The History of Islamic Bank - Chap 1 (Islamic Banking)


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This is the first chapter of Islamic Banking course (FAB 1233), Astin College, Puchong. Using the book of Islamic Finance and Banking system by Sudin Haron and Wan Nursofiza Wan Azmi as the main reference.

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The History of Islamic Bank - Chap 1 (Islamic Banking)

  1. 1. Chapter 1 History and development of the Islamic banking system. Nor Izzuddin Bin Norrahman BBA. (Hons) Islamic Finance
  2. 2. Contents… • History of Islamic Banking – Early era – Middle era – Modern era • Development of Islamic banking system in selected countries. – – – – Malaysia Egypt Sudan Iran
  3. 3. Introduction • Islamic banking system (IBS) is defined as a banking system whose principles of its operations and activities are founded on Shariah rules. • Islam forbids Riba which is includes in the transaction of conventional banking. So, Islamic banking system which is free from Riba has to be establish for the sake of the ummah.
  4. 4. History of Islamic Banking • The establishment of Islamic bank is in 1960’s. • However, banking activities exist long before the 1960’s in the Islamic history. • Before the era of Prophet Muhammad p.b.u.h, there were trade activities conducted in Mecca. • These activities continued even after Islam became rooted in Mecca and Medina.
  5. 5. Continue… • From the historical point of view, Islamic banking can be divided into three eras: – First era (Early era) • The early year of Islam until the period of Caliph arRashidin – Second era (Middle era) • Streches from the era of the caliphates until the fall of the Uthmaniyah Empire. – Third era (Modern era) • The era of modern Islamic banking.
  6. 6. Early Era • Before Prophet Muhammad p.b.u.h received the divine revelations, Mecca was a city of trade. • Its business activities continued even after Islam became rooted there. • Example of the activities: Safe-keeping • There were activities that not against the Shariah rules and there were also activities that against it.
  7. 7. Continue… • With the arrival of Islam, the practice of Riba was no longer permitted. • Nevertheless, activities which is not against the Shariah rules were allowed.
  8. 8. Middle era • Began with the end of the reign of Caliph Uthman in the year 661 A.C. • It witnessed the continuation of banking activities which were practiced in the early era of Islam. • With the fall of Islamic empire and followed by the fall of the roman empire, there were significant adverse impact on the economic activities of Muslim countries.
  9. 9. Continue… • European countries in the 12th century revived the economic and expand it to the Muslim countries. • Islamic banking system was failed to expand on that era. • However, the development of Islamic banking system took place in terms of fatwa by Muslim jurists pertaining to issues of muammalat, particularly those involving Riba.
  10. 10. Modern Era • Started with the establishment of Mit Ghamr Savings Bank in 1963 • This is however does not mean that no earlier attempts were made. • Mit Ghamr Savings Bank – From Egypt – Provided basic banking services. • • • • • Deposits Loans Equity Participation Direct Investment Social Service – Used the Shariah principles which well received by the local community and the farmers.
  11. 11. Continue… • Set back for Mit Ghamr Savings Bank – Mid-1967 – Political unrest in Egypt, the operations were taken over by the National Bank of Egypt. – Interest-free operations were reverted to interestbased system • However, the operations of interest-free banking were studied by Muslim scholars all over the world.
  12. 12. Continue… • The problems are the scarcity and unavailability of proper guidelines concerning principles and practices of the interest-free banking. • So, the first task is to formulate the guidelines and the frameworks on the practical aspects of Islamic Banking System. • Another problem arose where it was a daunting task finding Muslim Economists who were also well versed in the knowledge of Shariah laws.
  13. 13. Continue… • The need to establish an Islamic Banking System reach its peak around 1970’s. • The action were taken by private initiatives rather than the government. • King Faisal bin Abdul Aziz al-saud (The late Saudi Arabian King)establish the Organization of Islamic Countries (OIC) and urged Muslim countries to set up their own Islamic Banking System.
  14. 14. Continue… • The result: – The establishment of Islamic Development Bank (IDB) in 1975. – Dubai Islamic Bank (1975) – Faisal Islamic Bank of Egypt (1977) – Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad (1983)
  15. 15. Continue… • With the establishment of the Islamic bank, it continues with: – Islamic inter-bank Money Market (1994). – Establishment of Accounting and Auditing Organization For Islamic Financial Institution (AAOIFI) in 1990. – Other establishment.
  16. 16. Modern Era Middle Era Early Era
  17. 17. Developments of Islamic Financial and Banking Institutes According to Specific Periods • 1950s – Models of Islamic Banking and financial system was presented. – Twin mudharabah concept were suggested. • 1960s – – – – The practice began. The recommendation of Operation mechanisms for IFI. Rise and fall of Mit Ghamr Savings Bank. Establishment of Tabung Haji in Malaysia, 1966. • 1970s – – – – Islamic Financial Institutions were established. (Banks / non-banks) Academic institutions were set up. The establishment of Mudharabah financial mechanism. Research center, publications of books and the held of International Islamic Economics Conference were done.
  18. 18. Developments of Islamic Financial and Banking Institutes According to Specific Periods • 1980s – – – – – – – – – Government intervention. More private sector banks. Variety of Islamic Banking products. More scholars and economist in the west who interested in Islamic Banking. Conventional Banks offer Islamic Banking Window. Growth of Islamic Index and trust funds. Pakistan, Sudan, Iran and Malaysia attemped to use the Islamic system. Establishment of Fiqh Academy of OIC and other Fiqh Boards. Establishment of Islamic trust funds. • 1990s – – – – – Growth in the Islamic window concept. Enhancement in asset-based financial instrument. Establishment of Islamic Index. Regulations and supervision given attention. Standards of AAOIFI issued.
  19. 19. Developments of Islamic Financial and Banking Institutes According to Specific Periods • Early 2000s – – – – – – – Continuous growth Completion of the architecture of Islamic Finance. Attention on Risk management and corporate control. Capitalization of Islamic banks trough mergers. Creation of asset-backed securities market. The formation of IFSB in 2002. Establishment of the International Islamic Rating Body, Bahrain.
  20. 20. History of Islamic Banking System in Egypt • Started with the establishment of Mit Ghamr Savings Bank in 1963 • Followed by: – Nasser Social Bank in 1972 – Faisal Islamic Bank in 1977, and – International Bank for Investment and Development in 1980. • Offers 2 types of deposit accounts: – Savings Account • Interest-free – Investments Account • Profit and loss sharing
  21. 21. Continue… • Due to the political changes in Egypt, its operation suffer a setback. • Taken over by the National Bank of Egypt in mid-1967. • Thus, riba based financing were introduced. • In 1971, the Islamic Banking system was revived by Anwar al-Sadat when the government established the Naseer Social Bank in 1972.
  22. 22. History of Islamic Banking System in Sudan • Underwent two distinct periods: – Period of full government support • Enjoyed encouragement and full support from the government. • Rapid development of Islamic banking in Sudan. – Period of distress in the banking sector • When the support was withdrawn, banks in Sudan faced with obstacles.
  23. 23. Continue… • The concept of Islamic banking was first introduced in Sudan with the establishment of Faisal Islamic Bank of Sudan (FIBS) in 1977. • Under a special law known as the FIBS Act of the national people’s council. • In 1984, the government Islamized the entire banking system.
  24. 24. History of Islamic Banking System in Iran • As with Pakistan, Iran has also converted its entire financial system to Islamic Banking System. • Began with Islamic revolution in 1979. • Implemented in a gradual basis. • Took 6 years for the system to fully implemented. • First step: introduction of a service charge to replace the riba system in 1981.
  25. 25. Continue… • A committee comprising bankers, academicians, businessman and ulama’ proposed a legislation called Law for Usury-Free Banking in August 1983. • The law required banks in Iran to fully convert their operations in accordance with Syariah principles.
  26. 26. History of Islamic Banking System in Malaysia • Started with Islamic resurgence movement in 1970s. • In 1980, Bumiputra Economic Congress made a resolution – required the government to allow the pilgrimage board (Known as Lembaga Tabung Haji) to establish an Islamic Banking. • 1981 – The government appointed National Steering Committee on Islamic Banking to studied the operations of FIBE and FIBS. • A report was made by the committee and submitted to the government on 1982.
  27. 27. Continue… • 1983 – Islamic Banking Act was gazetted and came to effect on 7 April 1983. • The first Islamic bank – Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad (BIMB) was establish under Companies act 1965 on 1 March 1983 and commenced operations on 1 July of the same year. • 1994 – The government launched the “Interestfree Banking Scheme”. • The scheme allow financial institutions to offer Islamic Banking products and services.
  28. 28. Continue… • 1994 – Islamic inter-bank market was introduced. • 1997 – BNM established the National Shariah Advisory Council on Islamic Banking and Takaful (NSAC). • 1999 – Second full-fledged Islamic Banking was established, the Bank Muammalat Malaysia Berhad (BMMB). • 2004 – BNM allow foreign Islamic Bank to operate in Malaysia. • 2006 – The launching of the Malaysia International Islamic Finance Center (MIFC).
  29. 29. Summary • The system can be traced back to the early days of Islam. • The banking activities were done in the time of Prophet Muhammad p.b.u.h. but were not developed. • With the rise of Europe in 12th century, the conventional banking system was introduced to the Islamic countries and Islamic banking were ceased to exist.
  30. 30. Continue… • The establishment of Mit Ghamr Savings Bank in 1963 sparked the Islamic countries to set up their own Islamic Bank. • However, the development of the Islamic Banking differed one from the another Islamic countries. • Until then, Islamic continues to grow and in 2008, there were more 300 Islamic Banks in the world.
  31. 31. The end of Chapter 1
  32. 32. Tutorials • Please find out the current amount of Islamic Bank in Malaysia (categorized it with local or foreign bank) and the world. • The different between Early era of Islamic Banking with the Modern era of Islamic Banking.
  33. 33. Refference • Sudin Haron, W. Nursofiza, (2009). Islamic Finance and Banking System : Philosophies, Principles & Practices. Selangor, Malaysia. McGraw-Hill (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd.