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Sales slides 2010 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Basics of Thermosets, Scientific Molding, and Steel Selection
  • 2. Fundamental Differences between Thermoplastics and Thermosets
    • Thermoplastics are Supplied as Chemically Finished and Stable Compounds
    • Thermoplastics Must Be Melted and Converted at Relatively High Temperatures
    • Thermoplastics Can Be Repeatedly Softened and Solidified
    • The Bulk of Thermoplastic Materials Are Supplied As Unfilled Products Thermosets Are Supplied As Partially Formed Polymers
    • Processing Is Designed to Complete the Polymerization Process and Make the Molded Part At the Same Time
    • Conversion Temperatures Are Relatively Low
    • Finished Product Consists of a Network Solid That Cannot Be Re-melted
    • Almost All Thermoset Compounds Are Highly Filled
  • 3. General Advantages of Thermosets
    • Low Initial Viscosity Allows for Long Flow Paths and Production of Large Parts
    • High Electrical Insulation Properties
    • Low Processing Temperatures Allow the Use of Organic and Thermally Unstable Fillers and Modifiers
      • Cotton Flock
      • Wood Flour
      • Polyester Fabric
      • Walnut Shells
      • Alumina Trihydrate (ATH)
      • Hemp
    • Good Cost/Performance Balance for Elevated Temperature Properties
    • Wide Range of Processes and Forms for Raw Material Provide Good Versatility in Design/Performance Equation
    • Cannot Melt or Soften in Catastrophic Thermal Runaway Events
    • High Levels of Filler Tend to Result in Materials That Shrink and Warp Less than Reinforced Thermoplastics
    • Excellent Compressive Properties
    • Batch Process Allows for Creative Material Modifications
    • More Creep Resistance Than Thermoplastic
  • 4. General Disadvantages of Thermosets
    • Material Properties are Not as Developed as Thermoplastic
    • Low Initial Viscosity of Materials Results in Flash and the Need for Secondary Operations
    • Low Tensile Strength and Ductility Tend to Result in Parts Designed with Thick Walls
    • Compounds Are Reactive Systems – Results in Shelf Life Problems
    • Batch Processes Result in More Inconsistent Lot-to-Lot Consistency
    • High Levels of Some Fillers Result in Excessive Tool Wear
    • The Unique Nature of Each Thermoset Family Does Not Help Thermoset to Thermoset Replacements for Future Cost Reduction
    • Compound Formulations Overly Secretive
    • Some Material Suppliers Compete with Their Molding Customers
    • Product Quality Dependent Upon the Degree of Crosslinking Established During the Molding Cycle
    • Breakdown in High Vibration Applications
    • Poor Thermal Conductivity for Housing Replacements
  • 5. Generic Specific Gravity Material Value Magnesium 1.74 Aluminum 2.75 Zinc 7.14 Nylon 6/6 – 33% Glass Fiber 1.39 PPS – 40% Glass Fiber 1.65 Polyethersulfone – 30% Glass Fiber 1.58 Thermoset Polyester 1.75-1.95 Vinyl Ester 1.75-1.95 General Purpose Phenolic 1.40-1.75 High-Performance Phenolic 1.40-1.80
  • 6. Cost Analysis – Price/Pound (March 2008)
  • 7. Cost Analysis – Price/Cubic Inch (March 2008)
  • 8. Material Choices in Thermosets
    • Phenolics
    • Aminos (Melamine, Urea)
    • Unsaturated Polyesters
    • Polyurethane
    • Allyls (DAP, DAIP)
    • Polyimides
    • Silicones
    • Epoxy
    • Casein
    Cross Over point is Phenolic equals PPS
  • 9. Phenolic
    • Two-Stage (Novalac)-Shelf Life Infinite (normal storage)
      • Produced with Acid Catalyst and a portion of the required Formaldehyde
      • Product is a brittle compound that will not cure with heat and is considered a thermoplastic
      • Hardener is required to complete cure which is usually Formaldehyde in the form hexamethyleneteramine (hexa), which upon heatings forms ammonia and formaldehyde
    • Two-Stage (Novalac) Properties
      • Broken down in to General Purpose, Non-bleeding, Heat Resistant, Impact, and Electrical
      • They Maintain dimension stability for an indefinite amount of time at normal atmospheric conditions
      • High degree of resistance to deformation under load
  • 10. Phenolics – Advantages
    • Excellent Dimensional Stability – Low Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
    • Very High Surface Hardness – Good Wear and Friction Properties
    • Excellent retention of physical properties at high temperature (300F continuous, 500F short bursts-Post Bake 340F Continuous)
    • Good Insulator both electrically and thermally
    • Multiple Fillers (Inorganic and Polymeric)
    • Highly Resistant to Solvents and Automotive Fluids
  • 11. Phenolics - Disadvantages
    • Single Stage Resins Unstable at Temperatures Above 45 F Making Production Sensitive
    • Two-Stage Resins Available Only in Black and Dark Colors Such As Brown, Dark Blue, Dark Red and Green
    • Susceptible to Electrical Tracking
    • Usually Require Post-Baking to Achieve Optimal Properties (Two-Stage Resins)
    • Very Low Impact Resistance
    • Two-Stage expels Ammonia
  • 12. Urea – Properties
    • Any Color
    • High gloss and durable
    • High mechanical strength, heat resistance, fire resistance, good electrical arc, and arc tracking
    • Scratch Resistant
    • Readily used in compression and transfer, requires modification for injection molding to extend flow “life”
    • Heat Resistance up to 170F
  • 13. Melamine - Properties
    • Similar to Urea but Higher heat resistance, chemical, moisture, electrical, and scratch resistance
    • Multiple fillers can be used (wood flour, minerals, and cellulose fiber)
    • FDA approved for food contact even at high temperature
    • High surface gloss
    • Bright sharp colors that are light fast
    • Extreme Hardness
    • Excellent Arc Resistance
  • 14. Polyester Chemical Forms
    • Ortho: Most widely used
    • Iso: Better mechanical properties and chemical resistance than Ortho more costly
    • Bisphenol A fumarates: Very good chemical and thermal properties – considered high performance
    • Chlorendics: Excellent chemical properties combined with some flame retardancy
    • Vinyl esters: Exceptional mechanical and chemical properties but higher cost
  • 15. Polyester - Forms
    • Free-flowing granular
    • Pelletized (PMG)
    • Putty or rope-type extrudates
    • Sheet molded compound (SMC)
    • High bulk factor compounds (BMC)
    • Thick molding compounds (TMC)
  • 16. Polyesters - Advantages
    • Available In A Wide Range of Colors
    • Excellent Electrical Properties Combined with Ignition Resistance
    • Good Toughness for Thermosets
    • Can be Molded in to Complex Shapes
  • 17. Polyesters - Disadvantages
    • Maturation Process Required Prior to Molding
    • Styrene Crosslinking Agent Is Volatile Causing Viscosity Changes As A Function of Storage Time
  • 18. Thank you ! NASHOTAH OPERATIONS N44 W33341 Watertown Plank Rd. Nashotah, WI 53058 Phone: 262.367.5200 This is the proprietary property of Dickten Masch Plastics and intended solely for internal use of specified customer/prospects only. Use of this information outside the scope of intended use is strictly prohibited. Email: Website: ANKENY OPERATIONS 3401 S.E. Convenience Blvd Ankeny, Iowa 50021   Phone: 515 964-2675 MONTERREY OPERATIONS Boulevard TLC#200 Parque Industrial, STIVA Aeropuerto Apodaca, Nuevo Leon, CP66600 Mexico