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# cooling towers

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general ppt on cooloing towers for power engineer's....

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### cooling towers

1. 1. Cooling tower sOperation and water management
2. 2. Forced Draft Cooling Towers
3. 3. Forced Draft Cooling Towers
4. 4. Forced Draft Cooling Towers
5. 5. Forced DraftCooling Towers
6. 6. Natural Draft Cooling Towers
7. 7. Small cooling installations
8. 8. Water Distribution Details
9. 9. 1. Fan 2. Drift eliminator 3. Warm water4. Water distribution 5. Water sprinkling nozzle 6. Fill packing 7. Air inlet 8. Water pool 9. Cooled water
10. 10. Packing Materials
11. 11. Cooling Tower Mass Balances
12. 12. Water and Salt BalancesA water balance around the entire system is: M=E+D+WSince the evaporated water (E) has no salts, a chloride balance around the system is: M (XM) = D (XC) + W (XC) = XC (D + W) and, therefore: XC/XM = Cycles of concentration = M/(D + W) = M/(M – E) = 1 + [E ÷ (D + W)]
13. 13. Windage LossesWindage losses (W), in the absence ofmanufacturers data, may be assumed to be: W = 0.3 to 1.0 percent of C for a natural draft cooling tower without windage drift eliminators W = 0.1 to 0.3 percent of C for an induced draft cooling tower without windage drift eliminators W = about 0.01 percent of C (or less) if the cooling tower has windage drift eliminators
14. 14. Heat BalanceFrom a simplified heat balance around the cooling tower: E HV = C · ΔT · cp Hv = Latent heat of water evaporation = 2260 kJ/kg Δ T = Temperature difference top to bottom Cp = Specific heat of water = 4.184 kJkg-1C-1
15. 15. Biocides - The Ct Concept In disinfection, the ability to inactivatemicroorganisms is a function of bothdisinfectant concentration and time. Fractional removal = Cntm This is generally simplified toFractional removal = Ct Ct values have been determined for99.99% virus and 99.9% Giardia removal