Blocking and filtering alone - the systems most commonlyused by schools - cannot address very serious behaviouralissues like bullying and grooming, issues with thepotential to really impact on a childs welfare.This session looks at all online concerns from grooming topro-suicide sites to homophobic bullying. Together wewill explore the issues: what do statistics tell us? Howworried should we be? What are the solutions? Do youngpeople prefer to get help online?... and perhaps mostimportantly, what is the key to successful earlyintervention?
The ReasonBeyond online safety to offline outcomes: usingwhat we know to protect children betterHow safe do you feel online?Are you worried about identity theft?How much time do you spend setting up profile and settings?How often do you check your privacy settings?How many “friends” have you got?
Some basics2000World population – 6,115,000,000 <6%Internet users:- 360,985,4922011World population - 6,973,738,433Internet users - 2,405,518,376 >34 %
Some basicsHousehold access to the Internet2006 14.3 million households in the UK had Internet access That is 57% of households2008 More than 8 in 10 (83%) households in the UK with dependent children had Internet access2010 19.2 million households in the UK had Internet access That is 73% of householdsOffice National Statistics 2012
Some basicsChildren’s use of new technology (UK)200927% of children aged 5 to 15 who own a mobile phone had first acquired one by the time they were 8 years old65% had acquired one by the time they were 10 years oldOffice National Statistics 2012
Fact68%of children under 13 believeeverything they see onlineCEOP
Fact25%of children and young people havemet someone in the real worldwho they initially met onlineCEOP
Fact Every year in the UK 600-800 young people between the ages of 15 and 24 years take their own livesPAPYRUS Prevention of Young Suicide www.papyrus-uk.org
Fact69%of children in the UK report beingbulliedBeatBullying
Factat least 20children and adolescents a yearcommit suicide because of beingbulliedBeatBullying
Online OffendingHow many indecent images are there?NSPCC report 26 million recovered in last two years atthe rate of 35,000 a dayHow many children abused for those images?Victimless crime?????………
Fact1 in 6 children have been sexually abused by the timethey are 168 out of 10 children know their abusersThe vast majority are not reported to the PoliceRef: NSPCC Full-Stop campaign 2000The Office of Childrens Commissioner study identified16,500 children who were at "high risk of sexualexploitation" in 2010-11
Reasons for Not Reporting• “didn’t want parents to find out”• “it was nobody else’s business”• “didn’t think it was serious or wrong”• “didn’t want friends to find out”• “didn’t want the authorities to find out”• “was frightened” (24%)• “didn’t think would be believed” (13%)• “had been threatened by abuser” (7%)NSPCC survey 2000
Filtering and blocking doesnt alertyou to the behaviour of……..Online grooming andsexual exploitation
Definition of child sexual exploitationThe sexual exploitation of children and young peopleunder 18 involves exploitative situations, contexts andrelationships where young people (or a third person orpersons) receive something (e.g. food,accommodation, drugs, alcohol, cigarettes, affection,gifts, money) as a result of performing, and/or othersperforming on them, sexual activities.National Working Group for Sexually Exploited Children and Young People, 2008.
Grooming definitionA process used by people with a sexual interestin children to attempt to engage them in sexualacts either over the internet or in personIt can take place both online and offlineCEOP Thinkuknow website
StatisticsIn 2010/11 the police in England and Walesrecorded:310 offences of online sexual groominghomeoffice.gov.uk/publications/science-research-statistics/research-statistics/crime-research/hosb1011/hosb1011
Filtering and blocking doesnt alertyou to the behaviour of……..Suicide, self-harm &depression
Suicide In England and Wales alone around 24,000 attempted suicides are made by 10 to 19 year olds = one every 20 minutesIf a child is visiting suicide-related websites, theymay be in urgent need of support.PAPYRUS Prevention of Young Suicide www.papyrus-uk.org
Suicidal thoughts – Jessica O’Connell 9-year-old Jessica OConnell kept a two- year diary of events in which she describes being hit, verbally abused and held down in a swimming pool. Jessica thought about killing herself because of two years of bullying by a classmate Jessica wrote "To mummy, I wish I was dead so I dont have to suffer any more pain. I love you." Thankfully Jessica lived to tell the tale.
Final diary pages Vijay SinghVijay was 13 years old Monday: my money was taken Tuesday: names called Wednesday: my uniform torn Thursday: my body pouring with blood Friday: it’s ended Saturday: freedomHe was found hanging from the banister rail at himhome on the Sunday
Suicide studyTelevision and film 17of the 22respondents discussed the potential role of Television and Film as a source of information about suicide methods. Over 50% gave specific examples of suicides they had seen portrayed, including ‘The Bridge’ (film about jumping), ‘Casualty’ ‘Shawshank Redemption’ (film featuring hanging), ‘CSI’ (American television crime drama, hanging) and others. “You see some on T.V…Casualty. I used to watch that…the ambulance gets called to where someones tried committing suicide, or someones put their car in the garage and put an exhaust pipe in, you know.” (R22: male, hanging.)Lucy Biddle a, David Gunnell a, Amanda Owen-Smith a, John Potokar a, Damien Longson b, Keith Hawton c, Nav Kapur d, Jenny Donovan a
Suicide studyThe internet 13 respondents identified the Internet as a source of information about suicide and just over 1/3rd (n=8) discussed its role in shaping their own attempt. “I tried to kill myself with carbon monoxide” [details method]. “Why did I do that? I read on the internet that people had succeeded in killing themselves” [in that way]… “It [planning] was a couple of weeks, may be three weeks. First I looked on the internet for ways to do it… [Chosen method of poisoning] was what I thought would be like a good option I suppose and um yeah, I cant actually remember where I could get it from. I went to Google and just ordered it from somewhere.”Lucy Biddle a, David Gunnell a, Amanda Owen-Smith a, John Potokar a, Damien Longson b, Keith Hawton c, Nav Kapur d, Jenny Donovan
Suicide study 5 respondents deliberately used the internet to find out about suicide methods. It was perceived as an obvious source of information that could be accessed easily and privately. 1 respondent had used a search engine to discover a recommended ‘best’ method after previous failed attempts:‘Last time I got tablets I got them from America because I researched it on theinternet and I found what would actually work…I put in on [search engine] I thinkI put in ‘what is the best tablet to kill yourself’, I think I actually typed that in… orhow, I think I put in ‘hows the best way to kill yourself’ something like that… itcame up with that name of that [group of drugs]… then I looked on the list oftablets on the site which came up for selling them… I have taken [other drugs]before and stuff and I thought I really need to find out how to do this properly soI thought Im sure I can find out how to do it properly if I look for informationabout it. Youre not likely to just sort of ask about it to anybody so… it [theInternet] gives you all the information you need’.(R20: female, carbon monoxide poisoning and previous near-fatal overdose.)Lucy Biddle a, David Gunnell a, Amanda Owen-Smith a, John Potokar a, Damien Longson b, Keith Hawton c, Nav Kapur d, Jenny Donovan
Suicide study ‘The internet was commonly recognised as a resource that could be used purposefully to search for information about methods.’ ‘However, it seems likely that the decision to attempt suicide and the decision about how to attempt suicide are often concurrent or at least interrelated.’ A recent study suggested choice of suicide method might be more pliable in younger adults (Lin et al., 2010). Young adults may also be more susceptible to imitation effects (Pirkis and Blood, 2001b) and have higher rates of internet usage.Lucy Biddle a, David Gunnell a, Amanda Owen-Smith a, John Potokar a, Damien Longson b, Keith Hawton c, Nav Kapur d, JennyDonovan
Suicide studyInternet Searches for a Specific Suicide Method Follow Its High-Profile Media Coverage• Investigated the effect of media coverage of suicides by hydrogen sulphide gassing on trends in internet searches in 2countries.• In Japan, news reports of 3 deaths using this method in late February 2008 were followed by more than 200 hydrogen sulphide suicides during the subsequent 4 months.• This epidemic was thought to be fuelled by information on the internet about making the gas.• In the United Kingdom, extensive media coverage on 20th September 2010 of a suicide pact using this method was followed by a second hydrogen sulphide suicide pact within 10 days and another in February 2011.Am J Psychiatry 168:8, August 2011
Filtering and blocking doesnt alertyou to the behaviour of……..Cyberbullying
Beatbullying28% of 11-to-16-year-oldshave been deliberately targeted,threatened or humiliated by anindividual or group through the useof mobile phones or the internet.Virtual Violence - BeatBullying
Online Bullying30,439 children called Childline in 2010/2011 re bullying.(NSPCC Survey 2011)It is estimated that at least 20 children andadolescents a year commit suicide because ofbeing bullied(Beatbullying)
Online Bullying38% of young people have been affected by cyber-bullying, with abusive emails (26%) and text messages (24%) being the most common methods.28% of children did not tell anyone about the abuse.From: Tarapdar, Saima and Kellett, Mary (2011) Young peoples voices on cyber-bullying: what can age comparisons tellus? London: The Diana Award.
Suicide – Tyler ClementiTyler Clementi (December 19, 1991 – September 22, 2010) was an eighteen-year-old student at Rutgers University in Piscataway, New Jersey, who jumped to hisdeath from the George Washington Bridge on September 22, 2010.On September 19, his roommate, Dharun Ravi, and a fellow hall mate, Molly Wei,used a webcam on Ravis computer and a computer in Weis dorm room to view,without Clementis knowledge, Clementi kissing another man.On September 21, the day prior to the suicide, Ravi urged friends and Twitterfollowers to watch via his webcam a second tryst between Clementi and hisfriend, though the viewing never occurred.Ravi and Wei were indicted for their roles in the webcam incidents, though theywere not charged with a role in the suicide itself.Clementis death brought national and international attention to the issue ofcyberbullying and the struggles facing LGBT youth
PornographyElementary school children are developing addictions to online pornography in aworrying trend that some scientists believe is on the cusp of becoming a nationalepidemic.Several studies have discovered links between viewing online pornography and problemsincluding social isolation, performing badly in school and behavioural issues.Seven out of ten teenagers have viewed pornography on the Internet with boys atgreater risk than girls,Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation in California.
Filtering and blocking doesnt alertyou to the behaviour of……..Sexting
Sexting - DefinitionImages or videos generated by children under the age of 18, or of children under the age of 18 that are of a sexual nature or are indecent.
SextingIncidents of sexting are not clear-cut or isolated; schools encounter a variety of scenarios.Todays young people document their lives online.There is a seamless connection between their online and offline worlds.
Sexting sadnessChevonea Kendall-Bryan had threatened to jump if he did not erase the recording of herperforming a sex act on him – and climbed on to the window ledge of her fourth-floorhome.She died in Battersea, south-west London, in March 2011 at 8.10pm, in front of the boy –named only as E6 in court – who then fled the scene.Records showed she sent him a text message at 7.08pm, saying: How much can I handle?HONESTLY. I beg you, delete that.
Coroner Bernard Richmond QC, criticised thegirls secondary school for failing to deal withcomplaints of bullying.She discovered a sex tape had been made andwas being passed around the school only fourhours before her death, the court heard.
Sexting Claire, (12 or 13 years) saying of the boys in her class:“If they want oral sex, they will ask every single day until you sayyes.” Kamal, a boy in the same year, says:“Say I got a girlfriend, I would ask her to write my name on herbreast and then send it to me and then I would upload it on toFacebook or Bebo or something like that.” The profile picture on his phone, is an image of his girlfriend’s cleavage. Some of the boys at his school have explicit images of up to 30 different girls on their phone.NSPCC Report 2012
SextingThey swap images like football cards.If boys fancy a girl, they send her a picture of theirgenitals.One teenage girl said“Sending pictures of your body parts is the newflirting”.NSPCC Report 2012
Children with special educational needsTeachers and parents placed great emphasis onthe trusting nature of many of these children,who often take things at face value, maystruggle to anticipate and respond to risksinvolving deceit, may respond to inappropriaterequests (perhaps repeating inappropriatebehaviour) and may become obsessive in theironline activities.
What does Securus capture?Inappropriate material from online and offline activity – works24/7. Social networking sites Chat Rooms Peer to peer software Interactive games Websites Email Instant messenger Word, notepad etc.
How does Securus work?Display Acceptable Record and Identify risks assess risks Action & educate Use Policies Define clear boundaries Monitors your computers for Automatically takes a One to one for computer use unacceptable words, phrases screenshot of any content Group and images indicating a concern Child Protection Procedures
LibrariesAbility to include your own words in a library for specific concerns (little gossip)Ability to adjust levels of severity/concernAbility to adjust the libraries for pupilsAbility to review captures remotelyCan assist schools to resolve issues between pupils, parents and/or teachers
A Securus screen capture, flagged by suicide/self-harm User: PC Date/Time: PC Name: IP: LEECO/MILLERE 119/04/2011 12:15:17 ComputerLab-01 204:29:106:254 Phrase / Severity (total/count): Source: Library: TAKING AN OVERDOSE / 90(240/1 Keyboard BULLYING Server Time: Server Received Time: First Viewed by: First Viewed Time: 19/04/2011 18:15:21 19/04/2011 18:16:15 firstname.lastname@example.org
A Securus screen capture flagged for bullying User: PC Date/Time: PC Name: IP: LEECO/MILLERE 11/04/2011 11:32:22 BUH-LA4-008 204:29:106:254 Phrase / Severity (total/count): Source: Library: WHORES / 80(470/1) Keyboard PORN Server Time: Server Received Time: First Viewed by: First Viewed Time: 11/04/2011 17:32:26 11/04/2011 17:52:39 email@example.com 12/04/2011 04:49:01
Action & EducateDecide the best course of action:• One to one - Teacher• One to one - Teacher & parent• Classroom discussion - Teacher• Assembly - Senior Management Team• Child protection procedures – CPLO (child protection liaison officer)• Schools communication network e.g. ‘littlegossip