Engr. Muhammad Zafar Iqbal Khan
E mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Reasons for health and safety
Moral - An employee should not have to risk injury or death at
work, nor should others associated with the work environment.
Economic - many governments realize that poor occupational
health and safety performance results in cost to the State (e.g.
through social security payments to the incapacitated, costs for
medical treatment, and the loss of the "employability" of the
worker). Employing organizations also sustain costs in the event
of an incident at work (such as legal fees, fines, compensatory
damages, investigation time, lost production, lost goodwill from
the workforce, from customers and from the wider community).
Legal - Occupational requirements may be reinforced in civil law
and/or criminal law; it is accepted that without the extra
"encouragement" of potential regulatory action or litigation,
many organisations would not act upon their implied moral
Hazards, risks, outcomes
A hazard is something that can cause harm if
The outcome is the harm that results from an
A risk is a combination of the probability that
a particular outcome will occur and the
severity of the harm involved.
Hazard analysis or hazard assessment is a process in which
individual hazards of the workplace are identified, assessed and
controlled/eliminated as close to source (location of the hazard)
as reasonable and possible. As technology, resources, social
expectation or regulatory requirements change, hazard analysis
focuses controls more closely toward the source of the hazard.
Thus hazard control is a dynamic program of prevention.
Hazard-based programs also have the advantage of not
assigning or impling there are "acceptable risks" in the
workplace. A hazard-based program may not be able to
eliminate all risks, but neither does it accept "satisfactory" -- but
still risky—outcomes. And as those who calculate and manage
the risk are usually managers while those exposed to the risks
are a different group, workers, a hazard-based approach can by-
pass conflict inherent in a risk-based approach.
Modern occupational safety and health legislation
usually demands that a risk assessment be carried
out prior to making an intervention. It should be kept
in mind that risk management requires risk to be
managed to a level which is as low as is reasonably
This assessment should:
Identify the hazards
Identify all affected by the hazard and how
Evaluate the risk
Identify and prioritize appropriate control measures
Occupational Health and Safety
OH&S is a cross-disciplinary area
concerned with protecting the safety,
health and welfare of people engaged in
work or employment.
Goal of OH& S
The goal of all occupational health and safety
programs is to foster a safe work
Definition – ILO& WHO
(Adopted in 1950, Revised in 1995)
"Occupational health should aim at: the promotion
and maintenance of the highest degree of physical,
mental and social well-being of workers in all
occupations; the prevention amongst workers of
departures from health caused by their working
conditions; the protection of workers in their
employment from risks resulting from factors adverse
to health; the placing and maintenance of the worker
in an occupational environment adapted to his
physiological and psychological capabilities; and, to
summarize, the adaptation of work to man and of
each man to his job."
NATIONAL STANDARD FOR CONSTRUCTION
The National Occupational Health and Safety
Commission (NOHSC) leads and coordinates
national efforts to prevent workplace deaths,
injury and disease in Australia.
Through the quality and relevance of the
information it provides, the NOHSC seeks to
influence the awareness and activities of
every person and organisation with a role in
improving Australia’s occupational health and
safety (OHS) performance
Aim's OF NOHSC
Support and enhance the efforts of the
Commonwealth, state and territory
governments to improve the prevention of
workplace deaths, injury and disease;
Work in alliances with others to facilitate the
development and implementation of better
preventative approaches; and
Ensure the needs of small business are
integrated into these approaches.