as unrealistic expectations can easily de-motivate the subordinates
No motivation or response is aroused when the goal is perceived to be virtually certain or virtually impossible.
Failure in meeting the unrealistically high expectations leads to high rate of attrition either voluntarily or involuntarily.
So it is drastically important of managers to examine a goal before it is set in front of the subordinates.
Your expectations Low High Pygmalion motivation grid Self motivated performer High performers, as expected Low performers, as expected Under performers
Quadrant 1 “ High performers, as expected” These people meet your expectations and continuously improve their performance. This can be a “virtuous circle”, where high performance is motivated by your high expectations.
Here, you have low expectations of people, and they tend to perform and improve less than others. This can be a “vicious circle”, and there’s a risk that these people are demotivated by your lower expectations of them.
The Golem effect is the negative impact on subordinates' performance that results from low leader expectations toward them.
The Golem effect is the negative or dark version of Pygmalion: behavior reflecting low or negative supervisory expectations generates negative results in subordinates’ performance
The Pygmalion effect is a well-documented phenomenon, which describes how high expectations on the part of an authority figure to lead to high performance on the part of a subject. The Golem effect designates the opposite effect whereby low expectations encourage low performance.