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Getting Started With Business Process Modeling

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Presentation given at the IIR BPM Conference in Orlando, Florida, May 15th, 2008.

Presentation given at the IIR BPM Conference in Orlando, Florida, May 15th, 2008.


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  • 1. Getting Started with Business Process Modeling How much BPMN do you really need? Michael zur Muehlen, Ph.D. Center of Excellence in Business Process Innovation Howe School of Technology Management Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken NJ Michael.zurMuehlen@stevens.edu 1
  • 2. How do you make a Cup of Coffee? 2
  • 3. Coffee Lover Put Boiling Water Boil Water Put Coffee in Cup in Cup Thirsty Coffee is Ready The Nescafé Process 3
  • 4. Water is cold no Kettle empty? Boil Water yes Fill Kettle Coffee Lover Put Boiling Water in Cup Thirsty Coffee is Ready No Put Coffee in Cup dirty? Cup Dishwasher Yes Clean Cup The Espresso Machine Process 4
  • 5. Hand Coffee Make Coffee To Customer Done Barrista Order cancelled Discard Coffee Coffee Shop Insufficient Payment Cashier Take Order + Collect Payment Coffee Store Open Done Order Payment Household Go To Coffee Order Coffee Pay for Coffee Take Coffee Shop Thirsty Done > 5 min wait Leave The Starbucks Process 5
  • 6. How to Get Started Find Pick a Model matching tool Problem 6
  • 7. How to Get Started Find Pick a Model matching tool Problem Pick a Select Solve the Problem Method Problem 6
  • 8. What is a Good Process Model? Correct Relevant Economical 7
  • 9. Correct When is a model correct? Relevant Economical Correct Syntax Proper use of the Modeling Method Correct Semantics Accurate representation of Reality 8
  • 10. “As-If” As-Is Correct Relevant Economical 9 Source: Rob Davis (2006)
  • 11. Modeling with BPMN 10
  • 12. What is BPMN? Graphical Notation for Describing Business Processes The “Look” of a process diagram Flowchart based Activity Network – Nodes and transitions Sequential, Parallel and Conditional Paths Arbitrarily complex diagrams The BPMN will provide businesses with the capability of defining and understanding their internal and external business procedures through a Business Process Diagram, which will give organizations the ability to communicate these procedures in a standardized manner. 11
  • 13. + Pool, Lane, Grouping, Annotation, Document, Transaction Boundary... BPMN 1.0 - Elements Available 12
  • 14. BPMN 1.1 Maintenance Update Minor changes to notation New symbol for Multiple Event and Gateway (used to be star, now pentagram) New Signal Event Separation of “catching” and “throwing” events 13
  • 15. Normal Flow Task End Event Start Event / Event Pool Data-Based XOR Start Message Text Annotation Message Flow Parallel Fork/Join Lanes Gateway Sub-Process (Collapsed) Association Data Object Intermediate Timer Intermediate Message End Terminate Sub-Process (Expanded) End Link Default Flow Inclusive Decision/Merge Activity Looping Exception Task Start Link End Message End Exception Complex Decision/Merge diagrams Event-Based XOR Multiple Instance Group three sources: Transaction Intermediate Event End Cancel Compensation Long-tail usage pattern Intermediate Compensation Consulting Projects Conditional Flow Exception Flow Web (random collection) Intermediate Link not be found among any of the Start Timer BPMN Seminar participants Off-page connector Source: 126 BPMN diagrams from Start Rule Some BPEL-related primitives could Intermediate Rule Intermediate Multiple End Compensation Start Multiple Web Frequency of BPMN Symbol Use Intermediate Exception Seminar Intermediate Cancel Consulting End Multiple 14 Compensation Association
  • 16. Normal Flow Task End Event Start Event / Event Pool Data-Based XOR Start Message Text Annotation Message Flow Parallel Fork/Join Lanes Gateway Sub-Process (Collapsed) Association Data Object Intermediate Timer Intermediate Message End Terminate Sub-Process (Expanded) End Link Default Flow Inclusive Decision/Merge Activity Looping Exception Task Start Link End Message End Exception Complex Decision/Merge Event-Based XOR Multiple Instance Group Transaction Intermediate Event End Cancel Compensation Intermediate Compensation Conditional Flow Exception Flow Intermediate Link Start Timer Off-page connector Start Rule Intermediate Rule Intermediate Multiple End Compensation Start Multiple Intermediate Exception Intermediate Cancel End Multiple Compensation Association 15
  • 17. Modeling in the Small: Service Process Improvement 16
  • 18. Service Process Innovation Problem: Service Processes in truck dealerships are crucial for customers that need to maintain their trucks, potentially very profitable, but not very well understood. Question: How can we improve the existing service process, quantify improvements, and increase both customer satisfaction and profitability? How well is BPMN suited for this task? Approach: Map the existing process in BPMN, identify improvement potential, benchmark process metrics, design new process in BPMN, supervise implementation 17
  • 19. As-Is Process (v. 13) 18
  • 20. To-Be Process (v. 11) 19
  • 21. Useful Abuse 20
  • 22. Insights A very limited BPMN subset is sufficient to create processes (and produce redesign results) “Creative abuse” can increase readability Management literacy of the BPMN diagrams made it easier to illustrate the ROI of a pure modeling project Process simulation is essential to peg financial benefits to process changes Even in a blue collar environment, process improvement ideas can be generated at the front line 21
  • 23. Correct Relevance Relevant Economical Is everything relevant in the model? Missing process paths? Missing responsibilities? Missing information? Is everything in the model relevant? Information overload 22
  • 24. Correct 2 Verbs in Activity Constraint Bad Example Relevant Economical “Call Bank” = How “Verify” = What 23
  • 25. Correct Consistent Level of Abstraction? Relevant Economical 24
  • 26. Correct When is a model Economical? Relevant Economical Effort spent on documentation vs. Value of model use 25
  • 27. Correct Relevant Economical 26
  • 28. As-Is or just To-Be? 27
  • 29. Perform As Is Modeling? It is important to design as-is models if you feel The as-is will include lots of improvement constraints You aim for minor changes You do not understand the domain at all The organization is risk averse The process is of strategic importance You have a very cost effective methodology for as-is modeling The difference between as-is and to-be is a change management document 28
  • 30. Skip As Is Modeling? You can skip as-is modeling when The process is a commodity You have a very good understanding of the as-is People would otherwise not be able to think out of the box You have a very good approach for process improvement 29
  • 31. Modeling in the Large: Enterprise-wide Modeling 30
  • 32. Project Scope Duration: 21 months Project team: 13 Modelers (Full-time) >80 Subject Matter Experts (Part-time) Goal 1: Development of an Enterprise Process Model Goal 2: Alignment of Organization with new Processes 31
  • 33. Online Glossary
  • 34. Process Granularity Decided to follow Process Objects to discover process structure. Invoice Pallet Reminder Payment Complaint Package Slip
  • 35. As-Is Modeling Survey of As-Is Processes in the district offices Mixture of observation and workshops “How does this typically work” is not a good question Scenarios are helpful (rainy day - sunny day) Standardization of models across different districts 34
  • 36. To-be Modeling Definition of strategic Core Processes Development of a Enterprise Process Framework Modeling and refinement of an Enterprise Process Catalog Enhancement of the glossary 35
  • 37. Process Framework - Facility Management Enterprise Management Customer Asset Process Management Customers Management Controlling Strategical /Operative Portfolio Reporting Mgmt. Market Activities Enactment of Services Der bearbeitete Der relevante Technical Project Planning Services Market study Shareholders Contracting Resource- Administrative Market disposition Services Shareholders Owners Marketing Users and Owners Acquisition Consulting Personnel Users Services Information- Material- Accounting, Informations- Informations- Informations- Legal Issues Informations- processing management Finance verarbeitung verarbeitung verarbeitung verarbeitung Human Resources
  • 38. Example Level 1-3 Unternehmensführung Kunden Prozeßmanagement Controlling Kunden Strategische/Operative Führung Berichtswesen Der bearbeitete Markt Marktbearbeitung Leistungserbringung !quot;§=== Der relevante Markt Eigentümer Marketing Planung Technische Dienstleistung !quot;§=== Eigentümer Markt und Akquisition Investoren Vertrags- Ressourcen- Kaufmännische Markt Investoren abschluß disposition Dienstleistung Eigentümer Nutzer Eigentümer Personelle Asset Projektstudie Beratung Dienstleistung Nutzer Management !quot;§=== Nutzer !quot;§=== Nutzer Informations- Material- Informations- Rechnungs- Informations- Recht Informations- verarbeitung wirtschaft verarbeitung wesen, Finanzen verarbeitung verarbeitung Personalmanagement Process: Goods Receipt Process: Purchase on site Process: Purchase Resources Process: Evaluate Quotes Process: Goods Issue
  • 39. Process Framework: Fortune 100 Methods Enterprise Process Architecture Organization 38
  • 40. Lessons learned Glossary was helpful “Object” in real estate is very different from CS “object” Modeling standards were invaluable Not just words, but naming and phrasing conventions Employees can learn “complicated” modeling techniques Use method filters wisely Decide who will read and who will contribute Who owns the model? 39
  • 41. Lessons Learned (2) Method became more and more standardized over time Started with (nearly) all modeling elements Ended with heavily customized method filters Started with free-form EPC with routing guidelines Ended with swimlane-style EPCs Process modeling can become a self-fulfilling purpose Rogue projects sprung up before the implementation phase Integrating 650 models only works if you have standards 2 full time staff for model consolidation in the end, everything changed… 40
  • 42. What’s the Big Picture? 41
  • 43. Top Management Support Economics Governance Project Management Project Model Model Setup Design Maintenance Users Info. Tools Modelers Providers and Lang. Modeling in Context 42
  • 44. Thank You - Questions? Michael zur Muehlen, Ph.D. Center of Excellence in Business Process Innovation Howe School of Technology Management Stevens Institute of Technology Castle Point on the Hudson Hoboken, NJ 07030 Phone: +1 (201) 216-8293 Fax: +1 (201) 216-5385 E-mail: mzurmuehlen@stevens.edu Web: http://www.cebpi.org slides: www.slideshare.net/mzurmuehlen 43