Thermoset sales slides


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Thermoset sales slides

  1. 1. Basics of Thermosets, Scientific Molding, and Steel Selection
  2. 2. Fundamental Differences between Thermoplastics and Thermosets <ul><li>Thermoplastics are Supplied as Chemically Finished and Stable Compounds </li></ul><ul><li>Thermoplastics Must Be Melted and Converted at Relatively High Temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Thermoplastics Can Be Repeatedly Softened and Solidified </li></ul><ul><li>The Bulk of Thermoplastic Materials Are Supplied As Unfilled Products Thermosets Are Supplied As Partially Formed Polymers </li></ul><ul><li>Processing Is Designed to Complete the Polymerization Process and Make the Molded Part At the Same Time </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion Temperatures Are Relatively Low </li></ul><ul><li>Finished Product Consists of a Network Solid That Cannot Be Re-melted </li></ul><ul><li>Almost All Thermoset Compounds Are Highly Filled </li></ul>
  3. 3. General Advantages of Thermosets <ul><li>Low Initial Viscosity Allows for Long Flow Paths and Production of Large Parts </li></ul><ul><li>High Electrical Insulation Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Low Processing Temperatures Allow the Use of Organic and Thermally Unstable Fillers and Modifiers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cotton Flock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wood Flour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polyester Fabric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Walnut Shells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alumina Trihydrate (ATH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hemp </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Good Cost/Performance Balance for Elevated Temperature Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Wide Range of Processes and Forms for Raw Material Provide Good Versatility in Design/Performance Equation </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot Melt or Soften in Catastrophic Thermal Runaway Events </li></ul><ul><li>High Levels of Filler Tend to Result in Materials That Shrink and Warp Less than Reinforced Thermoplastics </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent Compressive Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Batch Process Allows for Creative Material Modifications </li></ul><ul><li>More Creep Resistance Than Thermoplastic </li></ul>
  4. 4. General Disadvantages of Thermosets <ul><li>Material Properties are Not as Developed as Thermoplastic </li></ul><ul><li>Low Initial Viscosity of Materials Results in Flash and the Need for Secondary Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Low Tensile Strength and Ductility Tend to Result in Parts Designed with Thick Walls </li></ul><ul><li>Compounds Are Reactive Systems – Results in Shelf Life Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Batch Processes Result in More Inconsistent Lot-to-Lot Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>High Levels of Some Fillers Result in Excessive Tool Wear </li></ul><ul><li>The Unique Nature of Each Thermoset Family Does Not Help Thermoset to Thermoset Replacements for Future Cost Reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Compound Formulations Overly Secretive </li></ul><ul><li>Some Material Suppliers Compete with Their Molding Customers </li></ul><ul><li>Product Quality Dependent Upon the Degree of Crosslinking Established During the Molding Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Breakdown in High Vibration Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Poor Thermal Conductivity for Housing Replacements </li></ul>
  5. 5. Generic Specific Gravity Material Value Magnesium 1.74 Aluminum 2.75 Zinc 7.14 Nylon 6/6 – 33% Glass Fiber 1.39 PPS – 40% Glass Fiber 1.65 Polyethersulfone – 30% Glass Fiber 1.58 Thermoset Polyester 1.75-1.95 Vinyl Ester 1.75-1.95 General Purpose Phenolic 1.40-1.75 High-Performance Phenolic 1.40-1.80
  6. 6. Cost Analysis – Price/Pound (March 2008)
  7. 7. Cost Analysis – Price/Cubic Inch (March 2008)
  8. 8. Material Choices in Thermosets <ul><li>Phenolics </li></ul><ul><li>Aminos (Melamine, Urea) </li></ul><ul><li>Unsaturated Polyesters </li></ul><ul><li>Polyurethane </li></ul><ul><li>Allyls (DAP, DAIP) </li></ul><ul><li>Polyimides </li></ul><ul><li>Silicones </li></ul><ul><li>Epoxy </li></ul><ul><li>Casein </li></ul>Cross Over point is Phenolic equals PPS
  9. 9. Phenolic <ul><li>Two-Stage (Novalac)-Shelf Life Infinite (normal storage) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produced with Acid Catalyst and a portion of the required Formaldehyde </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product is a brittle compound that will not cure with heat and is considered a thermoplastic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardener is required to complete cure which is usually Formaldehyde in the form hexamethyleneteramine (hexa), which upon heatings forms ammonia and formaldehyde </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two-Stage (Novalac) Properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broken down in to General Purpose, Non-bleeding, Heat Resistant, Impact, and Electrical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They Maintain dimension stability for an indefinite amount of time at normal atmospheric conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High degree of resistance to deformation under load </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Phenolics – Advantages <ul><li>Excellent Dimensional Stability – Low Coefficient of Thermal Expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Very High Surface Hardness – Good Wear and Friction Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent retention of physical properties at high temperature (300F continuous, 500F short bursts-Post Bake 340F Continuous) </li></ul><ul><li>Good Insulator both electrically and thermally </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Fillers (Inorganic and Polymeric) </li></ul><ul><li>Highly Resistant to Solvents and Automotive Fluids </li></ul>
  11. 11. Phenolics - Disadvantages <ul><li>Single Stage Resins Unstable at Temperatures Above 45 F Making Production Sensitive </li></ul><ul><li>Two-Stage Resins Available Only in Black and Dark Colors Such As Brown, Dark Blue, Dark Red and Green </li></ul><ul><li>Susceptible to Electrical Tracking </li></ul><ul><li>Usually Require Post-Baking to Achieve Optimal Properties (Two-Stage Resins) </li></ul><ul><li>Very Low Impact Resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Two-Stage expels Ammonia </li></ul>
  12. 12. Urea – Properties <ul><li>Any Color </li></ul><ul><li>High gloss and durable </li></ul><ul><li>High mechanical strength, heat resistance, fire resistance, good electrical arc, and arc tracking </li></ul><ul><li>Scratch Resistant </li></ul><ul><li>Readily used in compression and transfer, requires modification for injection molding to extend flow “life” </li></ul><ul><li>Heat Resistance up to 170F </li></ul>
  13. 13. Melamine - Properties <ul><li>Similar to Urea but Higher heat resistance, chemical, moisture, electrical, and scratch resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple fillers can be used (wood flour, minerals, and cellulose fiber) </li></ul><ul><li>FDA approved for food contact even at high temperature </li></ul><ul><li>High surface gloss </li></ul><ul><li>Bright sharp colors that are light fast </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme Hardness </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent Arc Resistance </li></ul>
  14. 14. Polyester Chemical Forms <ul><li>Ortho: Most widely used </li></ul><ul><li>Iso: Better mechanical properties and chemical resistance than Ortho more costly </li></ul><ul><li>Bisphenol A fumarates: Very good chemical and thermal properties – considered high performance </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorendics: Excellent chemical properties combined with some flame retardancy </li></ul><ul><li>Vinyl esters: Exceptional mechanical and chemical properties but higher cost </li></ul>
  15. 15. Polyester - Forms <ul><li>Free-flowing granular </li></ul><ul><li>Pelletized (PMG) </li></ul><ul><li>Putty or rope-type extrudates </li></ul><ul><li>Sheet molded compound (SMC) </li></ul><ul><li>High bulk factor compounds (BMC) </li></ul><ul><li>Thick molding compounds (TMC) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Polyesters - Advantages <ul><li>Available In A Wide Range of Colors </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent Electrical Properties Combined with Ignition Resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Good Toughness for Thermosets </li></ul><ul><li>Can be Molded in to Complex Shapes </li></ul>
  17. 17. Polyesters - Disadvantages <ul><li>Maturation Process Required Prior to Molding </li></ul><ul><li>Styrene Crosslinking Agent Is Volatile Causing Viscosity Changes As A Function of Storage Time </li></ul>
  18. 18. Thermoset Injection
  19. 19. Thank you ! NASHOTAH OPERATIONS N44 W33341 Watertown Plank Rd. Nashotah, WI 53058 Phone: 262.367.5200 This is the proprietary property of Dickten Masch Plastics and intended solely for internal use of specified customer/prospects only. Use of this information outside the scope of intended use is strictly prohibited. Email: Website: ANKENY OPERATIONS 3401 S.E. Convenience Blvd Ankeny, Iowa 50021   Phone: 515 964-2675 MONTERREY OPERATIONS Boulevard TLC#200 Parque Industrial, STIVA Aeropuerto Apodaca, Nuevo Leon, CP66600 Mexico