Front national (French pronunciation: [fʁɔ̃.na.sjɔ'nal]) is an economically protectionist, socially conservative nationalist party. The party was founded in 1972, seeking to unify a variety of French patriotism currents of the time. Jean-Marie Le Pen was the party's first leader and the undisputed centre of the party from its start until his resignation in 2011. While the party struggled as a marginal force for its first ten years, since 1984 it has been the unrivalled major force of French right-wing nationalism . The FN has established itself as the third largest political force in France, after the Union for a Popular Movement (UMP) and the Socialist Party (PS). The 2002 presidential election was the first ever in France to include a right-wing nationalist candidate in the run-off, as Le Pen beat the socialist candidate in the first round. In the run-off, Le Pen nevertheless finished a distant second to Jacques Chirac. Due to the French electoral system, the party's representation in public office has been limited, despite its significant share of the vote. The current leader of the party is Marine Le Pen, who took over from her father in 2011.Its major current policies include economic protectionism, a zero tolerance approach to law and order issues, and Anti-immigration. Since the 1990s, its stance on the European Union has grown increasingly eurosceptic. The party's opposition to immigration is particularly focused on non-European immigration, and includes support for deporting illegal, criminal, and unemployed immigrants; its policy is nevertheless more moderate today than it was at its most radical point in the 1990s.Some earlier party officials have historically been subject to controversy for occasionally promoting historical revisionism, specifically related to the Second World WarJean-Marie Le Pen (French pronunciation: [ʒɑ̃ ma.ʁilə.pɛn]; born 20 June 1928) is a French politician who is the founder and former president of the Front National party.His longevity in politics and his five attempts to become president of France have made him a major figure in French political life. His progression in the late-1980s is known as the "Lepénisation des esprits" or lepénisation of spirits due to its noticeable effect on mainstream political opinion. Lepenism in France refers to his eurosceptic, nationalist and conservative ideas. His controversial speeches and his integration into public life have made him a figure that polarizes opinion, considered as the "Devil of the Republic" among his opponents or as the last samurai in politics among his supporters. His progress to the second round in the 21st of April 2002 presidential election left its mark on french public life, and the "21st of April" is now a frequently used expression in France. Since the "de-demonization of the Front national" by Marine Le Pen, he is more absent in public life but still active, at a lower level.Le Pen focuses on issues related to immigration to France, the European Union, traditional culture and values, law and order and France's high rate of unemployment. He advocates immigration restrictions, the death penalty, raising incentives for homemakers, and euroscepticism. He strongly opposes same-sex marriage, euthanasia, and abortion.
‘La Haine’ intro
• The film is about three teenage friends and their struggle to live in
the banlieues of Paris.
• The film focuses on a single day in the lives of three young friends in
an impoverished multi-ethnic banlieues housing project in the
aftermath of a riot.
• Vinz (Vincent Cassel), who is Jewish, is filled with rage. An
• Saïd (Saïd Taghmaoui) is a happy and talkative Maghrebin (Arab)
who tries to find middle ground between his two friends' responses to
• Hubert (Hubert Koundé) is an Afro-French boxer and drug dealer.
The quietest of the three, he sadly contemplates the ghetto and the
hate around him.
• The title derives from a line spoken by one of them, Hubert: "La
haine attire la haine!", "hatred breeds hatred."
„Vive la France!
• La Haine is a French film that is said to ‘subvert cultural expectations’.
Parlez vous la Francais? Have you been to France?
What stereotypes would we associate with French culture and France as
Love of art and high culture
Fine wine and cuisine
Haute couture fashion
Garlic and smelly cheese
What about characteristics/stereotypes of French people:
Sophisticated and stylish.
Rude and arrogant.
Feel they are superior.
The last two are negative views often from a British perspective. Indeed the
French think the British are equally rude and arrogant- and that we can‟t cook!
‘La Haine’ and modern multicultural France
La Haine is set in the banlieues of Paris. The phrase les banlieues has been
increasingly used as a euphemism to describe low-income housing projects
in which mainly French of foreign descent reside.
do we know about the immigrant groups in France? Is France multicultural?
Can you name any famous non-white European French people?
So modern France is very multicultural with lots of immigrant communities
mainly from Africa. Why Africa?
French colonial rule of Africa. Many nations in Africa speak French as first
language including, Morocco, Tunisia Senegal, Ivory Coast, Cameroon and
Historical context of the film.
Kassovitz has said that the idea came to him when a young Zairian, Makome
M'Bowole was shot in 1993. He was killed at point blank range while in police
custody and handcuffed to a radiator. The officer was reported to have been
angered by Makomé's words, and had been threatening him when the gun
went off accidentally.
How does the film reference this event?
Kassovitz wanted the film to be „wake up call‟ to France about the problems
of the banlieues slums.
He also wanted to express the feelings of ‘marginalisation’ many immigrant
groups felt as victims of social deprivation in a country that had ignored them
for a long time.
In addition France was in the middle of period when the extreme „far right‟
party Front National (France‟s equivalent of the BNP) where gaining support.
This is shown in the scene involving the skinhead.
Slavery in France
The dependence on
French Colonial &
WWI and WW II:
Sénégalais) French colonial
European cities by
French Immigration History
1930‟s France had a
higher percentage of
foreigners than the
Immigrants first flowed
in from neighboring
(Spain, Italy, Poland, Be
of WWI, shortage of
Recruitment of foreign
labor, mostly Polish
Increase in African
French Immigration History
Recruitment of African
labor to come and work
in factories in the
aftermath of WWII.
Establishment of harsh
living conditions to
The labourers end up
staying and bring their
Shift from “les
bidonsvilles” to “Les
Racism in France
The Extreme Right
Jean Marie LePen
on culture and ethnicity
“Second and third
Racism in France
• LePen receiving 16% of
the vote in 2002 1st round
(second largest share of
• “Vote for the crook not
• Jacques Chirac 1995 2007 - healing the social
rift (fracture sociale)
• Sarcozy 2007 – 2012
tough on immigration/
insecurity (UMP – center