• Born in Omaha Nabraska in1920• His Father was killed by Whitegroups because he was a civilrights activist..• Her mother sent to mentalhospital• Dropped out of school and gotinvolved in drug dealing,gambling, racketeering,robbery and prostitution.• Sent to prison for 6 years.• Converts to Islam in Prison ashis brother suggested.• Becomes a Minister for theNation of Islam.• Changes his last name to Xbecause it is a slave name.
• Founded by Alijah Muhammed• They believed white man is devil• They started their own shops,businesses, schools and churches• They wanted a separate black nationon land given to them by the USA.• They demanded separate state forAfrican Americans• Many blacks were attracted to theideas of the Black Muslims
• Malcolm had seriousarguments with the leaderof the Nation of Islam• He was suspended fromthe movement in 1963• He then travelled to Africaand the Middle East• Spring 1964 his viewschanged after a visit toMecca
• Believed African Americansshould stand up and fight for theirfreedom.• Believed black people help whiteto continue their supremacy• Believed violence was necessaryto earn freedom.• “We don’t go for desegregation.We go for separation. Separationis when you have your own. Youcontrol your own economy, youcontrol your own politics, youcontrol your own society.
• Believed that the Christianreligion was based on thewhite culture.• “I don’t go along with anykind of non-violence unlesseverybody’s going to be non-violent. If they make the KuKlux Klan non-violent I’ll benon-violent. You get freedomby letting your enemy knowthat you’ll do anything to getyour freedom... It’s the onlyway to get it... Fight them, andyou’ll get your freedom.”
• His visit to Arabia and Africa changed hisideology• He appeared to be international leader• He changed his view toward whites and blacks• Ex. “In a few weeks in Africa I saw what I hadnever seen in thirty-nine years here in America.I saw all races, all colours, blue-eyed blondes toblack-skinned Africans in true brotherhood... Inthe past yes, I have made sweeping indictments(criticisms) of all white people. I never will beguilty of that again as I now know that somewhites are truly sincere and are capable ofbeing brotherly towards a black man.”• “You cant separate peace from freedombecause no one can be at peace unless he hashis freedom.”• “I believe in human beings, and that all humanbeings should be respected as such, regardlessof their color.”
• “He got the peace prize, we gotthe problem. ... If Im following ageneral, and hes leading me into abattle, and the enemy tends to givehim rewards, or awards, I getsuspicious of him. Especially if hegets a peace award before the waris over.”• The goal of Dr King is to giveNegroes a chance to sit-insegregated restaurants beside thesame white folks who havepersecuted, beaten and lynchedblack people for years. Dr Kingseems to want black people toforgive the people who havebeaten, bought, sold and lynchedour people for four hundred years.• Dr. King wants the same thing Iwant - freedom!”
- He possessed the transformationalleadership styleA- School Leader (1932-1940)B- Street Leader (1940-1948)C- Prison Leader (1948-1952)D- National Speaker for the NOIE- International Pan African Leader- He was Charisma- He was motivative when he was talking topublic- He was honest and trustworthy• Clarke (1994) asserted Malcolm "speak tothe reader and the non-reader, the collegeprofessor and the illiterate, simultaneously,and his message would get across to all ofthem" (Clarke, 1994, pp. 138-139).
– Tensions arose betweenMalcolm and the Nationof Islam.– Malcolm said he woulddefend himself againstdeath threats.– He was shot 16 timesduring a speech in 1965.