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Lipisids presentation

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  • 1. DPT-FA12-036 Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) The University of Faisalabad
  • 2.  Lipids  Classification of lipids  Fatty Acids: Chemistery, classification, occurance,     and function Triglycerols: structure and properties Eicosanoids: classification and function Cholesterol: Chemistry function and Clainical significance Bile acids/Salts
  • 3.    Any of a group of organic compounds, including the fats, oils, waxes, sterols, and triglycerides, that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. Oily to the touch. And together with carbohydrates and proteins constitute the principal structural material of living cells.
  • 4. I. Simple Lipids Fats 2. Waxes 1. II. Compound or complex lipids Glycolipids 2. Gangliosides 3. phospholipids 1. III. Derived, precursor and associated lipids
  • 5.  Fats  Esters of fatty acids with glycerol  Also called neutral fats, triglyceride or triacylglycerol  Waxes  Esters of fatty acids with alcohols other than glycerol  Heigher mol. wt. monohydric alcohols
  • 6. Esters of fatty acids containing group in addition to an alcohol and fatty acid  Glycolipids  Also called glycosphingolipids  Contain sphingosine, fatty acid and a mono/oligosacharide  Gangliosides  Complex molecules  Hydrolitic products are sphingosine, fatty acids, sugar units N-acetylehexosamine and Nacetyleneuraminic acid  Phospholipids  Contain alcohol, fatty acids, phosphoric acid residue and N-containing base
  • 7.   Hydrolitic compounds of simple and compund lipids Include diglycerols, fattyacids, alcohols, sterols, vitamen D, E, K, Carotenoids, and v
  • 8. fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic tail (chain)  Chemistry:  carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic tail (chain)  Mostly have chain of even number of carbon atom between 4 to28  derived from triglycerides or phospholipids.  When not attached to other molecules, known as "free" fatty acids.
  • 9.  Classification:  Saturated fatty acid ▪ Have no double bond between carbon atoms. ▪ saturated fatty acids are saturated with hydrogen  Unsaturated fatty acid ▪ have one or more double bonds between carbon atoms. ▪ can be saturated by adding hydrogen atoms to them, converting the double bonds to single bond
  • 10.  Occurance:  Free fatty acids in organisms come from breakdown of Triglycerides  Fatty acid is present in dietary fats i.e Duck fat soya oil Butter olive oil Coconut oil corn oil Palm oil sunflower oil Cottonseed oil canola oil Wheet germ oil
  • 11.  Function  Fatty acids are important sources of fuel because, when metabolized, they yield large quantities of ATP.  Many cell types can use either glucose or fatty acids for this purpose.  In particular, heart and skeletal muscle prefer fatty acids
  • 12. Triglycerol or trigliceride is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids.  Structure:  formed by combining glycerol with three molecules of fatty acid  glycerol molecule has three hydroxyl (HO-) groups.  Each fatty acid has a carboxyl group (-COOH).  hydroxyl groups of the glycerol join the carboxyl groups of the fatty acid to form ester bonds:
  • 13.  Properties:  Main fuel store in body  Triglycerols are esters of the alcohol glycerol reacting with fatty acids.  Triglycerols are the major form of Neutral Fat found in nature.  Principal Fat found in foods, body tissues and blood.
  • 14. Eicosanoids are signaling molecules made by oxidation of 20-carbon fatty acids.  Classification: They are clasified as,  A. Prostanoids▪ 1. Prostaglandins (PGs) ▪ 2. Prostacyclins (PGIs) ▪ 3. Thromboxanes (Txs)  B. Leukotriens (LTs)  C. Lipoxins
  • 15.  Function  A. Prostanoids▪ 1. Prostaglandins (PGs)       Promotion of sleep Smooth muscle contraction inducing pain, heat, fever bronchoconstriction Adipocyte differentiation Uterine contraction ▪ 2. Prostacyclins (PGIs)  Inhibition of platelet aggregation;  vasodilation;  embryo implantation ▪ 3. Thromboxanes (Txs)  Stimulation of platelet aggregation; vasoconstriction
  • 16.  Function cont..  B. Leukotriens (LTs)  Leukocyte chemotaxis  bronchial smooth muscle contraction.  C. Lipoxins  Immunity modulation  Anti inflamatory action
  • 17. A soft, waxy substance found among the fats in the bloodstream and in all the body's cells.  Chemistery:         Organic compound Belong to steroid family molecular formula is C27H46O three regions: a hydrocarbon tail, a ring structure region with 4 hydrocarbon rings, and a hydroxyl group The hydroxyl (OH) group is polar, which makes it soluble in water 4 hydrocarbon rings is signature of all steroids Hydrocarbon tail is fat soluble region Cholesterol is called amphipathic due to presence of both water and fat soluble regions
  • 18.  Functions:  required to build and maintain membranes.  modulates membrane fluidity over the range of      physiological temperatures. increases membrane packing, which reduces membrane fluidity functions in intracellular transport, cell signaling and nerve conduction. myelin sheath is rich in cholesterol that provide insulation for effective impulse conduction In the liver, cholesterol is converted to bile that aid in the intestinal absorption of fat as well as fat soluble vitamens A, D, E and K Cholesterol is an important precursor molecule for the synthesis of vitamin D and the steroid hormones
  • 19.  Clainical significance:  Hypercholesterolemia ▪ strongly associated with cardiovascular diseas eg atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction (heart attack) stroke, and peripheral vascular disease ▪ Elevated cholesterol levels are usually treated with a strict diet consisting of low saturated fat and low cholesterol foods  Hypocholesterolemia ▪ Abnormally low levels of cholesterol are termed hypocholesterolemia ▪ linked with depression, cancer, and cerebral hemorrhage.
  • 20.  Bile acids and salts  In the liver, cholesterol is converted to bile  stored in the gallbladder.  Bile contains bile salts  solubilize fats in the digestive tract  aid in the intestinal absorption of fat molecules as well as the fat-soluble vitamins, A, D, E, and K.