Cooling tower sOperation and  water management
Forced Draft Cooling Towers
Forced Draft Cooling Towers
Forced Draft Cooling Towers
Forced DraftCooling Towers
Natural Draft Cooling Towers
Small cooling installations
Water Distribution Details
1. Fan        2. Drift eliminator   3. Warm water4. Water distribution 5. Water sprinkling nozzle 6. Fill packing         ...
Packing Materials
Cooling Tower Mass Balances
Water and Salt BalancesA water balance around the entire system is:        M=E+D+WSince the evaporated water (E) has no sa...
Windage LossesWindage losses (W), in the absence ofmanufacturers data, may be assumed to be:      W = 0.3 to 1.0 percent o...
Heat BalanceFrom a simplified heat balance around the cooling tower:  E HV = C · ΔT · cp    Hv = Latent heat of water evap...
Biocides - The Ct Concept   In disinfection, the ability to inactivatemicroorganisms is a function of bothdisinfectant con...
http://www.cti.org/downloads/legion_2000.pdf       http://www.pnl.gov/fta/6_ozone.htm
Chlorine Dioxide Production ClO2 made from Sodium Chlorite: Acidification of Chlorite 5 ClO2- + 4 H+ --> 4 ClO2 + 2 H2O + ...
 cooling towers
 cooling towers
 cooling towers
 cooling towers
 cooling towers
 cooling towers
 cooling towers
 cooling towers
 cooling towers
 cooling towers
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

cooling towers

3,881

Published on

general ppt on cooloing towers for power engineer's....



thank you for reading

Published in: Education, Business, Technology
1 Comment
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
3,881
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
387
Comments
1
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

cooling towers

  1. 1. Cooling tower sOperation and water management
  2. 2. Forced Draft Cooling Towers
  3. 3. Forced Draft Cooling Towers
  4. 4. Forced Draft Cooling Towers
  5. 5. Forced DraftCooling Towers
  6. 6. Natural Draft Cooling Towers
  7. 7. Small cooling installations
  8. 8. Water Distribution Details
  9. 9. 1. Fan 2. Drift eliminator 3. Warm water4. Water distribution 5. Water sprinkling nozzle 6. Fill packing 7. Air inlet 8. Water pool 9. Cooled water
  10. 10. Packing Materials
  11. 11. Cooling Tower Mass Balances
  12. 12. Water and Salt BalancesA water balance around the entire system is: M=E+D+WSince the evaporated water (E) has no salts, a chloride balance around the system is: M (XM) = D (XC) + W (XC) = XC (D + W) and, therefore: XC/XM = Cycles of concentration = M/(D + W) = M/(M – E) = 1 + [E ÷ (D + W)]
  13. 13. Windage LossesWindage losses (W), in the absence ofmanufacturers data, may be assumed to be: W = 0.3 to 1.0 percent of C for a natural draft cooling tower without windage drift eliminators W = 0.1 to 0.3 percent of C for an induced draft cooling tower without windage drift eliminators W = about 0.01 percent of C (or less) if the cooling tower has windage drift eliminators
  14. 14. Heat BalanceFrom a simplified heat balance around the cooling tower: E HV = C · ΔT · cp Hv = Latent heat of water evaporation = 2260 kJ/kg Δ T = Temperature difference top to bottom Cp = Specific heat of water = 4.184 kJkg-1C-1
  15. 15. Biocides - The Ct Concept In disinfection, the ability to inactivatemicroorganisms is a function of bothdisinfectant concentration and time. Fractional removal = Cntm This is generally simplified toFractional removal = Ct Ct values have been determined for99.99% virus and 99.9% Giardia removal
  16. 16. http://www.cti.org/downloads/legion_2000.pdf http://www.pnl.gov/fta/6_ozone.htm
  17. 17. Chlorine Dioxide Production ClO2 made from Sodium Chlorite: Acidification of Chlorite 5 ClO2- + 4 H+ --> 4 ClO2 + 2 H2O + Cl- Oxidation of Chlorite by Chlorine 2 NaClO2 + Cl2 --> 2 NaCl + 2 ClO2 Oxidation of Chlorite by Persulfate 2 NaClO2 + Na2S2O8 --> 2 ClO2 + 2 Na2SO4 From Sodium Hypochlorite and Sodium Chlorite NaOCl + 2 NaClO2 + 2 HCl --> 2 ClO2 + 3 NaCl + H2O Electrochemical oxidation of chlorite ClO2- --> ClO2 + e- Dry chlorine/chlorite (laboratory method) NaClO2 + 1/2 Cl2 --> ClO2 + NaCl (solid)
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×