Making Things Simpler: How Primitives Help Integrate BPM and Enterprise Architecture

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Presentation about the US Department of Defense Primitives project, which aims at creating design guidelines for modelers using BPMN and related techniques. Presented at the 2010 Building Business Capability conference, Alexandria, VA, October 21, 2010.

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Making Things Simpler: How Primitives Help Integrate BPM and Enterprise Architecture

  1. 1. Making Things Simpler How Primitives help integrate BPM and Enterprise Architecture Michael zur Muehlen, Ph.D. Center for Business Process Innovation Howe School of Technology Management Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken NJ Michael.zurMuehlen@stevens.edu 1
  2. 2. Why Enterprise Architecture? To Understand Analyze what already exist Assess what will be Main purpose: People Integration/Conversation To Build Design what will be within today’s constraints Set objectives and constraints for detailed specifications Main purpose: Instruction/Guideline To Verify Provide a framework for others Evaluate current practice against existing guidelines Main purpose: Compliance/Control 2
  3. 3. Background Business Enterprise Architecture (BEA) Captures Business Mission Area Processes Acquisition Management Common Supplier Engagement Human Resource Management Financial Management Real Property Management Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DoDAF) Defines Architecture Perspectives Subsets mandated (e.g. for large systems development) 3
  4. 4. What are Good Models? Correct Relevant Economical Model Quality Clear Comparable Systematic 4
  5. 5. Part 1 Painting the right Picture 5
  6. 6. Why BPMN? Dominant Standard for Process Modeling Better Event-handling than UML Activity Diagrams Better Organization Modeling than IDEF0 Better Cross-Organization Modeling than FlowCharts Ratified by Object Management Group = Open Standard Over 70 Implementations = Tool Support Certification and Training Available = Modeler Support 22
  7. 7. Isn’t That Enough? Tool Vendors support BPMN subsets Not all constructs implemented, supported at runtime Tool Vendors “enhance” BPMN with proprietary symbols Pretty, but not interoperable 23
  8. 8. BPMN Support Enterprise Architect 7.1 Process Platform 4.5 System Architect 11 Enhydra JaWe 2.4-1 Modeler for Visio IDS Scheer ARIS TIBCO Business itPearls Process SunGard Infinity Sparxsystems ProVision 6.1 BizAgi 0.66.2 Toolset 7.02 Studio 3.0.1 BPMN Primitives Symbol Connecting Objects Sequence Flow X X X X X X X X X Message Flow X X X X X X X X Association X X X X X X X Task X X X X X X X X X Sub-Process (Collapsed) X X X X X X X Activities Sub-Process (Expanded) X X X X Loop X O X X X X X X Multiple Instance X O X X X X X Start Event X X X X X X X X X Start Message X X X X X X X X Start Events Start Timer X X X X X X X X Start Conditional X X X X X X X X Start Signal X X Interm. Catching Events Intermediate Catching Message X X X X X X Intermediate Catching Timer X X X X X X Intermediate Catching Conditional X X X X X X Intermediate Catching Signal X X Interm.Throw Intermediate Throwing Message .Events X X Intermediate Throwing Signal X X End Event X X X X X X X X X End Events End Message X X X X X X X End Signal X X Swimlanes Pool X X X X X X X X Lane X X X X X X X X Data-based Exclusive Gateway X X X X X X X X Gateways Event-based Exclusive Gateway X X X X X X X Parallel Gateway X X X X X X X X Inclusive Gateway X X X X X X X 8 Arti- fact Data Object X X X X X X X
  9. 9. Isn’t That Enough? Tool Vendors support BPMN subsets Not all constructs implemented, supported at runtime Tool Vendors “enhance” BPMN with proprietary symbols Pretty, but not interoperable BPMN is too rich for its own good Multiple ways to depict the same content Slow uptake of full symbol-set in practice Even experienced modelers make mistakes using more exotic symbols 23
  10. 10. Current Practice (Legal) 10
  11. 11. Current Practice (Not so Legal) ‣ Events cannot have any attached events: Syntax violation ‣ Start Event Type cannot be attached to other objects: Syntax violation ‣ Precedence relationship among messages is not clear ‣ Uncontrolled Sequence Flow does not clarify preconditions ‣ Relation of additional Document Flow to Sequence Flow is not clear
  12. 12. Design Primitives BPMN Symbols Some Symbols are “outlawed” Conditional Sequence Flow Certain Event Types Certain Activity Types Complex Gateways Best practices for common modeling scenarios 6
  13. 13. Which BPMN Modeling subset do Practice people use? Δ = untapped potential Δ = skill deficit OR unnecessary features What can the How should you BPMN use BPMN? express? Modeling Practice BPMN BPMN Best Features Practice Δ = standard design flaws 13
  14. 14. + Pool, Lane, Grouping, Annotation, Document, Transaction Boundary... BPMN 1.0 - Elements Available 14
  15. 15. + Pool, Lane, Grouping, Annotation, Document, Transaction Boundary... Sample Project - Elements Used 15
  16. 16. Normal Flow Task End Event Start Event / Event Pool Data-Based XOR Start Message Text Annotation Message Flow Parallel Fork/Join Lanes Gateway Sub-Process (Collapsed) Association Data Object Intermediate Timer Intermediate Message End Terminate Sub-Process (Expanded) End Link Default Flow Inclusive Decision/Merge Activity Looping Exception Task Start Link End Message End Exception Complex Decision/Merge Event-Based XOR Multiple Instance Group three sources: Transaction Intermediate Event End Cancel Compensation Intermediate Compensation Long-tail usage pattern Consulting Projects Conditional Flow Exception Flow Intermediate Link Web (random collection) Start Timer BPMN Seminar participants Off-page connector Start Rule Source: 126+ BPMN diagrams from Intermediate Rule be found among any of the diagrams Intermediate Multiple Some BPEL-related primitives could not End Compensation Start Multiple Web Frequency of BPMN Symbol Use Intermediate Exception Seminar Intermediate Cancel Consulting End Multiple 16 Compensation Association
  17. 17. 17
  18. 18. Solution: Primitives 18
  19. 19. Common Pitfalls Conditions as Activities Gateways without Decisions States as Activities 19
  20. 20. Conditions as Activities Situation: After an Exclusive of Inclusive OR Gateway I need to show how work is routed based on the evaluation of a condition 20
  21. 21. Gateways without Decisions Situation: As soon as work arrives it is sorted into different categories for further processing. 21
  22. 22. States as Activities Situation: How do I model work where no value-added work is performed? 22
  23. 23. Solution: Primitives & Patterns 23
  24. 24. Patterns are composed of Primitives! Low- and High-Level Patterns 24
  25. 25. BPMN 2.0 Conformance Class 25
  26. 26. Part 2 Finding the right Words 26
  27. 27. Model Design Conventions BPMN Model Design Naming Conventions for Activities Best practices for labeling of activities and objects Ties to Common Vocabulary Layout Conventions Use of Pools/Lanes Placement of Gateways 20
  28. 28. Enterprise Architecture Big Picture Defined by Architecture Modeling Language described by Model captures Structure Model Model Model Model Domain captures Content Organized by DM2 28
  29. 29. Enterprise Architecture Big Picture Defined by Architecture Modeling Language described by Model captures Model Data Structure saved as Model Model Model Model Domain captures Vocabulary Content saved as Organized in Taxonomy 29
  30. 30. Consistent Rendering from Requirements Capture to Implementation Architecture Target Audience: Engineer/Implementer described by Model captures Model Data Structure saved as Model Model Model Model Domain captures Vocabulary Content saved as Target Audience: Domain Expert Fit-for-Purpose Rendering based on Stakeholder Needs 30

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