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Unit iii   attitude personality stress
 

Unit iii attitude personality stress

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attitude personality stress

attitude personality stress

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    Unit iii   attitude personality stress Unit iii attitude personality stress Presentation Transcript

    • Unit III – Attitude and Values
    • Topics Covered
      • Definition of Attitude
      • Components of Attitude
      • Sources of Attitude
      • Terminal and Instrumental Values
      • Personality – Nature and Traits
      • Factors in shaping Personality
      • Psycho-Analytical Theory of Personality
      • Chris Argyris’s maturity-immaturity Theory
      • Type A & B Personality
      • Stress and its management
    • Attitude
      • Attitude is a learned predisposition….
      • Which shows a person’s tendency to respond to an..
      • Object in a ….
      • Consistently..
      • Favourable or unfavourable manner….
      • Within a given situation.
    • Components of Attitude
      • COGNITIVE COMPONENT – the opinion or belief segment of an attitude, it sets the stage for the more critical part of an attitude.
      • AFFECTIVE COMPONENT – emotional or feeling segment, and is reflected in statements.
      • BEHAVIORAL COMPONENT – an intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something.
    • Sources of Attitude
      • People acquire their attitudes from parents, teachers co-workers, friends etc. In general, people they admire the most, fear, have respect for etc.
      • The attitudes of people are not as rigid as values hence can be easily influenced or altered.
      • By providing new information, resolving differences, by coercion or threat.
      • If employees develop a hostile attitude towards change, mgmt can make them understand the benefits of that change to gain their co-operation.
      • Attitudes of employees can also be changed by providing feedback to them.
    • From OB point of view:
      • JOB SATISFACTION: productivity, turnover, absenteeism, low stress levels, fewer on-the-job accidents, fewer grievances, enthusiastic about learning, high morale, helpful to customers and team-mates.
      • JOB INVOLVEMENT: extent to which psychological relation to job, shows interest, job contributes to self-worth; affects absenteeism.
      • ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT: level of satisfaction employee has in org & its goals.
    • VALUES
      • Values can be defined as those things that are important to or valued by someone. That someone can be an individual or, collectively, an organization. One place where values are important is in relation to vision. One of the imperatives for organizational vision is that it must be based on and consistent with the organization's core values.
    • Terminal and Instrumental Values Milton Rokeach created the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS) which consists of two sets of values, with each set containing 18 individual value items. One set, called TERMINAL VALUES, refers to desirable end-states of existence. These are the goals that a person would like to achieve during his/her lifetime; like an exciting life, a world at peace, salvation, self respect, true friendship. The other set, called INSTRUMENTAL VALUES, refers to preferable modes of behavior, or means of achieving the terminal value; like broad/open minded, cheerful, loving/affectionate, obedient, responsible. People in the same occupations or categories tend to hold similar values.
    • PERSONALITY
      • Personality is the psychological characteristic of human beings that influences the way people behave when they interact with others & react to a particular situation.
      • Psychological characteristics are determined partly by heredity and partly by the environment of an individual.
    • Personality – Nature and Traits
      • 5 important personality traits:
      • EXTROVERSION: Good as PR
      • AGREEABLENESS: Good for team relations
      • CONSCIENTIOUSNESS: Strive towards goal achievement
      • EMOTIONAL STABILITY: Can endure stress & perform their jobs even under pressure.
      • OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE: open to learning and contribute constructively to the organization.
    • Personality Determinants
      • HEREDITY: some personality traits like shyness are inherited just like hair color. Twins brought up separately will also exhibit certain similar traits.
      • ENVIRONMENT: Culture, norms and social groups influence the personality of individuals.
      • SITUATION: individuals react differently to different situations. Observing such variations reveals aspects of personality. However, personality cannot be judged based upon their behavior wrt a particular situation.
    • Psycho-analytical theory
      • Psychoanalytic theory  refers to the definition and dynamics of personality development . The psychoanalytic theory of personality is a dynamic relationship among three components of the mind which balance bodily energies to achieve a healthy existence of the physical unit.
      • If there are conflicting interactions among the mechanisms, neurotic and psychotic disturbances are created.
      • The conflict is best described as a struggle between the “ethical self” and the “primitive self”, respectively the ego and the id.
      • The third component is the superego which functions as the moral agent.
      • Id:   According to Freud, the id is the “obscure inaccessible part of our personality”. It is considered the oldest mental component and has not progressed in development. The id is best described as chaotic and impulsive and based on the pleasure principle. The pleasure principle pursues pleasure and avoids pain. Morals, beliefs, goodness, and even evil are non-existent to the knowledge of the primitive id. In sum, the id is sexual energy (sacral chakra) fueled to seek sexual pleasure but most of the time attempts are “sublimated” and “repressed”
      • Ego:  In an attempt to deal with anxiety brought by the id’s repression of impulses, the ego developed from the id. The balancing of “bodily needs on one hand and motor activity on the other” require mediation by an organization called the ego. The ego has to balance demands of the id with what is best and most viable in reality. The ego functions in relation to the reality principle to pursue a healthy state by means of postponing the need to satisfy impulses. Demands made by the superego also cause anxiety and conflict.
      • Superego:  The superego is simply our conscious. It is driven by authorities, parents, and other moral officials in society. Its main purpose is to ensure the “limitations of satisfactions” of the id by placing judgment on the ego’s decisions. In relation to the ego, the superego is “like a strict father with a child” and punishment is served by submission to the superego. Representing traditional and innate influences of the past and hereditary are the only common factors among the superego and id. On the other hand, the ego is developed by personal experiences.
    • Chris Argyris’s maturity-immaturity theory
      • Acc to Argyris development of individuals takes place in the same way as humans develop from infants to adults. He proposed 7 dimensions of personality with the help of a continuum extending from immaturity to maturity. He also said it was not necessary that all individuals exhibit the 7 dimensions on reaching maturity.
      • According to him, the underlying reason behind conflict was the clash existing between the needs of a mature personality and the nature of formal organizations.
    • THE ARGYRIS IMMATURITY-MATURITY CONTINUUM
      • Immaturity ---------------------------------------  Maturity
      • Passive ………………………………. Active
      • Dependance _____________________ Indepandance
      • Behave in few ways Capable of behaving in many ways
      • Erratic shallow interests ------------- Deeper stronger interests
      • Short time perspective …………. Long time(past & future)
      • Subordinate position _________ Equal or superordinate position
      • Lack of awareness of self ……. Awareness & control over self
      5-
    • Type A & B personality
        • Type A – give extreme importance to time & to completing work on time; are highly ambitious, attempt to achieve a lot of tasks within a short time period, are usually quick at everything they do. They find it difficult to cope with leisure time. Salespersons, Business development executives.
        • Type B – not obsessed with achieving a number of tasks in a short time period; maintain a low profile, do not discuss their achievements unless situation demands. Can do more justice to routine jobs. Bankers.
    • PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTES INFLUENCING OB
      • LOCUS OF CONTROL: Externals have more dissatisfaction, Internals tend to take action and are more successful and satisfied.
      • MACHIAVELLIANISM: degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance & believes ends can justify means.
      • SELF ESTEEM: High SE’s believe they possess the ability they need to succeed at work & are more likely to choose unconventional jobs.
      • SELF MONITORING : individuals high on this show more adjustability in adapting their behavior to external situational factors.
      • RISK TAKING: High risk-takers tend to make decisions rapidly & using less information.
    • STRESS
      • Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraint or demand related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important.
      • Stress is not always necessarily negative, some individuals perform near or at maximum potential under pressure conditions.
      • 2 conditions are necessary for potential stress to become actual stress: uncertainty over the outcome and the outcome must be important.
    • SOURCES OF STRESS
      • ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: economic uncertainties, political uncertainties, technological uncertainties, terrorism
      • ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS: task, role and interpersonal demands; organizational structure, leadership, and the organizations life-stage
      • INDIVIDUAL FACTORS: family issues, personal economic problems, and inherent personality characters. Regardless of income level.
    • Stress contd..
      • Stressors are additive: stress builds up. Each new and persistent stressor adds on to an individuals stress level so a single stressor may be relatively unimportant by itself but id its added to an already high level of stress it can be the proverbial straw that breaks the camels back.
      • Individual Differences: some people thrive on stressful situations, others are overwhelmed by them.
      • Six variables: Perception, Job experience, Social support, Belief in locus of control, Self efficacy and Hostility have been found to be relevant moderators.
    • CONSEQENCES OF STRESS
      • PHYSIOLOGICAL: could create changes in metabolism, heart & breathing rates, blood pressure, headaches and induce heart attacks.
      • PSYCHOLOGICAL: tension, anxiety, irritability, boredom and procrastination. Jobs that provide low levels of variety, autonomy, feedback and identity create stress.
      • BEHAVIORAL: changes in productivity, absence & turnover, changes in eating habits, increased smoking, rapid speech, fidgeting and sleep disorders.
      • INDIVIDUAL APPROACHES: implementing time-management techniques, increasing physical exercise, relaxation, expanding social support network
      • ORGANIZATIONAL APPROACHES: improved personnel selection and job placement, training, use of realistic goal setting, redesigning of jobs, increased employee involvement, improved organizational communication, offering employee sabbaticals and establishment of corporate wellness programs.
      MANAGING STRESS