Commercial Data Processing Intro
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  • 1. Commercial Data Processing Sometimes known as CDP
  • 2. What is CDP?
    • It is the use of computers by business to do the work that is normally handled by clerical staff.
  • 3. The Data Processing cycle
    • There are several steps to CDP
    • Data collection and preparation
    • Data input
    • Data storage and manipulation
    • Information output
  • 4. Collecting and preparing
    • Tags on clothes
    • Helps the store keep control of their stock
    • Can change the price once centrally
  • 5. Bar Codes This is a series of vertical lines of varying thickness. These are read by a laser pen or laser which converts it to binary code
  • 6. Magnetic Strip
    • Similar to bar codes only the binary information is contained in a magnetic strip
    • Bank cards are a good example of this form of input
  • 7. Optical Character recognition
    • Used in gas and electricity bills where the customer returns the ocr printed invoice with the payment.
    • The characters are read directly from the documents
    • This is called a turnaround document.same doc sent back as was sent out +payment.
  • 8. Magnetic Ink Character recognition
    • MICR
    • Uses magnetic ink to print info on cheques.
    • Banks can speed up their processing
    • Cheque forgery more difficult
  • 9. Smart Cards
    • Hold info on a chip instead of magnetic stripe.
    • More difficult to forge
    • Hold a lot of data
    • Chip and pin now in shops
  • 10. Point of Sales Terminals
    • POS: Shops use these to enter data about goods being purchased.
    • It reads in the data using barcodes.
    • It totals the cost before printing the receipt
    • Info about the purchase sent to stock control that monitors stock levels. Automatically generates orders to keep stock levels up.
    • Advantages: Stock control carried out by computer rather than staff
    • Customer bills calculated accurately
    • Bar codes means goods are processed quicker
    • Prices can be adjustesd using the computer
    • Sjelves always stocked!
  • 11. How is data input checked?
    • When lot of data input it is easy to make mistakes
    • Most input mentioned is key to disc which means that there is less likelihood of human error
    • Verification: operator at keyboard asked to confirm details Y/N?
    • Validation:checks made by computer
  • 12. Types of Validation
    • Eg. Range check.. Checking within certain boundaries age can’t be less than 1 or greater than 150.
    • Length.. If account no 10 numbers long then less than 10 or more than 10 input would be invalid
    • Type of data.. If text expected then numbers would not be allowed
    • Presence check: checks to make sure data not been completely left out
    • Check digits:a number calculated by computer to ensure other numbers in sequence entered correctly. PIN that’s used wuth credit cards
  • 13. Electronic funds Transfer
    • EFT:Transfers money directly between bank and accounts using computer systems. Bank debit cards used
    • Card is passed through a reader.
    • Authenticates card
    • Customers bank then contacted to see if enough funds available
    • If enough funds, transaction carried out
    • Receipt printed and funds electronically transferred to shops account
  • 14. Who Benefits?
    • Customers need not carry large amounts of cash around
    • Companies get payments for their products transferred straight into their accounts
  • 15. Processing and Storing Data
    • There are 2 types of processing
    • BATCH
  • 16. Interactive Processing
    • Relies on REAL TIME processing
    • The computer system processes the data immediately data entered. User has immediate feedback.
    • Booking cinema theatre, flight tickets
  • 17. Batch processing
    • All the jobs that come in during the day are saved up and then processed all at the same time.
    • This is usually done at night when computer processor not being used for other things. User input not generally needed once initial input started.
    • Bank statements, gas and electricity bills and salary lsips are all batch processed
  • 18. File Storage
    • Held on Hard drives
    • Backing storage would have employee information, customer information…
    • The data in files is constantly updated to make sure files are accurate.
    • Files are backed up regularly incase data needs to be recovered immediatley
  • 19. Multi-user Database
    • A database that allows many users to access at the same time.
    • If authorised user can update data for other users
    • E-booking: can book self in on a flight. Passenger info held on multiuser database updated as passengers check in.
  • 20. Sequential and Random Access to Files
    • Sequential access: goes to each record in file one after other.
    • Used mostly for backup as slow to access the data. ( Tapes)
    • Random or Direct access: System goes directly to data it requires. Essential for interactive processing where data processed immediately.
  • 21. Output of Information
    • Computer Data Processing systems use very powerful systems known as mainframe computers.
    • Large internal memory
    • High capacity of backing storage
    • Terminals are usually attached to them ( monitor, keyboard )
    • Output usually via Monitors or printers
  • 22. CDP Jobs
    • Systems Analyst: decides what computer hardware and software needed to do the job.Oversees the installation and testing of the entire system
    • Programmers: take the software design that system analyst produces, writes and tests the programs
  • 23. Jobs contd
    • Engineers: install the hardware and cabelling and called in to carry out maintenance
    • Network Manager: controls who gets access to system. User id codes, level of priority permission
    • Controls installation of hardware and software
  • 24. E-Commerce
    • This is the use of networks to allow people to buy and sell goods
    • Travel: People can now book their train seats, flights, hotel rooms by using an on-line booking system.People can not only book seats but check themselves in at airport
  • 25. Costs
    • Initial costs of system
    • Buying hardware
    • Installing the cabels
    • Employing system analysts and programmers
    • Training courses
  • 26. Costs : running
    • Wages of ICT staff, maintenance, instalation of new hardware
    • Consumables:paper, toner backup tapes
    • Electricity and communication bills
  • 27. Crime and data security
    • Hacking: stealing ID and passwords to access system
    • Copying sensitive data
    • Installing viruses
    • Stealing money from accounts
  • 28. Security
    • Data Protection Act : companies must have security measures in place to keep personal info safe
    • Passwords, locked safes, keypad access. Virus protection and disinfectants
    • Only relevent staff get access to certain info
    • Smartcards that hold eye scan info
    • Encryption: data encoded so hackers cannot understand it.