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  1. 1. MEDIA AND SOCIETY What is the relationship between media and society?
  2. 2. MEDIA AND SOCIETY Radio Film Web AND Society Media Age Status Gender Ethnic Group TV Paper Strata Changing Changing Location Music Books Relationship Relationship Positive Positive Education Telephone Negative Negative Effects Effects
  3. 3. Changing Mass Media <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Faster </li></ul><ul><li>Cheaper </li></ul><ul><li>Easier (user friendly) </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller (miniaturization) </li></ul><ul><li>Better (quality) </li></ul><ul><li>More powerful </li></ul><ul><li>Similar </li></ul>
  4. 4. Changing Mass Media <ul><li>Television </li></ul><ul><li>Less Logical </li></ul><ul><li>Image dominant </li></ul><ul><li>Less verbal </li></ul><ul><li>Faster cutting and pace </li></ul><ul><li>Surrealistic </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent on special effects </li></ul><ul><li>Structured montage </li></ul>
  5. 5. Changing Mass Media <ul><li>Newspapers </li></ul><ul><li>Meaner and leaner </li></ul><ul><li>Profit driven </li></ul><ul><li>On line </li></ul><ul><li>Paperless? </li></ul><ul><li>Electronically composed/edited More graphic </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainment oriented </li></ul>
  6. 6. MEDIA EFFECTS <ul><li>How much do the media affect our lives? </li></ul><ul><li>Strongly (over estimation) </li></ul><ul><li>Gradually (subconsciously) </li></ul><ul><li>Indirectly (over time) </li></ul><ul><li>Selectively, (over time) </li></ul><ul><li>It depends on what the source is……. </li></ul><ul><li>It depends on the audience’s background…. </li></ul><ul><li>It depends on the consumers beliefs & values </li></ul><ul><li>Not at all? (under estimation) </li></ul>
  7. 7. MEDIA AND SOCIETY Radio Film Web AND Society Media Age Status Gender Ethnic Group TV Paper Strata Changing Changing Location Music Books Relationship Relationship Positive Positive Education Telephone Negative Negative Effects Effects
  8. 8. Changes in Society <ul><li>Population growth? </li></ul><ul><li>Influx of population? </li></ul><ul><li>Changing markets? </li></ul><ul><li>Minority and majority? </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration? </li></ul><ul><li>Language? </li></ul><ul><li>Aging? </li></ul><ul><li>Glass ceiling broken? </li></ul><ul><li>Income </li></ul><ul><li>Gay movement </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorism? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Mass Media Defined by Paul Traudt <ul><li>Mass Media is “the range of print, electronic, filmic [and digital?] opportunities supported by multiple platforms for presentation and consumption [of information and entertainment] by a mass audience[?]” </li></ul>
  10. 10. Types of research <ul><li>Two approaches </li></ul><ul><li>A. Deductive thinking : applies a theoretical construct to a situation with an eye to identifying variables and predicting outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>B. Inductive thinking : assess situations, conditions, phenomena and data with an eye to establishing theory, models or rules </li></ul><ul><li>Two approaches </li></ul><ul><li>A. Quantitative : Use of statistics to explain or demonstrate predicted or assumed outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>B. Qualitative : After systematic observation, describing, or analyzing how people behave or act in situations or environments </li></ul>
  11. 11. What is a theory? <ul><li>An attempt to explain reality </li></ul><ul><li>Never a totally perfect or satisfying explanation </li></ul><ul><li>Always room for improvement or adaptation </li></ul><ul><li>An attempt to explain a relationship </li></ul><ul><li>An assumption about how people behave </li></ul><ul><li>An attempt to explain the relationship between media and society </li></ul><ul><li>A mental construct, model, illustration </li></ul><ul><li>A form of deductive thinking </li></ul>
  12. 12. BULLET THEORY <ul><li>Direct influence (S-R) </li></ul><ul><li>Pavlov and dog experiments </li></ul>Stimulus Response PROPAGANDA AND BRAIN WASHING? Association
  14. 14. LASWELL’S THEORY <ul><ul><li>WHO (source) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SAYS (message) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WHAT (content) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IN WHAT CHANNEL (medium) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TO WHOM (receiver) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WITH WHAT EFFECT? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WHEN? WHY? WHY? HOW? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HOW OFTEN? (repetition) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. TWO-STEP-FLOW -Lazarsfeld Opinion Leaders Decisions Persons Media 1 Step 2 Step Consumption Voting Acting Buying Pay attention to Seek out
  16. 16. CLASSICAL THEORY Shannon & Weaver <ul><ul><li>Often considered a one way process </li></ul></ul>Sender Encoding Medium Decoding Receiver Feed forward transmitter channel N N N N N receiver N=Noise Who Says what To whom With what effect meaning how
  17. 17. Shannon and Weaver cont. <ul><li>Feedback essential to understanding </li></ul>Receiver Decoding Medium Encoding Sender Feedback mode channel Meaning Meaning N N N N N N N = Noise
  18. 18. EXCHANGE THEORY - Homans <ul><li>Linkage becomes networking over time </li></ul>Exchange based on benefit or perceived advantage Equity = equitable exchange Network Network
  19. 19. USES AND GRATIFICATION Palmgreen <ul><li>Beliefs and values lead to consumption of particular media which reinforce beliefs and values over time </li></ul>Beliefs and Values Consumption media Media Media Media Reinforcement over time Particular programs Gratification
  20. 20. GENRE THEORY <ul><li>We are able to recognize and classify forms and structures, and as a result develop conventions and expectations </li></ul>Crime Comedy Documentary Westerns Mystery Science Fiction War Love
  21. 21. FRAMING AND SELECTIVE PERCEPTION THEORY –Atheide & Gitlin <ul><li>The frame includes or excludes what you are looking at thus concentrating your attention on a part of the whole </li></ul>Frame Frame Frame Frame
  22. 22. ADOPTION & DIFFUSION OF INNOVATIONS - Rogers Innovators Early majority Late Majority Laggards Adoption of innovation over time (sometimes several years) Percentage of population Saturation
  23. 23. COVERGENCE THEORY Rogers and Kincaid Medium Medium B Medium Medium C A D Movement over time enables communication and sharing Mutual understanding and cooperation Sharing and cooperation possible though digitization
  24. 24. ECONOMIC DETERMINISM – Shiller & Bagdikian <ul><li>Profit is the motivation throughout the system </li></ul>Factory Warehouse Wholesale r Retailer Consumer Media Mass production 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Ad Agency
  25. 25. SPIRAL OF SILENCE- Neumann Time Underground Oppression and censorship News media Criticism of Government Resistanc e Silence ly Free press Spiral of silence
  26. 26. REALITY <ul><li>What we judge to be real or believable depends to a large extent on our experience of life. How things are depicted contributes to our sense of reality, but it needs to be checked out. </li></ul><ul><li>Our imagination can carry us to all sorts of environments and situations, but there needs to be a degree of familiarity for us to relate to. </li></ul><ul><li>In a commercial this must be done in 30- 60 seconds ! </li></ul>
  27. 27. REALITY <ul><li>What slice of life is shown? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it portray life as it really is? </li></ul><ul><li>Do actors play roles in a believable manner? </li></ul><ul><li>How well is character developed? </li></ul><ul><li>How is the environment portrayed? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the time period reflected accurately? </li></ul><ul><li>Are complex problems oversimplified? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it reflect society as it is? Ideally? </li></ul>
  28. 28. Reality, Continued <ul><li>Are actions and their consequences clearly related? </li></ul><ul><li>Is action natural, humane, in the given circumstances or predicament? </li></ul><ul><li>Are the goals or ideals portrayed attainable by </li></ul><ul><li>ordinary people? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you identify with the above actions, behavior, goals? </li></ul><ul><li>Are you left with the impression that the situation is so unrealistic that it is irrelevant? </li></ul>
  29. 29. ADVERTSING PROBLEMS <ul><li>Inescapable because of ubiquity (everywhere) </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on media for existence </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages consumerism </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages materialism </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivates expectations of instant gratification </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivates expectations of instant solution </li></ul><ul><li>Creates feelings of dissatisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes superficial </li></ul><ul><li>Often contains deceptive half-truths </li></ul><ul><li>Promises more than it can deliver </li></ul><ul><li>Creates feelings of frustration </li></ul><ul><li>Creates feelings of inferiority </li></ul><ul><li>Creates feelings of guilt </li></ul>
  30. 30. Advertising Problems <ul><li>Cultivates dream world </li></ul><ul><li>Shaping values </li></ul><ul><li>Shaping images </li></ul><ul><li>Shaping fashion </li></ul><ul><li>Quick solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Easy solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Dissatisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Guilt (persuasive strategy?) </li></ul><ul><li>Obsolescence (wears out or gets old) </li></ul><ul><li>Programs = vehicles of advertising </li></ul><ul><li>News = vehicle of advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Increases cost of products </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes permissive-ness and greed </li></ul><ul><li>Consumerism (wants, not needs?) </li></ul><ul><li>Constant interruption </li></ul><ul><li>Clutter </li></ul>
  31. 31. Children and Advertising <ul><li>Children watch more hours of TV than they spend in school Children cannot distinguish between fact and fiction before age of 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Children cannot distinguish between programs and commercials before age 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Advertisers get to parents through children </li></ul><ul><li>Animated toys perform impossible stunts </li></ul><ul><li>High percentage of TV ads promote inappropriate food products </li></ul><ul><li>Commercials convey perceptions of roles and values </li></ul>
  32. 32. GATE KEEPING <ul><li>Information is closely associated with paternalism and power sharing </li></ul><ul><li>The Gate Keeper is very powerful, can be Government, Pentagon, President, Newspaper Editor </li></ul><ul><li>Gate Keeping is control over the flow of information </li></ul><ul><li>Refusal to supply information may be more powerful than supply of information </li></ul><ul><li>Release of information is timed to give political advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Censorship can be a form of Gate Keeping </li></ul>
  33. 33. AGENDA SETTING <ul><li>Laying out what is important to be discussed or thought about </li></ul><ul><li>Providing relevant points of view in a </li></ul><ul><li>careful and balanced way </li></ul><ul><li>Helping people to prioritize the alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging people to consider alternatives and make up their minds </li></ul><ul><li>Opposite of Gate Keeping, considering not one but many options </li></ul>
  34. 34. PUBLIC RELATIONS Staff Administration Management Internal publics Community Environmentalists Government Investors External Publics External Publics External Publics External Publics
  35. 35. Censorship & Governments <ul><li>Variety of Governmental styles </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritarian* (Russia?) </li></ul><ul><li>Paternalistic* (India?) </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic# (USA?) </li></ul><ul><li>Dualistic (UK?) </li></ul><ul><li>Permissive# (France?) </li></ul><ul><li>* More inclined to exercise censorship </li></ul><ul><li># Less inclined to exercise censorship </li></ul>Censorship No censorship
  36. 36. Violence and “Reality” <ul><li>Gradual trend or development toward explicitness </li></ul><ul><li>From clean killing to dirty killing </li></ul><ul><li>From falling down dead to bullet penetration and splatter </li></ul><ul><li>From adult games to revolting acts of murder </li></ul><ul><li>From sexual acts to rape and sodomy </li></ul><ul><li>From fun and laughter to horror and sadism </li></ul><ul><li>From occasional acts of violence to killing orgies </li></ul><ul><li>Why is this necessary? Desensitization? </li></ul><ul><li>Threat to imagination and mental activity </li></ul>
  37. 37. Human Sexuality and “Reality” <ul><li>Gradual trend or development toward explicitness </li></ul><ul><li>More close-up/detailed shots, cut-always and cut-ins Portrayal of human sexuality more graphic </li></ul><ul><li>From marriage to permissive adultery </li></ul><ul><li>From contraception to abortion </li></ul><ul><li>From sacred love to sexual gratification </li></ul><ul><li>From subtle suggestion to detailed depiction </li></ul><ul><li>From tasteful portrayal to pornography </li></ul><ul><li>From hugging/kissing to penetration of sexual organs </li></ul><ul><li>From tenderness to violent abuse (sadism) </li></ul><ul><li>Why is this necessary? Desensitization? </li></ul>
  38. 38. VIOLENCE <ul><li>Violence may be defined as….. </li></ul><ul><li>- Physical or moral force…. </li></ul><ul><li>Unjust strength or power applied to any purpose….. </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction of human life and personal belongings…… </li></ul><ul><li>Bodily harm caused by the use of a weapon </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual intercourse without permission…. </li></ul><ul><li>Invasion of a sovereign nation or land….. </li></ul>
  39. 39. VIOLENCE IN MEDIA <ul><li>Violence in media may be used to….. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a social relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Teach a lesson </li></ul><ul><li>Entertain gratuitously </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a solution or resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Provide shock value </li></ul><ul><li>Elicit humorous reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Create synergistic effect (sex & violence) </li></ul><ul><li>Overcome insensitivity or acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Attract certain audiences (marketing tool) </li></ul>
  40. 40. RESULTS OF VIOLENCE <ul><li>Insensitivity to real violence </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressive behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of people and world </li></ul><ul><li>Fear or acceptance of law enforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance of violent solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Equating of weapons with power </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance of revenge as justifiable </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance of rape as justifiable </li></ul><ul><li>Abuse of women and children </li></ul><ul><li>Catharsis? </li></ul>
  41. 41. TREATMENT OF ENEMY <ul><li>Propaganda tends to ….. </li></ul><ul><li>Demonize (make evil or demonic) </li></ul><ul><li>Dehumanize (describe as animals) </li></ul><ul><li>Polarize (black and white issues) </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolize (colors, animals and objects) </li></ul><ul><li>Generalize (“Germans perfectionists”) </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotype (“slanti-eyed” gentlemen”) </li></ul><ul><li>Caricature (poke fun at) </li></ul><ul><li>Demean (“Useless,” “greedy”) </li></ul>
  42. 42. Military Control of Media of Media <ul><li>Complete exclusion (front line) </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled access </li></ul><ul><li>Censorship of reports </li></ul><ul><li>Edited reports </li></ul><ul><li>Hidden body counts, coffins, stats. </li></ul><ul><li>Cover-ups </li></ul><ul><li>Faked pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Scapegoats </li></ul>
  43. 43. VIETNAM WAR (1954-1975) <ul><li>First real encounter with guerilla war </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty identifying enemy (civilian)? </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty seeing enemy in forests/jungle </li></ul><ul><li>Ambushes and booby-traps </li></ul><ul><li>Secret tunnels and bunkers </li></ul><ul><li>Communist weapon supply evident </li></ul><ul><li>Few clear victories, many casualties </li></ul><ul><li>Bad military morale and drug use </li></ul>
  44. 44. VIETNAM WAR environment <ul><li>Turbulent 60s (Hippie Culture and Civil Disobedience) </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnam was first television war (development of color film and color TV) </li></ul><ul><li>Carried into living rooms of people </li></ul><ul><li>Witnessed uncivilized acts against civilians </li></ul><ul><li>Revolted by what our soldiers were doing </li></ul><ul><li>Recognized war could not be won </li></ul><ul><li>Disillusioned with failure of modern weapons </li></ul><ul><li>War dragged on too long (high casualties) </li></ul><ul><li>Soldiers received hostile reaction when returned </li></ul><ul><li>Post traumatic stress syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Bad treatment in Vet Hospitals </li></ul>
  45. 45. ETHNOGRAPHIC CRITICISM <ul><li>What ethnic culture/race/gender is being portrayed? </li></ul><ul><li>Is this culture unique? </li></ul><ul><li>Is their treatment …. </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotypical? </li></ul><ul><li>Exploitative? </li></ul><ul><li>Demeaning? </li></ul><ul><li>Complimentary? </li></ul><ul><li>Affirming? </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you identify with it from your viewpoint? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it seem natural and authentic? </li></ul><ul><li>Who has the power? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there victims? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there justice or equity in treatment? </li></ul><ul><li>Perpetrators? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there conflict? How is it resolved? </li></ul>
  46. 46. REALITY ANALYSIS <ul><li>What is your experience relating to the person/situation subject/environment? </li></ul><ul><li>Are the roles played believably? </li></ul><ul><li>How well is the character developed? </li></ul><ul><li>Do persons behave responsibly? </li></ul><ul><li>Are problems over simplified? </li></ul><ul><li>Are moral dilemmas handled sincerely? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the view of the world distorted? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there balance in the issue or controversy presented? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the film/video reflect society as it is? </li></ul><ul><li>How can distortions be corrected? </li></ul>
  47. 47. Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner <ul><li>How convincing is the role playing in the film? </li></ul><ul><li>How are African Americans portrayed? </li></ul><ul><li>Is Dr. Prentice typical of an African American? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is the maid angry with Dr. Prentice? </li></ul><ul><li>How are liberal whites portrayed? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the situation over simplified? By whom? </li></ul><ul><li>Why are the parents so uptight with their daughter? </li></ul><ul><li>Why are the parents suspicious of Dr. Prentice? </li></ul><ul><li>What did they find out? Reaction? </li></ul>
  48. 48. Guess who’s coming to dinner <ul><li>What does this film teach us about ethnicity, education, religion and culture? What are the problems the couple will face? </li></ul><ul><li>Of the two young people who is the more realistic. Why? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the problems the couple will face? </li></ul><ul><li>How is society changing for the parents? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the difference between the fathers’ and mothers’ reactions to the marriage? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the difference between the couples friends’ reaction to the marriage? </li></ul>
  49. 49. INFRASTRUCTURE <ul><li>Nationally available </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively inexpensive for consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Provides transport system and more (profit?) </li></ul><ul><li>Compatibility with other systems </li></ul><ul><li>Maintained or policed regularly </li></ul><ul><li>Managed responsibly (traffic/capacity) </li></ul><ul><li>Protected form predators (privacy) </li></ul><ul><li>Fast or efficient as possible </li></ul>
  50. 50. INFRASTRUCTURES <ul><li>A communication system is only as good as the infrastructure that carries it </li></ul><ul><li>Usually the infrastructure is in place when the innovation is developed </li></ul><ul><li>The cost of establishing the infrastructure is dependent on governmental or corporate funding (distributed over time) </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure must be upgraded regularly </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure must be efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Competition among infrastructures occurs </li></ul>
  51. 51. Infrastructure <ul><li>Where non exists, it needs to be established </li></ul><ul><li>Where people are poor, government or private corporation must fund it </li></ul><ul><li>What technology will “leapfrog” absent infrastructures? </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite provide unique answer </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations exist where TVs are few </li></ul><ul><li>What needs are more important? </li></ul><ul><li>Water? Health? Electricity, Schools? </li></ul>
  52. 52. News at 11: Questions <ul><li>Does society have a right to know everything ? </li></ul><ul><li>Do people have a right to privacy? </li></ul><ul><li>Do people have a right to a fair trial? </li></ul><ul><li>Should the rights of a minor be protected? </li></ul><ul><li>Should the privacy of a victim be protected? </li></ul><ul><li>Are media free to publish any news stories? </li></ul><ul><li>Do journalists have a right to refuse cover certain stories? </li></ul><ul><li>How important are ratings to a TV station? </li></ul><ul><li>What is balanced coverage? </li></ul>
  53. 53. NEWS AT 11 <ul><li>Right to free press (all media?) </li></ul><ul><li>Right of public to know (what government is doing) </li></ul><ul><li>Right of minor children to be protected </li></ul><ul><li>Right of rape victim not to be identified </li></ul><ul><li>Right to privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Right to confidentiality (doctor, lawyer, priest) </li></ul><ul><li>Right to fair trial (innocent before judged guilty) </li></ul><ul><li>Right to fair or balanced treatment in media (revealing all sides of the issue, situation, case) </li></ul>
  54. 54. FREEDOM OF THE PRESS OR LIMITED FREEDOM? <ul><li>First Amendment Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of political & religious speech </li></ul><ul><li>Not free to defame or slander </li></ul><ul><li>Not free to libel anyone </li></ul><ul><li>Not free to show or promote obscenity </li></ul><ul><li>Not free to carry out unlawful acts (riots, sabotage) </li></ul><ul><li>Not free to make deceptive claims in advertisements </li></ul><ul><li>Not free to invade privacy of individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Not free to use “bad words” in broadcasting </li></ul><ul><li>Not free to reveal military secrets </li></ul>
  55. 55. ETHICS Two Kinds <ul><li>(1) SACRED (DIVINE OR RELIGIOUS) </li></ul><ul><li>(10 Commandments, Jewish, Christian, Muslim) </li></ul><ul><li>Moses “ You shall not kill….You shall not lie, etc.” </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus “Love God with all your faculties and your neighbor as yourself” “ Do not apply standards to others you would not accept for yourself” </li></ul><ul><li>(2) SECULAR (CONSTITUTIONAL AND SOCIETAL) </li></ul><ul><li>(Aristotle, Kant, Mills, Dewey) </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle’ s golden mean “ Virtue is between two extremes” </li></ul><ul><li>Kant categorical imperative “ Act in such a way that you wish was universal law” </li></ul><ul><li>Mills “ Seek the greatest happiness for the greatest number” </li></ul><ul><li>Dewey “Actions should be judged by results” </li></ul>
  56. 56. APPLICATION OF ETHICS <ul><li>Pragmatic ethics </li></ul><ul><li>The means justify the ends </li></ul><ul><li>Situational ethics </li></ul><ul><li>The situation determines what is ethical </li></ul><ul><li>Relative ethics or cultural relativism </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural values determine what is ethical </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics of expediency </li></ul><ul><li>What can we do to get the most out of it </li></ul><ul><li>Hedonistic ethics </li></ul><ul><li>What I want and what I feel is good </li></ul>
  57. 57. Journalists’ Code of Ethics Self-restraint is better than Censorship <ul><li>Seek truth and report it </li></ul><ul><li>Be honest, fair and courageous </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize Harm </li></ul><ul><li>Treat sources, subjects and colleagues as human beings and deserving of respect </li></ul><ul><li>Act independently </li></ul><ul><li>Be fee of any obligation to interest groups other than the public’s right to know </li></ul><ul><li>Be accountable </li></ul><ul><li>Be Accountable to readers, listeners, viewers and each other </li></ul><ul><li>(See chapter 14, page 438 , Media Now , Straubhaar & LaRose) </li></ul>
  58. 58. PUBLIC RELATION ETHICS (PRSA Membership Code) <ul><li>Advocacy </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible Advocates for clients </li></ul><ul><li>Honesty </li></ul><ul><li>Standards of accuracy and Truth </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized knowledge and experience </li></ul><ul><li>Independence </li></ul><ul><li>Objective counsel and accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Fairness </li></ul><ul><li>Faithful to employers, clients, competitors, peers </li></ul>
  59. 59. Internet Advertising Code of ethics <ul><li>Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Legal, decent, honest and truthful </li></ul><ul><li>Disclosure of identity </li></ul><ul><li>Contact with advertiser and marketer </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of access </li></ul><ul><li>If access is higher than telecommunications rate </li></ul><ul><li>Respect for public groups </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic news groups, forums or bulletin boards </li></ul><ul><li>Users rights </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy of data , opportunity of refusal, correction, blocking </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising to children </li></ul><ul><li>Respect for global audience sensitivity </li></ul>
  60. 60. THE WATERGATE AFFAIR Film - “ All the President’s Men” <ul><li>Why did the men break into Watergate? </li></ul><ul><li>Was this only the tip of the iceberg? </li></ul><ul><li>Who paid for the men’s defense? </li></ul><ul><li>Where did the money come from? </li></ul><ul><li>Who authorized the payments? </li></ul><ul><li>Of the Nixon Administration who was involved? </li></ul><ul><li>Why was the newspaper so hesitant to print the story? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the problem with “Deep Throat” </li></ul><ul><li>What ultimately did the newspaper accomplish? </li></ul><ul><li>Where does the power of the newspaper reside? </li></ul>
  61. 61. Television and Politics Questions <ul><li>Why is TV interested in political campaigns? </li></ul><ul><li>Who takes advantage of media coverage? </li></ul><ul><li>Which medium does best communicating presidential politics? Other politicians? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>How much does TV inform people’s voting decisions? </li></ul><ul><li>Does TV provide balanced or unbiased coverage? Equal time? </li></ul><ul><li>How well does TV cover presidential debates? Others? </li></ul><ul><li>Does TV emphasize image over substance? </li></ul><ul><li>Do negative TV ads. work? Why? Why not? </li></ul><ul><li>What influences the way people vote? </li></ul><ul><li>What does Lazarsfeld’s Two-Step-Flow Theory seems to suggest? </li></ul>
  62. 62. Television and Presidential Politics Television coverage tends to …… <ul><li>Emphasize opinion polls over campaign issues </li></ul><ul><li>Cover Democrats more than Republicans (according to meta-analysis) </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on conflict between candidates </li></ul><ul><li>(rather than stand on issues) </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize image over issues or stands on issues </li></ul><ul><li>Feature negative messages in presidential campaigns </li></ul><ul><li>Influence “talkative voters” more than any other medium </li></ul><ul><li>Positively influence the way people vote in elections </li></ul>
  63. 63. Problems with News <ul><li>Shift towards entertainment rather than information </li></ul><ul><li>More superficial or simplified </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on dramatic events </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on crime, particularly murder </li></ul><ul><li>Concerned with ratings and profit </li></ul><ul><li>Less respectful of human rights, particularly privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Less concern with jeopardizing legal process </li></ul><ul><li>Watchdog role is inclined to be negative </li></ul><ul><li>Journalists Influenced by “pack journalism” </li></ul><ul><li>News less controversial or confrontational </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of lawsuits prevents tackling controversial subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency to have patriotic bias </li></ul><ul><li>Convergence with other media undermining uniqueness </li></ul>
  64. 64. MEDIA MANIPULATION <ul><li>Suppression by omission </li></ul><ul><li>Attack and destroy (the target) </li></ul><ul><li>Labeling as discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Face-value transmission </li></ul><ul><li>False balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Framing </li></ul><ul><li>Image manipulation </li></ul><ul><li>Publish first recant afterwards </li></ul>
  65. 65. FINANCING MEDIA Alternatives <ul><li>Federal Government subsidy </li></ul><ul><li>State subsidy </li></ul><ul><li>Licensing </li></ul><ul><li>Foundations/sponsors </li></ul><ul><li>Subscriptions </li></ul><ul><li>Pay per view </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising space and time </li></ul><ul><li>Problem of dependency </li></ul>
  66. 66. Profit vs. Information/Entertainment <ul><li>Freedom of expression </li></ul><ul><li>Market place if ideas/products </li></ul><ul><li>Competition among peers is good </li></ul><ul><li>Something important to say </li></ul><ul><li>Convergence and Conglomerates </li></ul><ul><li>Primary pressure to make a profit </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration of ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Monopolies of power </li></ul><ul><li>Dismantling of Democracy??!! </li></ul>
  67. 67. How to remedy the situation <ul><li>Encourage public rather than private ownership of media </li></ul><ul><li>Accept smaller profit margins </li></ul><ul><li>Exploit improvements in technology </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivate trust with reliable/good content </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate “good will” </li></ul><ul><li>Balance service with profitability </li></ul>
  68. 68. Profit vs. Quality <ul><li>Profit only? </li></ul><ul><li>Newspapers are profitable businesses </li></ul><ul><li>Quality only? </li></ul><ul><li>Public service is the primary objective </li></ul><ul><li>Both quality and profit? </li></ul><ul><li>Make a profit as well as serve the people </li></ul><ul><li>How does this apply to other media? </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcast Television the exception? Why? </li></ul>
  69. 69. MANIPULATION OF MEDIA? Public Relations <ul><li>Creation of good images and relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Repairing damaged images and relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Publics are within and without organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Use of all media to communicate messages </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulation occurs if…… </li></ul><ul><li>Media do not have enough personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Media do not have enough knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Media are lazy </li></ul><ul><li>News Media are used to advertise for them </li></ul>
  70. 70. PROBLEMS WITH PR <ul><li>Clients usually in trouble </li></ul><ul><li>Image transformation (deception?) </li></ul><ul><li>Positive spin (ignoring the negative) </li></ul><ul><li>Undermine credibility of opposition </li></ul><ul><li>Use wealth to manipulate media (bias) </li></ul><ul><li>Use prominent people to voice position </li></ul><ul><li>Superficial currying of favor with workers </li></ul>
  71. 71. PUBLICS <ul><li>Shareholders </li></ul><ul><li>Customers </li></ul><ul><li>Employees </li></ul><ul><li>Suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Legislators </li></ul><ul><li>Community Activists </li></ul><ul><li>Print/Broadcasting Media </li></ul><ul><li>Donors </li></ul><ul><li>Clients </li></ul><ul><li>Volunteers </li></ul><ul><li>Members </li></ul><ul><li>Taxpayers </li></ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><li>Agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Voters </li></ul>
  72. 72. PROMOTION OF HARMFUL PRODUCTS? <ul><li>Cigarette commercials </li></ul><ul><li>Hard liquor commercials </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmaceutical commercials </li></ul><ul><li>Dietary commercials </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental commercials </li></ul><ul><li>Children’s toy/game commercials </li></ul><ul><li>Attention Deficit Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Superficial value systems </li></ul><ul><li>False priorities, values, goals </li></ul>
  73. 73. Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs <ul><li>Self Actualization </li></ul><ul><li>Esteem Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship, acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Safety Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Self fulfillment </li></ul><ul><li>Self esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Love, affection </li></ul><ul><li>friends, approval </li></ul><ul><li>Security, stability </li></ul><ul><li>Food, drink, sleep </li></ul><ul><li>sex </li></ul>Most Important Least Important
  74. 74. CREATION OF NEEDS <ul><li>Fat </li></ul><ul><li>Smelly </li></ul><ul><li>Dirty </li></ul><ul><li>Slow </li></ul><ul><li>Unattractive </li></ul><ul><li>Vulnerable </li></ul><ul><li>Unprotected </li></ul><ul><li>Isolated </li></ul><ul><li>Diet pills </li></ul><ul><li>Deodorant </li></ul><ul><li>Soap, toothpaste </li></ul><ul><li>Computer, fax </li></ul><ul><li>Beauty products </li></ul><ul><li>Insurance </li></ul><ul><li>Burglar alarms </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone </li></ul>
  75. 75. PSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACH TO ADVERTISING <ul><li>CONSCIOUS </li></ul><ul><li>Appeal to rational self </li></ul><ul><li>Normal senses </li></ul><ul><li>SUBCONSCIOUS </li></ul><ul><li>Appeal to secret desires </li></ul><ul><li>Repressed </li></ul><ul><li>UNCONSCIOUS </li></ul><ul><li>No appeal possible </li></ul><ul><li>Rational awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to make decisions </li></ul><ul><li>If, necessary resist suggestion </li></ul><ul><li>Repressed desires </li></ul><ul><li>Hypnotic state </li></ul><ul><li>dream world, open to </li></ul><ul><li>suggestion </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep, unresponsive </li></ul><ul><li>total unawareness, no recall </li></ul>
  76. 76. RHETORICAL ANALYSIS <ul><li>Rhetorical criticism includes three approaches to persuasion: </li></ul><ul><li>A rational or logical argument </li></ul><ul><li>An emotional appeal </li></ul><ul><li>The credibility of the persuader </li></ul>Aristotle’s tri-fold approach to persuasion
  77. 77. PERSUASION SEQUENCE STRUCTURE <ul><li>Grab attention </li></ul><ul><li>Identify need </li></ul><ul><li>Provide solution </li></ul><ul><li>Imagine satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Provide contact </li></ul><ul><li>Listen, sound, movement, dramatic event, novelty </li></ul><ul><li>Show lack of something, tap dissatisfaction, frustration </li></ul><ul><li>Show how product works </li></ul><ul><li>solves problems </li></ul><ul><li>Show joy, satisfaction fulfillment, accomplishment </li></ul><ul><li>Provide contact, easy access, number, address, etc. </li></ul>
  78. 78. ETHNOGRAPHIC CRITICISM <ul><li>What ethnic culture/race/gender is being portrayed? </li></ul><ul><li>Is this culture unique? </li></ul><ul><li>Is their treatment …. </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotypical? </li></ul><ul><li>Exploitative? </li></ul><ul><li>Demeaning? </li></ul><ul><li>Complimentary? </li></ul><ul><li>Affirming? </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate ? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you identify with it from your viewpoint? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it seem natural and authentic? </li></ul><ul><li>Who has the power? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there victims? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there justice or equity in treatment? </li></ul><ul><li>Perpetrators? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there conflict? How is it resolved? </li></ul>
  79. 79. REALITY ANALYSIS <ul><li>What is your experience relating to the person/situation subject/environment? </li></ul><ul><li>Are the roles played believably? </li></ul><ul><li>How well is the character developed? </li></ul><ul><li>Do persons behave responsibly? </li></ul><ul><li>Are problems over simplified? </li></ul><ul><li>Are moral dilemmas handled sincerely? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the view of the world distorted? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there balance in the issue or controversy presented? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the film/video reflect society as it is? </li></ul><ul><li>How can distortions be corrected? </li></ul>
  80. 80. Minorities and Media <ul><li>Minorities (women?) </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Speak English? </li></ul><ul><li>Speak ethnic languages </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted American culture? </li></ul><ul><li>Retain ethic culture and roots </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrated in specific areas </li></ul><ul><li>Diffused among people </li></ul><ul><li>Anglos </li></ul><ul><li>Hispanic 39 m </li></ul><ul><li>African Americans 37 m </li></ul><ul><li>Native Americans 3 m </li></ul><ul><li>Asian 10 m </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul>
  81. 81. DIVERSITY ISSUES <ul><li>Broadcasting </li></ul><ul><li>Narrowcasting </li></ul><ul><li>Designated Channels </li></ul><ul><li>Segmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Targeting </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity in News </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity in Entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Integration? </li></ul><ul><li>Equal Opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership of media </li></ul><ul><li>English media </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic media </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Different localities </li></ul><ul><li>Choice of media </li></ul><ul><li>Fairness/Balancing? </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotyping? </li></ul><ul><li>Melting Pot? </li></ul><ul><li>Salad Bowl? </li></ul>
  82. 82. Stereotyping <ul><li>Generalizations about ethnic group, race class or gender </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose: literary device or convention to identify people quickly and easily without much thought </li></ul><ul><li>Does injustice to all of the above classes of people: often interpreted as insulting or demeaning </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of motivation critical to interpretation: careless or insulting or simple misrepresentation? </li></ul><ul><li>Need for accurate and detailed description: character development to correct </li></ul><ul><li>Question: are the portrayals of persons realistic? Believable? Authentic? </li></ul><ul><li>Danger is superficial belief or acceptance: development of negative attitudes and behaviors </li></ul>
  83. 83. PROBLEMS FOR ETHNIC GROUPS (Hispanics) <ul><li>Crime and conflict coverage disproportionate and overly dramatic </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of program low with many errors </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotypes and clichés abound </li></ul><ul><li>Polarization of issues into black and white </li></ul><ul><li>Need for fair and balanced coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Need to reach out to various communities </li></ul><ul><li>Mainstream media need to be multicolored </li></ul>
  84. 84. TRENDS IN TV VIEWING <ul><li>Color line being crossed </li></ul><ul><li>Children much more open </li></ul><ul><li>Less racial consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizing diversity within ethnic groups </li></ul><ul><li>New emphasis on multiracial society </li></ul><ul><li>African American sitcoms fading </li></ul><ul><li>Long way to go before fair and balanced </li></ul><ul><li>Competition from cable and satellite channels </li></ul>
  85. 85. Prophets of Doom <ul><li>Telephone ….end of Telegraph </li></ul><ul><li>Radio…. end of Newspaper </li></ul><ul><li>FM Radio…. end of AM Radio </li></ul><ul><li>Television….end of Radio </li></ul><ul><li>Television….end of Film </li></ul><ul><li>Tape recording….end of records </li></ul><ul><li>CD end of Tape </li></ul><ul><li>Videocassette….end of Movie houses </li></ul><ul><li>High definition TV….end of NTSC </li></ul><ul><li>Digital technology…. end of everything!! </li></ul>
  86. 86. New Innovations - The Third Wave <ul><li>Innovations sometimes occur with frightening rapidity, one innovation overwhelming another like waves crashing on a sea shore. Those who are swamped by them flounder for a while until they can find sure footing. Some do not adapt to innovations without a period of transition and adjustment. Others are so threatened by them that they retreat to safety until they are brave enough to embrace the next. Part of the angst of the present generation may lie in constant need to adapt to the never ending flow of innovations </li></ul>
  87. 87. Old and New Innovations <ul><li>When a new innovation overtakes an old one, the old innovation is threatened, but not destroyed. Rather, the old innovation adapts to the new environment, exploiting both its unique characteristics and the new innovation, and prolongs its life. Modified old and new innovations co-exist long after their predicted demise . Sometimes the old innovation finds renewed support and interest and rises up to challenge the new innovation </li></ul>
  88. 88. Future Trends in Media <ul><li>Digital based media (convergence) </li></ul><ul><li>High definition screens (quality/plasma) </li></ul><ul><li>Portable (wireless) palm sized computers </li></ul><ul><li>Direct broadcasting (satellite) </li></ul><ul><li>Miniature appliances (weight and size) </li></ul><ul><li>Memory (greater/faster/storage) </li></ul><ul><li>Fiber optics/laser </li></ul>
  89. 89. Future Trends <ul><li>Paperless society? (erasable paper) </li></ul><ul><li>Projection of holographic images (3D) </li></ul><ul><li>Video and sound computer editing </li></ul><ul><li>Memory sticks (no movable parts) </li></ul><ul><li>Fully automatic low light cameras </li></ul><ul><li>Voice recognition computers </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic shopping/banking/transactions </li></ul><ul><li>Encryption, protection </li></ul>
  90. 90. Future issues in Media <ul><li>Advertising clutter/spam? </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright and royalties (ethical) </li></ul><ul><li>Pornography? (ethical) </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy (data/habitual access) </li></ul><ul><li>Legal ramifications of innovations </li></ul><ul><li>Portrayal of violence? </li></ul><ul><li>Reality shows? </li></ul><ul><li>Increase of digital effects? </li></ul><ul><li>Tabloid journalism? </li></ul>
  91. 91. Media Literacy Literature Film/Video <ul><li>Advantage of reading </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage of illiteracy </li></ul><ul><li>Not only informed by content but by the medium </li></ul><ul><li>Literary criticism </li></ul><ul><li>Author's experience and background </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose in writing </li></ul><ul><li>Structure of work / organization </li></ul><ul><li>Plot development </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning-causal connection-ending </li></ul><ul><li>Advantage of Viewing </li></ul><ul><li>Media illiteracy </li></ul><ul><li>Technical achievements </li></ul><ul><li>Special effects </li></ul><ul><li>Media criticism </li></ul><ul><li>Auteur Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Experience & Background </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose behind production </li></ul><ul><li>Structure of film/TV show </li></ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Plot development </li></ul><ul><li>Continuity and transitions </li></ul>
  92. 92. Media Literacy continued… <ul><ul><li>Conflict resolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Character development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grand metaphors/symbols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Figures/images/illusions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genre/s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conformity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divergence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conventions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid genres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synergism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timing </li></ul></ul>