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Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!
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Lean roots to grow, wings to fly!

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A lot has been said about Kanban and how these can be implemented in Software development, but the learning remains superficial till we go deep down to its roots to understand the core underlying …

A lot has been said about Kanban and how these can be implemented in Software development, but the learning remains superficial till we go deep down to its roots to understand the core underlying practices and principles and why/how these practices evolved over a period of time. Infact the roots of most of the Agile methods can be traced back to Lean/Toyota Production Systems, a set of practices and techniques used by Toyota to build great set of cars with limited amount of resources. Even though building software is much different than building a car, there are many lessons and practices that can be learnt and applied nonetheless.

In these slides, I have shared some of the best practices/concepts that originated at Toyota for building "world-class" cars and discuss how each of these can be applied to software development.

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  • Introduced in Oct, 1989, to commemorate the 50th year of the company. Took 5 years to develop the logo There are 3 ovals combined in a horizontally symmetrical configuration. The 2 perpendicular ovals inside the larger oval represent the heart of the customer and the heart of the company. They are overlapped to represent a mutually beneficial relationship and trust between each other. It also symbolizes "T" for Toyota, as well as a steering wheel, The outer oval symbolizes the world embracing Toyota. Each oval is contoured with different stroke thicknesses, similar to the "brush" art known in Japanese culture.
  • Henry Ford froze the design of the Model T. Freezing the design of the Model T catalyzed the speed of this virtuous circle, allowing him to better refine the moving assembly line process, which in turn allowed him to cut costs further, lower prices even further, and drive the growth of Ford Motor Company from 10,000 cars manufactured in 1908 to 472,350 cars in 1915 to 933,720 cars in 1920.In 1921, the Ford Motor Company sold about 2/3 of all the cars built in the U.S. By 1926, this share had fallen to approximately 1/3. And in 1927, when Ford belatedly responded (at tremendous financial cost and internal strife) to changes in the market’s tastes and competitive innovation by shutting down production temporarily to re-tool his factories and bring the Model A to the market, that percentage fell to about 15%.
  • Henry Ford froze the design of the Model T. Freezing the design of the Model T catalyzed the speed of this virtuous circle, allowing him to better refine the moving assembly line process, which in turn allowed him to cut costs further, lower prices even further, and drive the growth of Ford Motor Company from 10,000 cars manufactured in 1908 to 472,350 cars in 1915 to 933,720 cars in 1920.In 1921, the Ford Motor Company sold about 2/3 of all the cars built in the U.S. By 1926, this share had fallen to approximately 1/3. And in 1927, when Ford belatedly responded (at tremendous financial cost and internal strife) to changes in the market’s tastes and competitive innovation by shutting down production temporarily to re-tool his factories and bring the Model A to the market, that percentage fell to about 15%.
  • Japan i/dʒəˈpæn/ (Japanese: 日本 Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国  Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku, literally "[the] State of Japan"). The English word Japan derives from the Chinese pronunciation of the Japanese name, 日本, pronounced Nippon  listen (help·info)or Nihon  listen (help·info) in Japanese. The pronunciation Nippon is more formal, and is in Japanese used for most official purposes, including international sporting events.
  • The son of a poor carpenter, Toyoda is referred to as the "King of Japanese Inventors".
  • The first power loom invented in Japan was the device awarded patent No. 3173 "Loom" in August 1898. During his lifetime, Sakichi was awarded a total of 45 industrial property rights, including 40 patents and five utility model rights. Furthermore, he filed eight of his Japanese patents in 19 countries outside Japan, obtaining 62 overseas patents in total1The Toyoda Power Loom featured a weft halting device1 which automatically stopped the machine when the weft thread in the shuttle broke or was exhausted. In power looms, if the weft or the warp thread breaks and the machine is not stopped immediately, faults can occur, such as the warp continuing to be incorporated into the fabric without the weft, or the broken warp thread being left out, leading to the output of damaged fabric. Sakichi Toyoda researched systems to prevent such faults, and in addition to the weft halting device mentioned above, also made several other inventions and improvements, including a system for maintaining a constant tension of the warp thread to prevent breakages, and a warp halting device to stop the loom when the warp thread broke.
  • History behind name change from Toyoda to Toyota:- Toyota originated from the family name of the founder, "Toyoda", with early vehicles produced by the company originally sold with a "Toyoda" emblem. In 1936, the company ran a public competition to design a new logo, which lead to the name "Toyota". Key reasons :- Voiceless consonants in Toyotasound more appealing than voiced consonants. Through the concept of "jikaku" (counting the number of strokes in writing characters to determine good and bad luck), its eight-stroke count is associated with wealth and good fortune. Lastly, the change also signified the expansion of an small independent company to a larger corporate enterprise.Also, In Japanese, “Toyo” signifies abundance, and “ta” means rice. In some Asian cultures, the rice represents wealth.
  • Jidoka is providing machines and operators the ability to detect when an abnormal condition has occurred and immediately stop work. This enables operations to build-in quality at each process and to separate men and machines for more efficient work. Jidoka is one of the two pillars of the Toyota Production System along with just-in-time. Jidoka is sometimes called autonomation, meaning “automation with human intelligence”.One operator could oversee 30 looms at a time.-Quality must be built in during the manufacturing process!-For the Just-in-Time system to function, all of the parts that are made and supplied must meet predetermined quality standards. This is achieved through jidoka.Since a machine automatically stops when processing is completed or when a problem arises and is communicated via the "andon" (problem display board), operators can confidently continue performing work at another machine, as well as easily identify the problem's cause to prevent its recurrence.This means that each operator can be in charge of many machines, resulting in higher productivity, while continuous improvements lead to greater processing capacity.
  • The Japanese term jidoka comprises three Chinese characters and is an untranslatable play on words.The first character, "ji" refers to the worker herself. If he feels “something is wrong” or “I am creating a defect”, he must stop the line."Do" refers to motion or work, and "ka" to the suffix “-ation”.
  • Andon is a manufacturing term referring to a system to notify management, maintenance, and other workers of a quality or process problem. The centrepiece is a signboard incorporating signal lights to indicate which workstation has the problem.Shop floor workers are empowered to stop the assembly line anytime they spot any problem. The Andon boards display the problem area,at times even play alarm and get the shop floor managers attention to look at the problem immediately. Stopping the line costs money, but that’s the core philosophy of “building the quality in” i.e. jidoka.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B_nSvN_L4hc
  • The Japanese term jidoka comprises three Chinese characters and is an untranslatable play on words.The first character, "ji" refers to the worker herself. If he feels “something is wrong” or “I am creating a defect”, he must stop the line."Do" refers to motion or work, and "ka" to the suffix “-ation”.
  • https://github.com/codedance/Retaliation
  • Genchi Genbutsu means go and see" and it is a key principle of the Toyota Production System. It suggests that in order to truly understand a situation one needs to go to gemba (現場) or, the 'real place' - where work is done.This attitude of Genchi Genbutsu is also called Gemba attitude. Gemba is the Japanese term for "the place" in this case 'the place where it actually happens'. Since real value is created at the shopfloor in manufacturing, this is where management need to spend their time."Gemba attitude" reflects the idea that whatever reports and measures and ideas are transmitted to management they are only an abstraction of what is actually going on in thegemba to create value. Metrics and reports will reflect the attitudes of the management questioner and the workplace responder as well as how the responder views the questioner. It also increases the chance that actual issues and unplanned events will be observed first hand and can be managed immediately; this includes issues that are not apparent to thegemba workforce.http://www.economist.com/node/14299017When asked to resolve a problem, Japanese managers go to see the place where it has arisen. American managers generally make their diagnosis from a distance.Genchi genbutsu involves going to thegemba to check on the genbutsu (the relevant objects). http://www.shmula.com/genchi-genbutsu-ethnography/341/
  • http://www.slideshare.net/frankmt/kaizen-legogame?from_search=5http://www.slideshare.net/onimproving/using-5-whys-to-find-root-cause
  • http://www.shmula.com/everyday-poka-yoke-preventing-theft/1993/
  • Only what is needed, when it is needed, and in the amount needed.One of the two main pillars of TPS. It refers to the manufacturing and conveyance of only “what is needed, when it is needed, and in the amount needed.” It is built upon three basic principles:The Pull SystemContinuous Flow ProcessingTakt time
  • A small sign that is the key control for the Just-In-Time production; it serves as:Instruction for production and conveyanceVisual control tool to check for over production and to detect irregular processing speedsTool to perform kaizen- Why use a supermarket concept?A supermarket stocks the items needed by its customers when they are needed in the quantity needed, and has all of these items available for sale at any given time.TaiichiOhno (a former Toyota vice president), who promoted the idea of Just-in-Time, applied this concept, equating the supermarket and the customer with the preceding process and the next process, respectively. By having the next process (the customer) go to the preceding process (the supermarket) to retrieve the necessary parts when they are needed and in the amount needed, it was possible to improve upon the existing inefficient production system. No longer were the preceding processes making excess parts and delivering them to the next process.
  •  Kai = Change and Zen = Good/Be; together Kaizen stands for a small methodical continuous improvement stepsthat should be implemented daily .leancor.com/index.php Continuously improving in incremental steps. leanmfgsolutions.com/glossary.html literally translates to ‘continuous improvement’ in English. Kaizen activities are small, incremental activities performed over time where Kaikaku a radical and one- off. .richarddurnall.com /define Kaizen
  • Transcript

    • 1. - Nitin Ramrakhyani Director – Products, Digite Inc. Bangalore, India. 28th Feb, 2014
    • 2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 自働化 看板 行灯 ポカヨケ 現地現物 無駄 斑 無理 改善 整理 整頓
    • 3. View more at https://www.vizify.com/nitin-ramrakhyani
    • 4.    Lean Basics :- 11+ Japanese terms from Toyota Production Systems( TPS) / Lean. 11+ new ideas/ tools – the weapons of mass destruction/ production lean improvement that you can apply Today. A better perspective of Lean/ Agile
    • 5. "It doesn't matter what you do, it matters Why you do it." - Simon Sinek Source :- http://www.startwithwhy.com
    • 6. Source :- http://cdnbusinessexcellence.files.wordpress.com/2010/10/evolution-of-lean-history-timeline-toyota1.png
    • 7. Henry Ford (1863-1947). Founder of Ford Motors
    • 8. Ford Model T - 1908
    • 9. Sakichi Toyoda (1867-1930), King of Japanese Inventors
    • 10. The Type-G Toyoda Automatic Loom, the world's first automatic loom with a non-stop shuttlechange motion. Invented in 1924. This loom automatically stopped when it detected a problem such as thread breakage.
    • 11. •In 1936, the company ran a public competition to design a new logo, which lead to the name "Toyota“. They got some 27000 entries and chose this one. •Through the concept of "jikaku" (counting the number of strokes in writing characters to determine good and bad luck), its eight-stroke count is associated with wealth and good fortune. •Also, In Japanese, “Toyo” signifies abundance, and “ta” means rice. In some Asian cultures, the rice represents wealth.
    • 12. “jido” – automation, Automation with a human touch or intelligence.
    • 13. Improve Detect deviation Identify the root cause Stop the line Fix the problem Notify/ Alert
    • 14.  Andons are used to visually signal an abnormal situation. Source : http://andon-display.com
    • 15. Source :- http://www.qualitydigest.com/april03/articles/03_article.shtml
    • 16. Source :- http://h30499.www3.hp.com/t5/Application-Lifecycle-Management/What-types-of-software-testing-matter-to-you
    • 17. Improve Detect deviation Identify the root cause Stop the line Fix the problem Notify/ Alert
    • 18. Source : http://www.targetprocess.com/blog/category/tool
    • 19. Source :- http://www.pragmaticautomation.com/cgi-bin/pragauto.cgi
    • 20. http://www.papercut.com/blog/chris/2011/08/19/who-broke-the-build/ https://github.com/codedance/Retaliation
    • 21.    to avoid (yokeru) inadvertent errors (poka) Mistake proofing or fool-proofing. Its purpose is to eliminate product defects by preventing, correcting, or drawing attention to human errors as they occur
    • 22. http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/operations/when_toyota_met_e-commerce_lean_at_amazon
    • 23. Taiichi Ohno (1912-1990), considered Father of Toyota Production Systems
    • 24. W. Edward Deming (1900-1993). Statistician, Author, Lecturer & Consultant, Author of ‘Out of the Crisis’
    • 25. Build only what is needed, when it is needed, and in the amount needed.
    • 26. Won’t it be cool if we delivered features to our customers this way? Img source: - http://procarecms.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/pizza.jpg
    • 27.   Build features what your Customer “really” wants and when he wants. Don’t : Build features that nobody needs right now  Write more specs than you can code  Write more code than you can test  Test more code than you can deploy  Work on Tickets/ Transactions that are not priority
    • 28. Source: - http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dn449950.aspx
    • 29. Implement “Pull” in your process
    • 30. Source : http://www.agilecoach.net/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/toyota-way-handout.pdf
    • 31. Build Quality In, Automate, Autonomate ( Jidoka) Use visual signals to highlight problems. ( Andon) 3. Mistake proof the system ( Pokayoke) 4. Try to get to the root-cause of the problem ( 5-Whys) 5. Get your hands dirty!( Genchi Gembutsu) 6. Build only what is needed, when it is needed, and in the amount needed ( Just-in-time) 7. Create continuous flow ( Continuous Flow) 8. Eliminate Wastes, remove non-value adding steps ( Muda) 9. Reduce unevenness (Mura), overloading (Muri) 10. Enable “pull” in the system, limit “work-in-progress”. (Kanban) 11. Keep learning ! ( Kaizen) 1. 2.
    • 32.           http://www.toyota-global.com The Toyota Way, Jeffrey Liker The Toyota Way Fieldbook, Jeffrey Liker and David Meier The Birth of Lean, Takahiro Fujimoto,Koichi Shimokawa www.Wikipedia.org http://www.infoq.com/interviews/TPS-roots-of-agile http://www.richarddurnall.com/?p=28 www.InfoQ.com http://www.shmula.com/ Lean Software Development, Mary and Tom Poppendieck
    • 33. Reach me at : nitinr30@gmail.com  @nitinr30/ @productician  http://nitin-ramrakhyani.com

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