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  1. 1. PHONOLOGY Nabaz N. Jabbar English Language Teaching Near East University 17th Nov 2011
  2. 2. What is Phonology• The study of the structure and systematic patterns of sounds in human language.
  3. 3. Three major units of phonological analysis:-1. Segments: Individual speech sounds.2. Syllables: units of linguistic structure that consists of a syllabic element and any segments associated with it.3. Features: units of phonological structure that make up segments.
  4. 4. Minimal Pairs• Minimal Pairs: A basic test for a sounds distinctiveness. It consists of two forms with distinct meaning that differ by only one segment found in the same position in each form.e.g. [f] and [v] in fat and vat
  5. 5. SEGMENTS IN CONTRAST• Segments are said to contrast (or to be distinctive or be in opposition).e.g. The segment [s] and [z] contrast in the word sip and zip
  6. 6. Vowels contrast in English• English vowels are distinctive, so they contrast.e.g. The difference between [ɪ] and [e] in [bit] and [bet]
  7. 7. LANGUAGE-SPECIFIC CONTRAST• Sounds that are distinctive in one language will not necessarily be distinctive in another.e.g. In English there is crucial difference between these two vowels: [e] and [æ]• But in Turkish this difference in pronunciation is not distinctive.e.g. The word for I is [Ben] or [Bæn]
  8. 8. • Conversely, sounds that do not contrast in English such as long and short vowels, may be distinctive in another language, like Japanese and Finnish.• e.g. [tori] ‘bird’ [tori:] ‘shrine gate’• e.g. [tuli] ‘fire’ [tu:li] ‘wind’
  9. 9. Phonetically conditioned variation:• It occurs most often among phonetically similar segments and conditioned by the phonetic context in which the segment are found.
  10. 10. COMPLEMENTARY DISTRIBUTION• Variants of a phoneme that never occur in the same phonetic environment*.e.g. voiced [l] in slip [slɪp] voiceless [l] in clap [klæp]*Environment is the phonetic context in which a sound occurs.
  11. 11. Sounds in contrast• Phoneme: The phonological unit of speech that differentiates or extinguishes meaning.• Phone: Any speech sound in human language.• Allophones: Variants of a phoneme, usually in complementary distribution and Phonetically similar.
  12. 12. Some other considerations• Some sounds do not contrast in initial position:e.g. [h] and [ŋ] in [həʊp] hope and [ŋəʊp] doesnt exist.• Also they do not contrast in final position:e.g. [sɪŋ] sing and [sɪh] doesnt exist
  13. 13. Free Variation• When sounds do not contrast and can occur in identical phonetic environments and are phonetically similar.e.g. [p] in stop [stɒp!] , [stɒp ̚] and [stɒ?p]
  14. 14. THE REALITY OF PHONEMES• Speakers of English often have a hard time hearing the phonetic difference between the voiced and voiceless allophones of /l/, because the difference is not contrastive, but its easy to contrast between /l/ and /r/ as in lift and rift
  15. 15. • But, speakers of other languages like Japanese sometimes find it difficult to distinguish between them, because in their language /l/ and /r/ are allophones of the same phoneme.e.g. collect & correct
  16. 16. CLASSES AND GENERALIZATION INPHONOLOGY• Liquid and glide phonemes have (at least) two allophones, one voiced and the other voiceless.• Liquids and glides have voiceless allophones after voiceless stops, and voiced allophones elsewhere.e.g. Liquid /r/• voiced → green [gri:n] , voiceless → creep [kr̥i:p] Glide /w/ and /j/• voiced → beauty [bju:tɪ] , voiceless → cute [kj̥u:t]
  17. 17. English vowels and glides: Liaison (Linking):• British English involve linking where having two distinct vowel phonemes next to each other tends to be avoided, so one of the approximants /r/, /j/ or /w/ is inserted to link the vowels.
  18. 18. • If the first vowel is not high, a linking r is used.e.g. Star [sta:] starring [sta:rɪŋ] star in [sta:r ɪn]• If the vowel is high, a glide is inserted between the vowels.e.g. See [si:], seeing [si:jɪŋ], see in [si: jɪn] Show [ʃəʊ], showing [ʃəʊwɪŋ], show it [ʃəʊ
  19. 19. Intrusive r.• is used productively in present-day English even in contrasts, its obvious in borrowed and foreign words.e.g. [emər ætkɪnz] Emma Atkins [əkrɑ:r ən dækɑ:] Accra and Dakar
  20. 20. TENSE AND LAX VOWELS• Tense vowel: A vowel that is made with a placement of the tongue that result in relatively the greater vocal tract constriction.e.g. Heat and boat• Lax vowel: A vowel that is made with a placement of the tongue that result in relatively less vocal tract constriction.e.g. Hit and but *Theres no possibility of contrast between tense and lax vowels.
  21. 21. The distribution of tense & lax vowels• Closed stressed syllables: Any kind of vowel except schwa, i.e. one that ends in a consonant.e.g. Seek /i:/• Open stressed syllables: Any tense vowels are allowed, i.e. ones that end in a vowel.e.g. Raw /ɔ:/• Syllables closed by [ŋ]: Any lax vowels except [ə]e.g. Bunk /ʌ/
  22. 22. LANGUAGE-SPECIFIC VARIATION INALLOPHONIC NASALIZATION• Its not unusual for nasal vowel allophones to occur near a nasal consonant, but the patterning may vary from language to language.
  23. 23. o Vowels are nasal in Scots Gaelic when preceded or followed by a nasal consonant. ] about n] secret‘o In Malay, all vowels and glides following a nasal consonant and not separated from it by a non-nasal consonant are nasalized.e.g. [mãkan] eat [rumãh] house
  24. 24. LANGUAGE-SPECIFIC VARIATION INALLOPHONIC DISTRIBUTIONPhonemic contrast in one language may not prove to be a phonemic contrast in another. In English, aspirated and unaspirated stops are allophonic without contrasting form.e.g. [pɪk] and [phɪk] But in Khmer (Cambodian), unaspirated and aspirated voiceless stops contrast.e.g. [pɔ:ŋ] to wish [phɔ:ŋ] also.
  25. 25. Defining the Syllable:• Syllable: A unit of linguistic structure that consists of a syllabic element and any segments that are associated with it.
  26. 26. Four subsyllabic units of internal structure Nucleus (N): A vocalic element that forms the core of a syllable.e.g. [æ] in Patrick Coda (C): The elements that follow the nucleus in the same syllable.e.g. [nt] in Sprint Rhyme (R): The nucleus and coda of a syllable.e.g. [u:] in Root Onset (O): The longest sequence of consonants to the left of each nucleus.e.g. [sl] from [slɪm] in slim
  27. 27. ONSET CONSTRAINTS PHONOTACTICS:• The set of constraints on how sequences of segments pattern.e.g. The Russion word vbrog [fbrɔk] pronounced as [fəbrɔk] or [prɔk] in English.
  28. 28. SOME ENGLISH ONSETS:• There are syllable-initial consonant sequences contain a voiceless stop consonant.• e.g. [pl] in please• And word-initial three-consonant cluster, which the first is always s, the second is always voiceless stop and the third is either a liquid or a glide.• e.g. [spr] in spring
  29. 29. Accidental and systematic gaps• Accidental gaps:Non-occuring but possible forms of a language.e.g. Blork• Systematic gaps: Gaps in the occuring syllable structure of a language that result from the exclution of certain sequences.e.g. pfordv
  30. 30. Language-specific phonotactics Some onset sequences can be found in many languages while some onset sequences are rarely if ever found. So, some onset sequences appear to exist as part of human linguistic capacity.e.g. pl as in play and lp as in help Each language has it’s own set of restrictions on the phonological shapes of it’s syllable constituents.e.g. fsl as in fslux ‘aloud’ which is not found in English.
  31. 31. Some further syllabification• Turkish language has different syllable structure constraints than English language.e.g. alt, alta and altta
  32. 32. Syllabic phonology• Syllables are units of phonological analysis because they affect the distribution of allophonic features. Aspiration Ambisyllabicity Vowels lengthen
  33. 33. ASPIRATION IN ENGLISH• Articulation accompanied by the release of air, that is heard after the release of certain stops in English.e.g. the first sound of /tɒp/• English voiceless stops are aspirated when initial in a stressed syllable.
  34. 34. Ambisyllabicityo The simultaneous presence of a segment in two adjoining syllables.e.g. attack /əth k/
  35. 35. PHONETIC LENGTH IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE• English vowels are phonetically somehow shorter than they would normally be, when they occur before voiceless consonants, before sonorant consonants and in word-final positione.g. Bad [bǣd]• Conversely, the vowels are relatively longer than they would normally be, when they occur before voiced non-sonorant consonants.e.g. Revise [rɪ.vaɪz]
  36. 36. Syllables and stress in English• Penultimate: The syllable before the very last one in a word, i.e. next to the last syllable.• Antepenultimate: Stressed on the third syllable from the end of the word.So, English nouns are stressed on the penultimate syllable when it’s Heavy; otherwise, they are stressed on the antepenultimate.e.g. C binet
  37. 37. The features of English1. Major class features:• Consonantal [p b s z ʃ ʒ tʃ dʒ]• Syllabic [i: e ɑ: ɭ̩ r̩ m n]• Sonorant: only the singables: vowells, glides, liquids, and nasals.
  38. 38. The features of English2. Laryngeal features:• Voice: according to voiced and voiceless sounds.• Spread glottis: distinguishes unaspirated from aspirated consonants.• Constricted glottis: In English theres only the glottis stop [?]
  39. 39. The features of English3. Place features:• Labial: [p] [b] [f] [v] [w]• Round: Sounds that made with the lips rounded• Coronal: [t] [d] [θ] [ð] [s] [z] [tʃ] [dʒ] [n] [ɭ ] [r]• Anterior: [p] [b] [t] [d] [s] [z] [θ] [ð]• Strident: The noisy fricatives and affricates only. [s] [z] [ʃ] [ʒ] [tʃ] and [dʒ]
  40. 40. The features of English4. Dorsal features:• High: Sound made with the tongue raised.• Low: Vowels made with the tongue lowered.• Back: Any sound articulated behind the palatal region of the oral cavity.• Tense: Follows the tense and lax vowels.• Reduced: Only the schwa [ə]
  41. 41. The features of English5. Manner features:• Nasal: Any sound made with the velum lowered.• Continuant: Vowels, fricatives, glides and liquids.• Lateral: [ɭ ]• Delayed release: Only affricate sounds [tʃ] [dʒ]
  42. 42. Thank You• My only reference was the book of: Contemporary Linguisticso By William O’Grady Michael Dobrovolsky Francis Katamba